Diversity of the lactic acid bacterium and yeast microbiota in the switch from firm- to liquid-sourdough fermentation.
ABSTRACT: Four traditional type I sourdoughs were comparatively propagated (28 days) under firm (dough yield, 160) and liquid (dough yield, 280) conditions to mimic the alternative technology options frequently used for making baked goods. After 28 days of propagation, liquid sourdoughs had the lowest pH and total titratable acidity (TTA), the lowest concentrations of lactic and acetic acids and free amino acids, and the most stable density of presumptive lactic acid bacteria. The cell density of yeasts was the highest in liquid sourdoughs. Liquid sourdoughs showed simplified microbial diversity and harbored a low number of strains, which were persistent. Lactobacillus plantarum dominated firm sourdoughs over time. Leuconostoc lactis and Lactobacillus brevis dominated only some firm sourdoughs, and Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis persisted for some time only in some firm sourdoughs. Leuconostoc citreum persisted in all firm and liquid sourdoughs, and it was the only species detected in liquid sourdoughs at all times; it was flanked by Leuconostoc mesenteroides in some sourdoughs. Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida humilis, Saccharomyces servazzii, Saccharomyces bayanus-Kazachstania sp., and Torulaspora delbrueckii were variously identified in firm and liquid sourdoughs. A total of 197 volatile components were identified through purge and trap-/solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (PT-/SPME-GC-MS). Aldehydes, several alcohols, and some esters were at the highest levels in liquid sourdoughs. Firm sourdoughs mainly contained ethyl acetate, acetic acid, some sulfur compounds, and terpenes. The use of liquid fermentation would change the main microbial and biochemical features of traditional baked goods, which have been manufactured under firm conditions for a long time.
Project description:After isolation from different doughs and sourdoughs, 177 strains of lactic acid bacteria were screened at the phenotypic level for exopolysaccharide production on media containing different carbohydrate sources. Two exopolysaccharide-producing lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus curvatus 69B2 and Leuconostoc lactis 95A) were selected through quantitative analysis on solid media containing sucrose and yeast extract. The PCR detection of homopolysaccharide (gtf and lev) and heteropolysaccharide (epsA, epsB, epsD and epsE, and epsEFG) genes showed different distributions within species and strains of the lactic acid bacteria studied. Moreover, in some strains both homopolysaccharide and heteropolysaccharide genes were detected. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectra suggest that Lactobacillus curvatus 69B2 and Leuconostoc lactis 95A produced the same exopolysaccharide, which was constituted by a single repeating glucopyranosyl unit linked by an ?-(1?6) glycosidic bond in a dextran-type carbohydrate. Microbial growth, acidification, and viscoelastic properties of sourdoughs obtained by exopolysaccharide-producing and nonproducing lactic acid bacterial strains were evaluated. Sourdough obtained after 15 h at 30°C with exopolysaccharide-producing lactic acid bacteria reached higher total titratable acidity as well as elastic and dissipative modulus curves with respect to the starter not producing exopolysaccharide, but they showed similar levels of pH and microbial growth. On increasing the fermentation time, no difference in the viscoelastic properties of exopolysaccharide-producing and nonproducing samples was observed. This study suggests that dextran-producing Leuconostoc lactis 95A and Lactobacillus curvatus 69B2 can be employed to prepare sourdough, and this would be particularly useful to improve the quality of baked goods while avoiding the use of commercially available hydrocolloids as texturizing additives.
Project description:Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are key for the fermentation of sourdoughs to improve the quality and nutritive value of bread. The aim of this study was to isolate the LAB starter for sourdough fermentation from Jeung-pyun, a Korean traditional rice cake. Among the twenty two LAB screened, five isolates were selected based on exo-polysaccharide production. Among them, three isolates showed cell growth greater than 8.5 Log CFU/g, maximum increase in the volume of dough, and dextran concentration up to 0.16%. During the sourdough fermentation, pH and total titratable acidity (TTA) were changed, as the three isolates synthesized lactic acid and acetic acid with fermentation quotients less than 2.0. They were identified as Leuconostoc lactis EFEL005, Lactobacillus brevis EFEL004, and Le. citreum EFEL006. They displayed good fermentation properties (growth, dextran production, pH, and TTA) in dough and they are regarded as potential starters to be used in sourdough fermentation.
Project description:Seven mature type I sourdoughs were comparatively back-slopped (80 days) at artisan bakery and laboratory levels under constant technology parameters. The cell density of presumptive lactic acid bacteria and related biochemical features were not affected by the environment of propagation. On the contrary, the number of yeasts markedly decreased from artisan bakery to laboratory propagation. During late laboratory propagation, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) showed that the DNA band corresponding to Saccharomyces cerevisiae was no longer detectable in several sourdoughs. Twelve species of lactic acid bacteria were variously identified through a culture-dependent approach. All sourdoughs harbored a certain number of species and strains, which were dominant throughout time and, in several cases, varied depending on the environment of propagation. As shown by statistical permutation analysis, the lactic acid bacterium populations differed among sourdoughs propagated at artisan bakery and laboratory levels. Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus sakei, and Weissella cibaria dominated in only some sourdoughs back-slopped at artisan bakeries, and Leuconostoc citreum seemed to be more persistent under laboratory conditions. Strains of Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis were indifferently found in some sourdoughs. Together with the other stable species and strains, other lactic acid bacteria temporarily contaminated the sourdoughs and largely differed between artisan bakery and laboratory levels. The environment of propagation has an undoubted influence on the composition of sourdough yeast and lactic acid bacterium microbiotas.
Project description:This study aimed at assessing the effect of tap water on the: (i) lactic acid bacteria (LAB) population of a traditional and mature sourdough; and (ii) establishment of LAB community during sourdough preparation. Ten tap water, collected from Italian regions characterized by cultural heritage in leavened baked goods, were used as ingredient for propagating or preparing firm (type I) sourdoughs. The same type and batch of flour, recipe, fermentation temperature and time were used for propagation/preparation, being water the only variable parameter. During nine days of propagation of a traditional and mature Apulian sourdough, LAB cell density did not differ, and the LAB species/strain composition hardly changed, regardless of the water. When the different tap water were used for preparing the corresponding sourdoughs, the values of pH became lower than 4.5 after two to four fermentations. The type of water affected the assembly of the LAB biome. As shown by Principal Components Analysis, LAB population in the sourdoughs and chemical and microbiological features of water used for their preparation partly overlapped. Several correlations were found between sourdough microbiota and water features. These data open the way to future researches about the use of various types of water in bakery industry.
Project description:Quinoa, a nutritional grain, can be used as an ingredient in gluten-free sourdoughs. This study characterizes quinoa flour spontaneous fermentation with emphasis in the isolation of exopolysaccharide (EPS) producer bacteria. Real, red and black grains were studied. Dough yield, microbiota composition and fermentation biochemistry were determined for a total of 36 quinoa flour fermentations. The fermentation biochemistry was monitored by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis, pH measurement and titratable acidity. Changes in the microbiota were monitored by plating on deMann Rogosa and Sharp 5 agar (MRS5) and yeast and mold agar (YMA) plates and with metagenetic analysis. The ability to produce exopolysaccharides was screened in selected lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolates. Production of organic acids in the spontaneous fermentation dropped the pH to 4.0 ± 0.3. The community of presumptive LAB reached 8.37 ± 0.01 log colony forming units (CFU)/mL by day 8 of back-slopped fermentations. The microbiota was composed of Lactobacillus, Enterococcus, Leuconostoc, Lactococcus, Pediococcus and Weissella. P. pentosaceous, L. citreum and W. cibaria were able to produce EPS in a starch-rich medium. P. pentosaceous showed higher exopolysaccharide yield, rapid acidifying kinetics and was able to drop the dough broth pH to values below 4.0 and a positive fermentation quotient after 24 h of incubation. Therefore, the bacterium might be a potential candidate for quinoa sourdough production.
Project description:The evolution of bacterial consortia was studied in six semi-solid rye sourdoughs during long-term backslopping at different temperatures. Each rye sourdough was started spontaneously in a laboratory (dough yield 200), propagated at either 20°C or 30°C, and renewed daily at an inoculation rate of 1?10 for 56 days. The changes in bacterial diversity over time were followed by both DGGE coupled with partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing and pyrosequencing of bar-coded 16S rRNA gene amplicons. Four species from the genus Lactobacillus (brevis, crustorum, plantarum, and paralimentarius) were detected in different combinations in all sourdoughs after 56 propagation cycles. Facultative heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria dominated in sourdoughs fermented at 30°C, while both obligate and facultative heterofermentative LAB were found to dominate in sourdoughs fermented at 20°C. After 56 propagation cycles, Kazachstania unispora (formerly Saccharomyces unisporus) was identified as the only yeast species that dominated in sourdoughs fermented at 20°C, while different combinations of strains from four yeast species (Kazachstania unispora, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida krusei and Candida glabrata) were detected in sourdoughs propagated at 30°C. The evolution of bacterial communities in sourdoughs fermented at the same temperature did not follow the same time course and changes in the composition of dominant and subdominant bacterial communities occurred even after six weeks of backslopping.
Project description:In the last few years the need to produce food with added value has fueled the search for new ingredients and health-promoting compounds. In particular, to improve the quality of bakery products with distinct nutritional properties, the identification of new raw materials, appropriate technologies, and specific microbial strains is necessary. In this study, different doughs were prepared, with 10% and 20% flour from immature wheat grain blended with type "0 America" wheat flour. Immature flour was obtained from durum wheat grains harvested 1 to 2 weeks after anthesis. Doughs were obtained by both the straight-dough and sourdough processes. Two selected exopolysaccharide-producing strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), Leuconostoc lactis A95 and Lactobacillus curvatus 69B2, were used as starters. Immature flour contained 2.21 g/100 g (dry weight) of fructo-oligosaccharides. Twenty percent immature flour in dough resulted in a shorter leavening time (4.23 ± 0.03 h) than with the control and dough with 10% immature flour. The total titratable acidity of sourdough with 20% immature flour was higher (12.75 ± 0.15 ml 0.1 N NaOH) than in the control and sourdough with 10% immature wheat flour (9.20 ml 0.1 N NaOH). Molecular analysis showed that all samples contained three LAB species identified as L. lactis, L. curvatus, and Pediococcus acidilactici. A larger amount of exopolysaccharide was found in sourdough obtained with 20% immature flour (5.33 ± 0.032 g/kg), positively influencing the exopolysaccharide content of the bread prepared by the sourdough process (1.70 ± 0.03 g/kg). The addition of 20% immature flour also led to a greater presence of fructo-oligosaccharides in the bread (900 mg/100 g dry weight), which improved its nutritional characteristics. While bread volume decreased as the concentration of immature wheat flour increased, its mechanical characteristics (stress at a strain of 30%) were the same in all samples obtained with different percentages of fructo-oligosaccharides. These data support the use of immature wheat grain flour, and exopolysaccaride-producing lactic acid bacteria in formulating functional prebiotic baked goods whose nutritional value can be suitably improved.
Project description:A culture-based approach was used to investigate the diversity of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in Belgian traditional sourdoughs and to assess the influence of flour type, bakery environment, geographical origin, and technological characteristics on the taxonomic composition of these LAB communities. For this purpose, a total of 714 LAB from 21 sourdoughs sampled at 11 artisan bakeries throughout Belgium were subjected to a polyphasic identification approach. The microbial composition of the traditional sourdoughs was characterized by bacteriological culture in combination with genotypic identification methods, including repetitive element sequence-based PCR fingerprinting and phenylalanyl-tRNA synthase (pheS) gene sequence analysis. LAB from Belgian sourdoughs belonged to the genera Lactobacillus, Pediococcus, Leuconostoc, Weissella, and Enterococcus, with the heterofermentative species Lactobacillus paralimentarius, Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Lactobacillus pontis as the most frequently isolated taxa. Statistical analysis of the identification data indicated that the microbial composition of the sourdoughs is mainly affected by the bakery environment rather than the flour type (wheat, rye, spelt, or a mixture of these) used. In conclusion, the polyphasic approach, based on rapid genotypic screening and high-resolution, sequence-dependent identification, proved to be a powerful tool for studying the LAB diversity in traditional fermented foods such as sourdough.
Project description:Exopolysaccharides (EPSs) are known for their positive contribute to the technological properties of many foods, including bakery products. These molecules can be obtained performing piloted fermentation with lactic acid bacteria (LAB). In order to select strains able to produce EPS, a screening test in agar medium containing sucrose, fructose or glucose as carbohydrate source was performed on 21 LAB strains. Results allowed to select 8 Weissella cibaria, 2 Weissella confusa, and 2 Leuconostoc spp. strains as EPS producers only in the presence of sucrose. A further screening in liquid medium enriched with sucrose (10%) (mMRS_S) indicated the W. cibaria strain C43-11 as the higher EPS producer. The selected strain was used to develop liquid sourdoughs (LSs) with dough yield (DY) 500, fermented for 15 h and based on wheat flour and wheat gluten or pseudocereals (quinoa or amaranth) in ratio 1:1, in the presence or not of sucrose at 3% (w/w, LS weight), in comparison to Lactobacillus plantarum ITM21B, a strain not producing EPS in mMRS_S. Results indicated that the use of pseudocereals favored the EPS production. Formulations were optimized by modifying DY (500 or 250), sucrose concentration (3 or 6%) and flour ratio. LSs were characterized for the content of organic acids (lactic, acetic, phenyllactic, OH-phenyllactic), pH, TTA, EPS, viscosity, total protein degradation and protein pattern. The highest EPS production (20.79 g/kg) and viscosity (1168 mPa s) were obtained in LS (DY 250, sucrose 6%) based on quinoa flour and started with C43-11 strain. The LS was characterized by the presence of phenyllactic and OH-phenyllactic acids, protein degradation by 51.7% and proteins in the range 14-80 kDa. In these conditions, also strain ITM21B was able to produce EPS at level of 4.61 g/kg and to degrade proteins by 53.8% in LS based on wheat and quinoa flours (1:1) (DY250 and sucrose 3%). Therefore, results demonstrated that the use of selected conditions (flour type, DY, sucrose) can stimulate specific attributes of strains making them suitable for production of short fermented (15 h) LSs which can be used as bread improvers.
Project description:The effect of the glutathione reductase (GshR) activity of Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis DSM20451(T) on the thiol levels in fermented sourdoughs was determined, and the oxygen tolerance of the strain was also determined. The gshR gene coding for a putative GshR was sequenced and inactivated by single-crossover integration to yield strain L. sanfranciscensis DSM20451(T)DeltagshR. The gene disruption was verified by sequencing the truncated gshR and surrounding regions on the chromosome. The gshR activity of L. sanfranciscensis DSM20451(T)DeltagshR was strongly reduced compared to that of the wild-type strain, demonstrating that gshR indeed encodes an active GshR enzyme. The thiol levels in wheat doughs fermented with L. sanfranciscensis DSM20451 increased from 9 microM to 10.5 microM sulfhydryl/g of dough during a 24-h sourdough fermentation, but in sourdoughs fermented with L. sanfranciscensis DSM20451(T)DeltagshR and in chemically acidified doughs, the thiol levels decreased to 6.5 to 6.8 microM sulfhydryl/g of dough. Remarkably, the GshR-negative strains Lactobacillus pontis LTH2587 and Lactobacillus reuteri BR11 exerted effects on thiol levels in dough comparable to those of L. sanfranciscensis. In addition to the effect on thiol levels in sourdough, the loss of GshR activity in L. sanfranciscensis DSM20451(T)DeltagshR resulted in a loss of oxygen tolerance. The gshR mutant strain exhibited a strongly decreased aerobic growth rate on modified MRS medium compared to either the growth rate under anaerobic conditions or that of the wild-type strain, and aerobic growth was restored by the addition of cysteine. Moreover, the gshR mutant strain was more sensitive to the superoxide-generating agent paraquat.