Upregulated PD-1 Expression Is Associated with the Development of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus, but Not the PD-1.1 Allele of the PDCD1 Gene.
ABSTRACT: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a multisystem autoimmune disease with complicated genetic inheritance. Programmed death 1 (PD-1), a negative T cell regulator to maintain peripheral tolerance, induces negative signals to T cells during interaction with its ligands and is therefore a candidate gene in the development of SLE. In order to examine whether expression levels of PD-1 contribute to the pathogenesis of SLE, 30 patients with SLE and 30 controls were recruited and their PD-1 expression levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were measured via flow cytometry and quantitative real-time-reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Also, whether PD-1 expression levels are associated with the variant of the SNP rs36084323 and the SLE Disease Activity Index (SLEDAI) was studied in this work. The PD-1 expression levels of SLE patients were significantly increased compared with those of the healthy controls. The upregulated PD-1 expression levels in SLE patients were greatly associated with SLEDAI scores. No significant difference was found between PD-1 expression levels and SNP rs36084323. The results suggest that increased expression of PD-1 may correlate with the pathogenesis of SLE, upregulated PD-1 expression may be a biomarker for SLE diagnosis, and PD-1 inhibitor may be useful to SLE treatment.
Project description:This study is to investigate the relationship of programmed cell death 1 (PD-1; also known as PDCD1) and programmed death-1-ligand 1 (PD-L1; also known as CD274) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). This study enrolled 330 PCOS patients and 350 matched controls. ELISA was used to detect the PD-1 and PD-L1 levels in serum. SnaPshot genotyping was performed to analyze the PD-1 and PD-L1 genotyping. Linkage disequilibrium and haplotype of TagSNP loci of PD-1 and PD-L1 genes were also detected. The relationship of genotypes and alleles with PCOS was analyzed. The levels of PD-1 and PD-L1 in the serum of PCOS patients were significantly lower than those in the control group (<i>P</i> < 0.01). The haplotype TT of PD-1 gene at rs10204525 and rs7421861 loci was significantly lower in the PCOS group than in the control group (<i>P</i> < 0.001, OR = 0.67, and 95%CI = 0.54-0.84). PD-L1 gene SNP loci rs2282055, rs2890658, rs10125854, and rs702275 had linkage disequilibrium. The haplotypes TAAA, GAAC, GAGC, GCAA, and TCGA of PD-L1 gene SNP loci were significantly higher in PCOS patients than in the control group, whereas haplotypes GAAA, TAAC, TCAA, GCGA, GCAC, and TCGC of PD-L1 gene SNP loci were significantly lower in PCOS patients than in the control group. PD-1 and PD-L1 SNPs may be related to the pathogenesis of PCOS. PD-1 gene SNP loci rs10204525 and rs7421861 and PD-L1 gene SNP loci rs2282055, rs2890658, rs10125854, and rs702275 may be new candidate polymorphic loci for PCOS.
Project description:Objective. Programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) induces negative signals to T cells during interaction with its ligands and is therefore a candidate gene in the development of autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Herein, we investigate the association of PDCD-1 polymorphisms with the risk of RA among Chinese patients and healthy controls. Methods. Using the PCR-direct sequencing analysis, 4 PDCD-1 SNPs (rs36084323, rs11568821, rs2227982, and rs2227981) were genotyped in 320?RA patients and 309 matched healthy controls. Expression of PD-1 was determined in peripheral blood lymphocytes by flow cytometry and quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Results. We observed that the GG genotype of rs36084323 was associated with a increased risk for developing RA (OR 1.70, 95% 1.11-2.61, P = 0.049). Patients carrying G/G genotype displayed an increased mRNA level of PD-1 (P = 0.04) compared with A/A genotype and healthy controls. Meanwhile, patients homozygous for rs36084323 had induced basal PD-1 expression on activated CD4+ T cells. Conclusion. The PDCD-1 polymorphism rs36084323 was significantly associated with RA risk in Han Chinese population. This SNP, which effectively influenced the expression of PD-1, may be a biomarker of early diagnosis of RA and a suitable indicator of utilizing PD-1 inhibitor for treatment of RA.
Project description:Programmed death-1 (PD-1) polymorphisms have been associated with esophageal cancer risk. Here, the aims of this case-control study were to explore whether three PD-1 polymorphisms (rs10204525, rs7421861, and rs36084323) were related with the risk and clinical features of esophageal cancer in Chinese Han subjects (n = 814 cases and 961 controls). We found that rs10204525 and rs7421861, but not rs36084323, conferred increased susceptibility to esophageal cancer. Subgroup analysis revealed that all three loci increased the risk of esophageal cancer among men, and that rs10204525 and rs7421861 correlated with increased risk among patients ? 60 years old. The rs10204525 and rs7421861 polymorphisms were associated with higher TNM stage, and rs10204525 was associated with distant metastasis. The combination of smoking and either the rs10204525 or rs7421861 genotype conferred an increased risk to esophageal cancer, which is indicative of potential gene-environment interactions. The rs10204525 and rs7421861 polymorphisms correlated with increased PD-1 gene and protein levels, and Kaplan-Meier survival curves showed higher PD-1 gene expression was related to poorer overall survival. These data indicate the rs10204525 and rs7421861 polymorphisms of PD-1 gene confer an increased risk of esophageal cancer among Chinese Han individuals.
Project description:To assess circulating follicular helper T (Tfh)-like CD4+ T cells in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and determine their relationship to disease activity.Blood samples from patients with SLE, as well as blood samples from patients with Behçet's disease (BD) and healthy individuals as controls, were analyzed. In all samples, circulating Tfh-like cells were enumerated by flow cytometry, using, as markers, expression of CXCR5, inducible T cell costimulator (ICOS), and programmed death 1 (PD-1) protein, as well as secretion of interleukin-21 (IL-21). The frequency of circulating Tfh-like cells was compared to that of circulating plasmablasts (CD19+IgD-CD38+). In addition, the possible association of circulating Tfh-like cells with the SLE Disease Activity Index (SLEDAI) was evaluated.The subset of circulating Tfh-like T cells, identified as CXCR5(high) ICOS(high) PD-1(high) , was expanded in the blood of SLE patients compared to controls. Circulating Tfh-like cells were found to produce IL-21 and had lower expression of CCR7 as compared to that in circulating CXCR5(high) central memory T cells, thereby enabling their distinction. Expression of PD-1, but not ICOS or CXCR5, was significantly elevated in circulating Tfh-like cells from SLE patients compared to controls. PD-1 expression among CXCR5(high) circulating Tfh-like cells correlated with the SLEDAI, frequency of circulating plasmablasts, and anti-double-stranded DNA antibody positivity, but not with disease duration or past organ injury; rather, this cell profile appeared to be a reflection of current active disease.Circulating Tfh-like cells are associated with disease activity in SLE, suggesting that their presence indicates abnormal homeostasis of T cell-B cell collaboration, with a causal relationship that is central to disease pathogenesis. These findings also suggest that circulating Tfh-like cells provide a surrogate for aberrant germinal center activity in SLE, and that their PD-1 expression offers a tool for measuring disease activity and monitoring the response to therapies.
Project description:<b>Objectives:</b> To evaluate the mycophenolic acid [MPA, the active form of mycophenolate mofetil (MMF)] pharmacokinetic parameters in relation to clinical response to identify target exposure ranges in pediatric patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). <b>Methods:</b> This was a retrospective study using pharmacokinetic data collected in 67 pediatric patients aged 4-18 years with SLE. Target MPA exposures for effective inhibition of SLE activity (as measured by SLE disease Activity Index (SLEDAI), active SLE was defined as a SLEDAI score of ?6, and a controlled disease was defined as a SLEDAI score of ?4) were assessed by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve and logistic regression. Exposure-response models were developed to quantitatively describe the relationship between SLEDAI score and AUC<sub>0-12</sub> or C<sub>trough</sub>, respectively. <b>Results:</b> The MPA AUC<sub>0-12</sub> in patients with active SLE was significantly lower than that in patients with inactive SLE. ROC analysis revealed that an AUC<sub>0-12</sub> threshold of 39 ?g h/ml or a C<sub>trough</sub> of 1.01 ?g/ml was associated with the lowest risk of active SLE. Logistic regression analysis revealed that an AUC<sub>0-12</sub> of less than 34 ?g h/ml or a C<sub>trough</sub> of less than 1.2 ?g/ml probably is associated with active SLE. The results of the exposure-response modeling also indicated that an AUC<sub>0-12</sub> less than 32 ?g h/ml or a C<sub>trough</sub> less than 1.1 ?g/ml was associated with suboptimal clinical outcome. An AUC<sub>0-12</sub> above 50 ?g h/ml or a C<sub>trough</sub> above 1.7 ug/ml was associated with disease control. <b>Conclusion:</b> Both AUC<sub>0-12</sub> and C<sub>trough</sub> of MPA are predictive of the likelihood of active SLE in pediatric patients receiving MMF. An individualized dosing regimen of MMF, with a target AUC<sub>0-12</sub> or C<sub>trough</sub>, should be considered for SLE patients.
Project description:To investigate the expression and clinical significance of trans-membrane MerTK (mMer) on circulating CD14+ monocytes/macrophages and soluble MerTK (sMer) levels in plasma in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).108 SLE patients and 42 healthy controls were recruited in this study. The expression of mMer on the surfaces of CD14+ monocytes/macrophages was evaluated by flow cytometry (FCM). The sMer levels were measured by ELISA. Real-time quantitative PCR was applied to evaluate the mRNA levels of MerTK and ADAM17.Both mMer expression on CD14+ monocytes/macrophages and sMer levels in plasma significantly increased in SLE patients compared to healthy subjects. The frequency of anti-inflammatory MerTK expressing CD14+CD16+ monocytes decreased in SLE. mMer expression was positively correlated with CD163 expression on CD14+ cells. Both the mMer expression on CD14+ monocytes/macrophages and sMer levels in plasma were positively correlated with SLEDAI. Furthermore, more elevated mMer and sMer levels were found in patients with higher SLEDAI, presence of anti-SSA, anti-Sm autoantibodies, and lupus nephritis.Both mMer and sMer levels significantly increased in SLE and positively correlated with disease activity and severity. The upregulation of MerTK expression may serve as a biomarker of the disease activity and severity of SLE.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:We attempted to determine whether the level of enzymes sialyltransferase (ST) and neuraminidase (Neu) and sialic acid (SIA) in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) correlates with the SLE Disease Activity Index (SLEDAI) and in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) correlates with the Disease Activity Score28 (DAS28). METHODS:We examined cell-surface levels of ST6Gal-1, Neu1, ST3Gal-1, Neu3, ?-2,6-SIA, and ?-2,3-SIA by using fluorescent anti-enzyme antibodies, fluorescent-conjugated Sambucus nigra lectin, and fluorescent-conjugated Maackia amurensis lectin on blood cells in SLE and RA patients and assessed correlations of these levels with SLEDAI and with DAS28. Areas under the curve (AUC) were calculated for different variables against SLEDAI. RESULTS:The B-cell ST3Gal-1/Neu3 ratio positively correlated with SLEDAI scores (? = 0.409 and P = 0.002, statistically significant after Bonferroni' correction for multiple analyses.). It was supported by the inverse correlation of B-cell Neu3 levels with SLEDAI scores (? = -0.264, P = 0.048). The B-cell ST3Gal-1/Neu3 ratio against SLEDAI yielded an AUC of 0.689, which was comparable to that of anti-dsDNA levels at 0.635. In contrast, both ST3Gal-1 and Neu3 levels of RA B cells (r = 0.376, P = 0.013; r = 0.425, P = 0.005, respectively) correlated positively with high disease-activity DAS28 scores. CONCLUSION:B-cell ST3Gal-1/Neu3 ratios in SLE and B-cell ST3Gal-1 and Neu3 levels in RA with high disease-activity DAS28 scores correlated with disease activity measures and may be useful in monitoring disease activities.
Project description:Objective:To determine the association of systemic lupus erythematosus disease activity index (SLEDAI) score in pediatric onset SLE (p-SLE) with clinical and laboratory parameters. Methods:This cross sectional observational study was conducted at Division of Rheumatology, Fatima Memorial Hospital, Lahore from November 2018 to January 2019. Total 23 patients diagnosed with p-SLE having onset of symptoms at ? 18 years of age, irrespective of their current age at presentation, of either gender, fulfilling criteria of 2012 Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics (SLICC) criteria were enrolled. Patients' clinical symptoms and laboratory parameters were reviewed, SLEDAI scores were calculated. Collected Data were entered in proforma and analyzed on SPSS version 23. Results:There were 91.3% females. Mean age at diagnosis was 11years ± 4years. At presentation patients had hematological involvement 69.6% followed by mucocutaneous symptoms 65.2% and renal involvement 21.6%. ANA by IFA was positive in all, while anti-ds-DNA was positive in 78.3% patients. SLEDAI score was ?6 in 87% patients, average SLEDAI score was higher in patients with renal involvement (p=0.06). Elevated ESR (r=0.48, p=0.02), Anti-dsDNA (r=0.44, p=0.05) and low complement levels (p=0.03) were significantly positively correlated, while hemoglobin (r= -0.43, p=0.04) was negatively correlated with the SLEDAI score. Conclusion:In this study, patients with Lupus Nephritis had high SLEDAI scores. Elevated Anti-dsDNA titer, ESR, low complement levels and hemoglobin were significantly associated with high SLEDAI scores. We recommend that SLEDAI score should be calculated in p-SLE patients for stringent disease monitoring and treatment.
Project description:Monocytes in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) are hyperstimulatory for T lymphocytes. We previously found that the normal program for expression of a negative costimulatory molecule programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1) is defective in SLE patients with active disease. Here, we investigated the mechanism for PD-L1 dysregulation on lupus monocytes. We found that PD-L1 expression on cultured SLE monocytes correlated with TNF-? expression. Exogenous TNF-? restored PD-L1 expression on lupus monocytes. Conversely, TGF-? inversely correlated with PD-L1 in SLE and suppressed expression of PD-L1 on healthy monocytes. Therefore, PD-L1 expression in monocytes is regulated by opposing actions of TNF-? and TGF-?. As PD-L1 functions to fine tune lymphocyte activation, dysregulation of cytokines resulting in reduced expression could lead to loss of peripheral T cell tolerance.
Project description:Sequence variation in gene promoters is often associated with disease risk. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that common promoter variation in the APOM gene is associated with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) risk and SLE-related clinical phenotypes in a Chinese cohort. Meanwhile, we investigated the expression of apolipoprotein M (APOM) in the serum of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and its relationship with disease activity.We used a case-control design and genotyped 52 SLE patients and 52 healthy controls for 19 APOM promoter single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) (rs113947529, rs1143030, rs114826514, rs116715239, rs12525463, rs1266078, rs2273612, rs28432254, rs34490746, rs4947251, rs55880811, rs707921, rs74890500, rs75629491, rs76611345, rs76794541, rs805264, rs805297, rs9267528). Genotyping was done by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). The blood serum concentration of APOM was measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in SLE patients and controls.The average concentration of APOM in serum was significantly lower in SLE patients compared to controls and APOM levels in SLE patients with positive anti-dsDNA antibodies were dramatically lower than that of patients with negative anti-dsDNA antibodies (P = 0.011). It was interesting that APOM levels correlated with systemic lupus erythematosus disease activity index (SLEDAI) scores (r = -0.396, P = 0.004). No association between APOM and SLE susceptibility was detected in our Han Chinese cohort.Our results demonstrated that lower APOM levels in SLE patients and correlated with disease activity.