The impact of documentation of severe acute kidney injury on mortality.
ABSTRACT: Modification of the mortality risk associated with acute kidney injury (AKI) necessitates recognition of AKI when it occurs. We sought to determine whether formal documentation of AKI in the medical record, assessed by billing codes for AKI, would be associated with improved clinical outcomes.Retrospective cohort study conducted at three hospitals within a single university health system. Adults without severe underlying kidney disease who suffered in-hospital AKI as defined by a doubling of baseline creatinine (n = 5,438) were included. Those whose AKI was formally documented according to discharge billing codes were compared to those without such documentation in terms of 30-day mortality.Formal documentation of AKI occurred in 2,325 patients (43%). Higher baseline creatinine, higher peak creatinine, medical admission status, and higher Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score were strongly associated with documentation of AKI. After adjustment for severity of disease, formal AKI documentation was associated with reduced 30-day mortality - OR 0.81 (0.68 - 0.96, p = 0.02). Patients with formal documentation were more likely to receive a nephrology consultation (31% vs. 6%, p < 0.001) and fluid boluses (64% vs. 45%, p < 0.001), and had a more rapid discontinuation of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor and angiotensin-receptor blocker medications (HR 2.04, CI 1.69 - 2.46, p < 0.001).Formal documentation of AKI is associated with improved survival after adjustment for illness severity among patients with creatinine-defined AKI.
Project description:<h4>Background and objectives</h4>Billing codes are frequently used to identify AKI events in epidemiologic research. The goals of this study were to validate billing code-identified AKI against the current AKI consensus definition and to ascertain whether sensitivity and specificity vary by patient characteristic or over time.<h4>Design, setting, participants, & measurements</h4>The study population included 10,056 Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study participants hospitalized between 1996 and 2008. Billing code-identified AKI was compared with the 2012 Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) creatinine-based criteria (AKIcr) and an approximation of the 2012 KDIGO creatinine- and urine output-based criteria (AKIcr_uop) in a subset with available outpatient data. Sensitivity and specificity of billing code-identified AKI were evaluated over time and according to patient age, race, sex, diabetes status, and CKD status in 546 charts selected for review, with estimates adjusted for sampling technique.<h4>Results</h4>A total of 34,179 hospitalizations were identified; 1353 had a billing code for AKI. The sensitivity of billing code-identified AKI was 17.2% (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 13.2% to 21.2%) compared with AKIcr (n=1970 hospitalizations) and 11.7% (95% CI, 8.8% to 14.5%) compared with AKIcr_uop (n=1839 hospitalizations). Specificity was >98% in both cases. Sensitivity was significantly higher in the more recent time period (2002-2008) and among participants aged 65 years and older. Billing code-identified AKI captured a more severe spectrum of disease than did AKIcr and AKIcr_uop, with a larger proportion of patients with stage 3 AKI (34.9%, 19.7%, and 11.5%, respectively) and higher in-hospital mortality (41.2%, 18.7%, and 12.8%, respectively).<h4>Conclusions</h4>The use of billing codes to identify AKI has low sensitivity compared with the current KDIGO consensus definition, especially when the urine output criterion is included, and results in the identification of a more severe phenotype. Epidemiologic studies using billing codes may benefit from a high specificity, but the variation in sensitivity may result in bias, particularly when trends over time are the outcome of interest.
Project description:Objective:The performance and interpretation of point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) should be documented appropriately in the electronic medical record (EMR) with correct billing codes assigned. We aimed to improve complete POCUS documentation from 62% to 80% and improve correct POCUS billing codes to 95% or higher through the implementation of a quality improvement initiative. Methods:We collected POCUS documentation and billing data from the EMR. Interventions included: (1) staff education and feedback, (2) standardization of documentation and billing, and (3) changes to the EMR to support standardization. We used P charts to analyze our outcome measures between January 2017 and June 2018. Results:Six hundred medical records of billed POCUS examinations were included. Complete POCUS documentation rate rose from 62% to 91%, and correct CPT code selection for billing increased from 92% to 95% after our interventions. Conclusions:The creation of a standardized documentation template incorporated into the EMR improved complete documentation compliance.
Project description:Introduction:Physicians recognize the importance of clinical documentation for accuracy of coding and billing, but it is emphasized little in residency curricula, with an even smaller emphasis on oncology-specific documentation. We developed an educational curriculum to teach residents about clinical documentation for cancer patients. Our tool kit includes didactics, simulated history and physical (H&P) documentation, and personal feedback. Methods:A preintervention survey was first administered to gauge baseline knowledge. A simulated H&P was developed that required participants to complete their own assessment and plan. We delivered a 25-minute lecture regarding billing and coding along with documentation tips and tricks specific to hematology/oncology. Thereafter, we handed out a second H&P, and participants had to once again complete their own assessment and plan. These H&Ps were graded by three reviewers using a rubric. We then gave residents personalized feedback using the above data and administered a postintervention survey. Results:The postintervention survey revealed that 100% of the residents surveyed found this activity helpful, 83% noted that further knowledge of diagnosis codes was helpful to their learning, 100% noted that that this activity taught them to improve documentation, 91% said they were more likely to use cancer-specific diagnoses, and 91% said they would benefit from direct feedback-based education. Discussion:Didactic and formal education is more effective when combined with hands-on examples and direct personalized feedback.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES:The benefit of dual blockade of the renin-angiotensin system is limited by adverse effects. We performed a secondary analysis of the Veterans Affairs Nephropathy in Diabetes (VA NEPHRON-D) Study to describe the effect of increased intensity of renin-angiotensin system blockade on the incidence, risk factors, and outcomes of AKI. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS:In the VA NEPHRON-D Study, we randomized 1148 veterans receiving outpatient care with type 2 diabetes mellitus, eGFR of between 30 and 89.9 ml/min per 1.73 m2, and urinary albumin excretion of at least 300 μg/mg creatinine (or a urinary total protein of at least 0.5 mg/mg creatinine) to either combination therapy with losartan and lisinopril or monotherapy with losartan. We identified hospitalized AKI events and their outcomes during a median follow-up of 2.2 years through systematic reporting of serious adverse events. RESULTS:The incidence of AKI was 12.2 (95% confidence interval, 10.5 to 14.0) versus 6.7 (95% confidence interval, 5.6 to 8.2) per 100 patient-years in the combination arm versus monotherapy arms (P<0.001). Individuals with AKI were more likely to develop the primary study end point of death, ESRD, or decline in kidney function (hazard ratio, 1.78; 95% confidence interval, 1.34 to 2.26; P<0.001). Patients with AKI in the combination arm had greater recovery of kidney function (75.9% versus 66.3%; P=0.04), lower 30-day mortality (4.7% versus 15.0%; P<0.01), and lower hazard for development of the primary study end point (hazard ratio, 0.60; 95% confidence interval, 0.37 to 0.98). CONCLUSIONS:Dual renin-angiotensin system blockade was associated with an increased risk of AKI compared with monotherapy, but AKI in the setting of monotherapy was associated with lower rates of recovery of kidney function, higher mortality, and higher risk of progression of kidney disease.
Project description:Automated acute kidney injury (AKI) electronic alerts are based on comparing creatinine with historic results.We report the significance of AKI defined by 3 "rules" differing in the time period from which the baseline creatinine is obtained, and AKI with creatinine within the normal range.A total of 47,090 incident episodes of AKI occurred between November 2013 and April 2016. Rule 1 (>26 ?mol/l increase in creatinine within 48 hours) accounted for 9.6%. Rule 2 (?50% increase in creatinine within previous 7 days) and rule 3 (?50% creatinine increase from the median value of results within the last 8-365 days) accounted for 27.3% and 63.1%, respectively. Hospital-acquired AKI was predominantly identified by rules 1 and 2 (71.7%), and community-acquired AKI (86.3%) by rule 3. Stages 2 and 3 were detected by rules 2 and 3. Ninety-day mortality was higher in AKI rule 2 (32.4%) than rule 1 (28.3%, P < 0.001) and rule 3 (26.6%, P < 0.001). Nonrecovery of renal function (90 days) was lower for rule 1 (7.9%) than rule 2 (22.4%, P < 0.001) and rule 3 (16.5%, P < 0.001). We found that 19.2% of AKI occurred with creatinine values within normal range, in which mortality was lower than that in AKI detected by a creatinine value outside the reference range (22.6% vs. 29.6%, P < 0.001).Rule 1 could only be invoked for stage 1 alerts and was associated with acute on chronic kidney disease acquired in hospital. Rule 2 was also associated with hospital-acquired AKI and had the highest mortality and nonrecovery. Rule 3 was the commonest cause of an alert and was associated with community-acquired AKI.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Severe acute kidney injury (AKI) is associated with subsequent infection. Whether AKI followed by a return to baseline creatinine is associated with incident infection is unknown. OBJECTIVE:We hypothesized that risk of both short and long term infection would be higher among patients with AKI and return to baseline creatinine than in propensity score matched peers without AKI in the year following a non-infectious hospital admission. DESIGN:Retrospective, propensity score matched cohort study. PARTICIPANTS:We identified 494 patients who were hospitalized between January 1, 1999 and December 31, 2009 and had AKI followed by return to baseline creatinine. These were propensity score matched to controls without AKI. MAIN MEASURES:The predictor variable was AKI defined by International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9) codes and by the Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes definition, with return to baseline creatinine defined as a decrease in serum creatinine level to within 10% of the baseline value within 7 days of hospital discharge. The outcome variable was incident infection defined by ICD-9 code within 1 year of hospital discharge. RESULTS:AKI followed by return to baseline creatinine was associated with a 4.5-fold increased odds ratio for infection (odds ratio 4.53 [95% CI, 2.43-8.45]; p<0.0001) within 30 days following discharge. The association between AKI and subsequent infection remained significant at 31-60 days and 91 to 365 days but not during 61-90 days following discharge. CONCLUSION:Among patients from an integrated health care delivery system, non-infectious AKI followed by return to baseline creatinine was associated with an increased odds ratio for infection in the year following discharge.
Project description:The primary aim of this study was to compare the sensitivity and rapidity of acute kidney injury (AKI) detection by cystatin C level relative to creatinine level after cardiac surgery.Prospective cohort study.1,150 high-risk adult cardiac surgery patients in the TRIBE-AKI (Translational Research Investigating Biomarker Endpoints for Acute Kidney Injury) Consortium.Changes in serum creatinine and cystatin C levels.Postsurgical incidence of AKI.Serum creatinine and cystatin C were measured at the preoperative visit and daily on postoperative days 1-5. To allow comparisons between changes in creatinine and cystatin C levels, AKI end points were defined by the relative increases in each marker from baseline (25%, 50%, and 100%) and the incidence of AKI was compared based on each marker. Secondary aims were to compare clinical outcomes among patients defined as having AKI by cystatin C and/or creatinine levels.Overall, serum creatinine level detected more cases of AKI than cystatin C level: 35% developed a ?25% increase in serum creatinine level, whereas only 23% had a ?25% increase in cystatin C level (P < 0.001). Creatinine level also had higher proportions meeting the 50% (14% and 8%; P < 0.001) and 100% (4% and 2%; P = 0.005) thresholds for AKI diagnosis. Clinical outcomes generally were not statistically different for AKI cases detected by creatinine or cystatin C level. However, for each AKI threshold, patients with AKI confirmed by both markers had a significantly higher risk of the combined mortality/dialysis outcome compared with patients with AKI detected by creatinine level alone (P = 0.002).There were few adverse clinical outcomes, limiting our ability to detect differences in outcomes between subgroups of patients based on their definitions of AKI.In this large multicenter study, we found that cystatin C level was less sensitive for AKI detection than creatinine level. However, confirmation by cystatin C level appeared to identify a subset of patients with AKI with a substantially higher risk of adverse outcomes.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Hospital-acquired acute kidney injury (AKI) is associated with increased mortality and resource consumption. Little is known about the association of AKI with short-term hospital readmissions. STUDY DESIGN:Retrospective cohort study. SETTING & PARTICIPANTS:We investigated whether adult survivors of hospital-acquired AKI were at increased odds for early hospital readmission. PREDICTOR:The peak-to-nadir serum creatinine difference during the index hospitalization was used to define AKI according to the KDIGO (Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes) classification and staging system. MEASUREMENTS:Multivariable logistic regression analyses examined the association of AKI with 30-, 60-, and 90-day hospital readmission, adjusting for age, sex, race, Charlson-Deyo comorbidity index score, acute hospital-related factors, common causes of hospitalization, and baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate. RESULTS:3,345 (15%) of 22,001 included patients experienced AKI during the index hospitalization. Compared to the non-AKI group, the AKI group had a significantly higher 30-day hospital readmission rate (11% vs 15%; P<0.001), which persisted at 60 and 90 days. The AKI group also was more likely to be readmitted to the hospital within 30 days for cardiovascular-related conditions, mainly heart failure (P<0.001) and acute myocardial infarction (P=0.01). AKI associated independently with higher odds of 30-day hospital readmission (OR, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.08-1.36), which persisted at 60 (OR, 1.15; 95% CI, 1.03-1.27) and 90 days (adjusted OR, 1.13; 95% CI, 1.02-1.25). Results were attenuated in a propensity score-matched cohort of 5,912 patients. LIMITATIONS:Single-center study of mild forms of AKI; ascertainment bias and outcome misclassification due to the use of administrative codes. CONCLUSIONS:Our results suggest that survivors of hospital-acquired AKI experience higher odds of early hospital readmission. Transitions of care services may be warranted for such patients to prevent readmissions and reduce health care costs.
Project description:<h4>Background and objectives</h4>AKI is a risk factor for development or worsening of CKD. However, diagnosis of renal dysfunction by serum creatinine could be confounded by loss of muscle mass and creatinine generation after critical illness.<h4>Design, setting, participants, & measurements</h4>A retrospective, single center analysis of serum in patients surviving to hospital discharge with an intensive care unit admission of 5 or more days between 2009 and 2011 was performed.<h4>Results</h4>In total, 700 cases were identified, with a 66% incidence of AKI. In 241 patients without AKI, creatinine was significantly lower (P<0.001) at hospital discharge than admission (median, 0.61 versus 0.88 mg/dl; median decrease, 33%). In 160 patients with known baseline, discharge creatinine was significantly lower than baseline in all patients except those patients with severe AKI (Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes category 3), who had no significant difference. In a multivariable regression model, median duration of hospitalization was associated with a predicted 30% decrease (95% confidence interval, 8% to 45%) in creatinine from baseline in the absence of AKI; after allowing for this effect, AKI was associated with a 29% (95% confidence interval, 10% to 51%) increase in predicted hospital discharge creatinine. Using a similar model to exclude the confounding effect of prolonged major illness on creatinine, 148 of 700 patients (95% confidence interval, 143 to 161) would have eGFR<60 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) at hospital discharge compared with only 63 of 700 patients using eGFR based on unadjusted hospital creatinine (a 135% increase in potential CKD diagnoses; P<0.001).<h4>Conclusion</h4>Critical illness is associated with significant falls in serum creatinine that persist to hospital discharge, potentially causing inaccurate assessment of renal function at discharge, particularly in survivors of AKI. Prospective measurements of GFR and creatinine generation are required to confirm the significance of these findings.
Project description:Although acute kidney injury (AKI) is well studied in the acute care setting, investigation of AKI in the nursing home (NH) setting is virtually nonexistent. The goal of this study was to determine the incidence of drug-associated AKI using the RIFLE (Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss of kidney function, or End-Stage kidney disease) criteria in NH residents.We conducted a retrospective study between February 9, 2012, and February 8, 2013, for all residents at 4 UPMC NHs located in southwest Pennsylvania. The TheraDoc™ Clinical Surveillance Software System, which monitors laboratory and medication data and fires alerts when patients have a sufficient increase in serum creatinine, was used for automated case detection. An increase in serum creatinine in the presence of an active medication order identified to potentially cause AKI triggered an alert, and drug-associated AKI was staged according to the RIFLE criteria. Data were analyzed by frequency and distribution of alert type by risk, injury, and failure.Of the 249 residents who had a drug-associated AKI alert fire, 170 (68.3%) were women, and the mean age was 74.2 years. Using the total number of alerts (n = 668), the rate of drug-associated AKI was 0.41 events per 100 resident-days. Based on the RIFLE criteria, there were 191, 70, and 44 residents who were classified as AKI risk, injury, and failure, respectively. The most common medication classes included in the AKI alerts were diuretics, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin II receptor blockers (ACEIs/ARBs), and antibiotics.Drug-associated AKI was a common cause of potential adverse drug events. The vast majority of cases were related to the use of diuretics, ACEIs/ARBs, and antibiotics. Future studies are needed to better understand patient, provider, and facility risk factors, as well as strategies to enhance the detection and management of drug-associated AKI in the NH.