Short term feeding of a high fat diet exerts an additive effect on hepatocellular damage and steatosis in liver-specific PTEN knockout mice.
ABSTRACT: Hepatospecific deletion of PTEN results in constitutive activation of Akt and increased lipogenesis. In mice, the addition of a high fat diet (HFD) downregulates lipogenesis. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of a HFD on hepatocellular damage induced by deletion of PTEN.12 Week old male flox/flox hepatospecific PTEN mice (PTENf/f) or Alb-Cre controls were fed a HFD composed of 45% fat-derived calories (from corn oil) or a normal chow. Animals were then analyzed for hepatocellular damage, oxidative stress and expression of enzymes involved in fatty acid metabolism.In the Alb-Cre animals, the addition of a HFD resulted in a significant increase in liver triglycerides and altered REDOX capacity as evidenced by increased GPX activity, decreased GST activity and decreased hepatic concentrations of GSSG. In addition, SCD2, ACLY and FASN were all downregulated by the addition of HFD. Furthermore, expression of PPAR? and PPAR?-dependent proteins Cyp4a and ACSL1 were upregulated. In the PTENf/f mice, HFD resulted in significant increased in ALT, serum triglycerides and decreased REDOX capacity. Although expression of fatty acid synthetic enzymes was elevated in the chow fed PTENf/f group, the addition of HFD resulted in SCD2, ACLY and FASN downregulation. Compared to the Alb-Cre HFD group, expression of PGC1?, PPAR? and its downstream targets ACSL and Cyp4a were upregulated in PTENf/f mice.These data suggest that during conditions of constitutive Akt activation and increased steatosis, the addition of a HFD enhances hepatocellular damage due to increased CD36 expression and altered REDOX status. In addition, this work indicates HFD-induced hepatocellular damage occurs in part, independently of Akt signaling.
Project description:Alcoholic liver disease is a significant contributor to global liver failure. In murine models, chronic ethanol consumption dysregulates PTEN/Akt signaling. Hepatospecific deletion of phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTENLKO) mice possess constitutive activation of Akt(s) and increased de novo lipogenesis resulting in increased hepatocellular steatosis. This makes PTENLKO a viable model to examine the effects of ethanol in an environment of preexisting steatosis. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of chronic ethanol consumption and the absence of PTEN (PTENLKO) compared to Alb-Cre control mice (PTENf/f) on hepatocellular damage as evidenced by changes in lipid accumulation, protein carbonylation and alanine amino transferase (ALT). In the control PTENf/f animals, ethanol significantly increased ALT, liver triglycerides and steatosis. In contrast, chronic ethanol consumption in PTENLKO mice decreased hepatocellular damage when compared to PTENLKO pair-fed controls. Consumption of ethanol elevated protein carbonylation in PTENf/f animals but had no effect in PTENLKO animals. In PTENLKO mice, overall hepatic mRNA expression of genes that contribute to GSH homeostasis as well as reduced glutathione (GSH) and oxidized glutathione (GSSG) concentrations were significantly elevated compared to respective PTENf/f counterparts. These data indicate that during conditions of constitutive Akt activation and steatosis, increased GSH homeostasis assists in mitigation of ethanol-dependent induction of oxidative stress and hepatocellular damage. Furthermore, data herein suggest a divergence in EtOH-induced hepatocellular damage and increases in steatosis due to polyunsaturated fatty acids downstream of PTEN.
Project description:Recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) are effective gene delivery vehicles that can mediate long-lasting transgene expression. However, tight regulation and tissue-specific transgene expression is required for certain therapeutic applications. For regulatable expression from the liver we designed a hepatospecific bidirectional and autoregulatory tetracycline (Tet)-On system (Tet(bidir)Alb) flanked by AAV inverted terminal repeats (ITRs). We characterized the inducible hepatospecific system in comparison with an inducible ubiquitous expression system (Tet(bidir)CMV) using luciferase (luc). Although the ubiquitous system led to luc expression throughout the mouse, luc expression derived from the hepatospecific system was restricted to the liver. Interestingly, the induction rate of the Tet(bidir)Alb was significantly higher than that of Tet(bidir)CMV, whereas leakage of Tet(bidir)Alb was significantly lower. To evaluate the therapeutic potential of this vector, an AAV-Tet(bidir)-Alb-expressing interleukin-12 (IL-12) was tested in a murine model for hepatic colorectal metastasis. The vector induced dose-dependent levels of IL-12 and interferon-? (IFN-?), showing no significant toxicity. AAV-Tet(bidir)-Alb-IL-12 was highly efficient in preventing establishment of metastasis in the liver and induced an efficient T-cell memory response to tumor cells. Thus, we have demonstrated persistent, and inducible in vivo expression of a gene from a liver-specific Tet-On inducible construct delivered via an AAV vector and proved to be an efficient tool for treating liver cancer.
Project description:Perfluorinated alkyl acids (PFAAs) are persistent in marine biota and are toxic to many species, including marine mammals. We measured the concentrations of 15 PFAAs in liver and kidney samples of 16 species of stranded cetaceans from Hawai'i and other tropical North Pacific regions utilizing high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Eleven PFAAs in liver and nine PFAAs in kidney were detected, including substantial perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnA). Regression models indicated that phylogenetic family and age class significantly influenced concentrations of certain PFAAs. PFAAs can activate transcription factor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR?), which induces transcription of cytochrome P450 4A (CYP4A). Relative expression of PPAR? and CYP4A mRNA was quantified using real-time PCR (qPCR) and CYP4A protein expression, using Western blot and then compared to PFAA concentrations in liver and kidney. Concentrations of four PFAA congeners, summation of perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (?PFCAs), and ?PFAAs correlated significantly with PPAR? mRNA expression and CYP4A protein expression in kidney, suggesting either may be biomarkers of PFAA exposure in cetaceans. This is the first study to quantify PFAAs in marine mammals from this region and the first observation of a direct relationship between PFAA exposure and PPAR? and CYP4A expression in cetaceans.
Project description:Pioglitazone (Pio) is a thiazolidinedione (TZD) insulin-sensitizing drug whose effects result predominantly from its modulation of the transcriptional activity of peroxisome proliferator-activated-receptor-gamma (PPAR?). Pio is used to treat human insulin-resistant diabetes and also frequently considered for treatment of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). In both settings, Pio's beneficial effects are believed to result primarily from its actions on adipose PPAR? activity, which improves insulin sensitivity and reduces the delivery of fatty acids to the liver. Nevertheless, a recent clinical trial showed variable efficacy of Pio in human NASH. Hepatocytes also express PPAR?, and such expression increases with insulin resistance and in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Furthermore, mice that overexpress hepatocellular PPAR? and Pio-treated mice with extrahepatic PPAR? gene disruption develop features of NAFLD. Thus, Pio's direct impact on hepatocellular gene expression might also be a determinant of this drug's ultimate influence on insulin resistance and NAFLD. Previous studies have characterized Pio's PPAR?-dependent effects on hepatic expression of specific adipogenic, lipogenic, and other metabolic genes. However, such transcriptional regulation has not been comprehensively assessed. The studies reported here address that consideration by genome-wide comparisons of Pio's hepatic transcriptional effects in wildtype (WT) and liver-specific PPAR?-knockout (KO) mice given either control or high-fat (HFD) diets. The results identify a large set of hepatic genes for which Pio's liver PPAR?-dependent transcriptional effects are concordant with its effects on RXR-DNA binding in WT mice. These data also show that HFD modifies Pio's influence on a subset of such transcriptional regulation. Finally, our findings reveal a broader influence of Pio on PPAR?-dependent hepatic expression of nuclear genes encoding mitochondrial proteins than previously recognized. Taken together, these studies provide new insights about the tissue-specific mechanisms by which Pio affects hepatic gene expression and the broad scope of this drug's influence on such regulation.
Project description:Metabolic pathologies such as diabetes and obesity are associated with decreased level of circulating and bone marrow (BM)-derived endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs). It is known that activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR?) may stimulate cell differentiation. In addition, microparticles (MPs), small membrane vesicles produced by activated and apoptotic cells, are able to reprogram EPCs. Here, we evaluated the role of MPs carrying PPAR? on both phenotype and function of progenitor cells from mice fed with a high-fat diet (HFD). HFD reduced circulating EPCs and, after 7 days of culture, BM-derived EPCs and monocytic progenitor cells from HFD-fed mice displayed impaired differentiation. At the same time, we show that MPs bearing PPAR?, MPsPPAR?+/+ , increased the differentiation of EPCs and monocytic progenitors from HFD-fed mice, whereas MPs taken from PPAR? knockout mice (MPsPPAR?-/- ) had no effect on the differentiation of all types of progenitor cells. Furthermore, MPsPPAR?+/+ increased the ability of progenitor cells to promote in vivo angiogenesis in mice fed with HFD. The in vitro and in vivo effects of MPsPPAR?+/+ were abolished in presence of MK886, a specific inhibitor of PPAR?. Collectively, these data highlight the ability of MPs carrying PPAR? to restore the failed differentiation and functionality of BM-derived cells induced by HFD. Stem Cells Translational Medicine 2018;7:135-145.
Project description:Background:Dysregulation of fatty acid (FA) metabolism is involved in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development. Non-POU domain-containing octamer binding protein (NONO), known as the component of nuclear paraspeckles, has recently been found to promote HCC progression. In this study, we investigated the functions of NONO in regulating de novo FA synthesis and its underling mechanism during HCC development. Methods:The roles of NONO in HCC development by applying gene function loss analysis in HCC cells were detected by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, cell proliferation, and cell invasion assays. The underlying mechanism of NONO in HCC development was examined by western blotting, subcellular fractionation, RNA-binding protein immunoprecipitation-sequencing, chromatin immunoprecipitation, co-immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry. The effect of NONO on tumorigenesis in vivo was performed with a subcutaneous xenograft mouse model of HCC. Results:NONO promotes HCC progression by interacting with and increasing ATP-citrate lyase (ACLY) mRNA to enhance FA biosynthesis. Furthermore, NONO promotes ACLY expression through enhancing nuclear ACLY mRNA stability in Diethylnitrosamine-stimulated HCC cells, not related to nuclear paraspeckles. Moreover, we find that NONO/SFPQ (Splicing factor proline and glutamine rich) heterodimer is essential for NONO interacting with ACLY mRNA in DEN stimulated HCC cells. In addition, NONO, Insulin like growth factor 2 mRNA binding protein 1 (IGF2BP1) and ACLY expressions contribute HCC development in mice and are related to poor survival. Conclusion:NONO promotes HCC progression by enhancing FA biosynthesis through interacting with ACLY mRNA and provide a novel potential target for HCC therapy.
Project description:Little is known about how pro-obesity diets regulate tissue stem and progenitor cell function. Here we show that high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity augments the numbers and function of Lgr5(+) intestinal stem cells of the mammalian intestine. Mechanistically, a HFD induces a robust peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta (PPAR-?) signature in intestinal stem cells and progenitor cells (non-intestinal stem cells), and pharmacological activation of PPAR-? recapitulates the effects of a HFD on these cells. Like a HFD, ex vivo treatment of intestinal organoid cultures with fatty acid constituents of the HFD enhances the self-renewal potential of these organoid bodies in a PPAR-?-dependent manner. Notably, HFD- and agonist-activated PPAR-? signalling endow organoid-initiating capacity to progenitors, and enforced PPAR-? signalling permits these progenitors to form in vivo tumours after loss of the tumour suppressor Apc. These findings highlight how diet-modulated PPAR-? activation alters not only the function of intestinal stem and progenitor cells, but also their capacity to initiate tumours.
Project description:MicroRNA-29 (miR-29) has been shown to play a critical role in reducing inflammation and fibrosis following liver injury. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) occurs when fat is deposited (steatosis) in the liver due to causes other than excessive alcohol use and is associated with liver fibrosis. In this study, we asked whether miR-29a could reduce experimental high fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity and liver fibrosis in mice. We performed systematical expression analyses of miR-29a transgenic mice (miR-29aTg mice) and wild-type littermates subjected to HFD-induced NAFLD. The results demonstrated that increased miR-29a not only alleviated HFD-induced body weight gain but also subcutaneous, visceral, and intestinal fat accumulation and hepatocellular steatosis in mice. Furthermore, hepatic tissue in the miR-29aTg mice displayed a weak fibrotic matrix concomitant with low fibrotic collagen1?1 expression within the affected tissues compared to the wild-type (WT) mice fed the HFD diet. Increased miR-29a signaling also resulted in the downregulation of expression of the epithelial mesenchymal transition-executing transcription factor snail, mesenchymal markers vimentin, and such pro-inflammation markers as il6 and mcp1 within the liver tissue. Meanwhile, miR-29aTg-HFD mice exhibited significantly lower levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?), mitochondrial transcription factor A TFAM, and mitochondria DNA content in the liver than the WT-HFD mice. An in vitro luciferase reporter assay further confirmed that miR-29a mimic transfection reduced fatty acid translocase CD36 expression in HepG2 cells. Conclusion: Our data provide new insights that miR-29a can improve HDF-induced obesity, hepatocellular steatosis, and fibrosis, as well as highlight the role of miR-29a in regulation of NAFLD.
Project description:Safety concerns have emerged regarding the potential long-lasting effects due to developmental exposure to xenobiotics. The pregnane X receptor (PXR) and constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) are critical xenobiotic-sensing nuclear receptors that are highly expressed in liver. The goal of this study was to test our hypothesis that neonatal exposure to PXR- or CAR-activators not only acutely but also persistently regulates the expression of drug-processing genes (DPGs). A single dose of the PXR-ligand PCN (75?mg/kg), CAR-ligand TCPOBOP (3?mg/kg), or vehicle (corn oil) was administered intraperitoneally to 3-day-old neonatal wild-type mice. Livers were collected 24?h post-dose or from adult mice at 60 days of age, and global gene expression of these mice was determined using Affymetrix Mouse Transcriptome Assay 1.0. In neonatal liver, PCN up-regulated 464 and down-regulated 449 genes, whereas TCPOBOP up-regulated 308 and down-regulated 112 genes. In adult liver, there were 15 persistently up-regulated and 22 persistently down-regulated genes following neonatal exposure to PCN, as well as 130 persistently up-regulated and 18 persistently down-regulated genes following neonatal exposure to TCPOBOP. Neonatal exposure to both PCN and TCPOBOP persistently down-regulated multiple Cyp4a members, which are prototypical-target genes of the lipid-sensor PPAR?, and this correlated with decreased PPAR?-binding to the Cyp4a gene loci. RT-qPCR, western blotting, and enzyme activity assays in livers of wild-type, PXR-null, and CAR-null mice confirmed that the persistent down-regulation of Cyp4a was PXR and CAR dependent. In conclusion, neonatal exposure to PXR- and CAR-activators both acutely and persistently regulates critical genes involved in xenobiotic and lipid metabolism in liver.
Project description:Peroxisome proliferation activated receptor ? (PPAR?) is an important transcriptional regulator of lipid metabolism and is activated by high-fat diet (HFD) and fibrates in mammals. However, whether nutritional background affects PPAR? activation and the hypolipidemic effects of PPAR? ligands have not been investigated in fish. In the present two-phase study of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), fish were first fed a HFD (13% fat) or low-fat diet (LFD; 1% fat) diet for 10 weeks, and then fish from the first phase were fed the HFD or LFD supplemented with 200?mg/kg body weight fenofibrate for 4 weeks. The results indicated that the HFD did not activate PPAR? or other lipid catabolism-related genes. Hepatic fatty acid ?-oxidation increased significantly in the HFD and LFD groups after the fenofibrate treatment, when exogenous substrates were sufficiently provided. Only in the HFD group, fenofibrate significantly increased hepatic PPAR? mRNA and protein expression, and decreased liver and plasma triglyceride concentrations. This is the first study to show that body fat deposition and dietary lipid content affects PPAR? activation and the hypolipidemic effects of fenofibrate in fish, and this could be due to differences in substrate availability for lipid catabolism in fish fed with different diets.