Mononuclear phagocytes and airway epithelial cells: novel sources of matrix metalloproteinase-8 (MMP-8) in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES:Matrix metalloproteinase-8 (MMP-8) promotes lung fibrotic responses to bleomycin in mice. Although prior studies reported that MMP-8 levels are increased in plasma and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) samples from IPF patients, neither the bioactive forms nor the cellular sources of MMP-8 in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) patients have been identified. It is not known whether MMP-8 expression is dys-regulated in IPF leukocytes or whether MMP-8 plasma levels correlate with IPF outcomes. Our goal was to address these knowledge gaps. METHODS:We measured MMP-8 levels and forms in blood and lung samples from IPF patients versus controls using ELISAs, western blotting, and qPCR, and assessed whether MMP-8 plasma levels in 73 IPF patients correlate with rate of lung function decline and mortality. We used immunostaining to localize MMP-8 expression in IPF lungs. We quantified MMP-8 levels and forms in blood leukocytes from IPF patients versus controls. RESULTS:IPF patients have increased BALF, whole lung, and plasma levels of soluble MMP-8 protein. Active MMP-8 is the main form elevated in IPF lungs. MMP-8 mRNA levels are increased in monocytes from IPF patients, but IPF patients and controls have similar levels of MMP-8 in PMNs. Surprisingly, macrophages and airway epithelial cells are the main cells expressing MMP-8 in IPF lungs. Plasma and BALF MMP-8 levels do not correlate with decline in lung function and/or mortality in IPF patients. CONCLUSION:Blood and lung MMP-8 levels are increased in IPF patients. Active MMP-8 is the main form elevated in IPF lungs. Surprisingly, blood monocytes, lung macrophages, and airway epithelial cells are the main cells in which MMP-8 is upregulated in IPF patients. Plasma and BALF MMP-8 levels are unlikely to serve as a prognostic biomarker for IPF patients. These results provide new information about the expression patterns of MMP-8 in IPF patients.
Project description:Rationale: Caspase-1 is a zymogen whose activation predominantly depends upon the assembly of ASC monomers into insoluble prion-like polymers (specks). ASC polymers support caspase-1 dimer formation inducing a proximity mediated auto-activation of caspase-1. Therefore, the amount and nature of ASC monomers and polymers in lung bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) might serve as a marker of lung inflammasome activity. Objectives: To determine whether lung ASC concentrations or oligomerization status predicts lung function or activity of lung inflammation. Methods: BALF ASC amount and oligomerization status was studied in three distinct cohorts: (1) young healthy non-smokers, vapers and smokers; (2) healthy HIV+ smokers who underwent detailed lung function studies; and (3) hospitalized patients with suspected pneumonia. We quantified cell free BALF ASC levels by ELISA and immunoblot. Oligomers (i.e., ASC specks) were identified by chemical crosslinking and ability to sediment with centrifugation. Measurement and Main Results: ASC levels are significantly higher in lung lining fluid than in plasma as well as higher in smoker lungs compared to non-smoker lungs. In this context, ASC levels correlate with macrophage numbers, smoking intensity and loss of lung diffusion capacity in a well-characterized cohort of healthy HIV+ smokers. However, only monomeric ASC was found in our BALF samples from all subjects, including patients with lung infections. Conclusions: Even though, most, if not all, extracellular ASC in BALF exists in the soluble, monomeric form, monomeric ASC concentrations still reflect the inflammatory status of the lung microenvironment and correlate with loss of lung function.
Project description:Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a severe lung disease with poor survival that warrants early and precise diagnosis for timely therapeutic intervention. Despite accumulating genomic, transcriptomic, proteomic, and lipidomic data on IPF, evidence from water-soluble metabolomics is limited. To identify biomarkers for IPF from water-soluble metabolomic data, we measured the levels of various metabolites in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and serum samples from a bleomycin-induced murine pulmonary fibrotic model using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Thirty-two of 73 BALF metabolites and 29 of 74 serum metabolites were annotated. We observed that the levels of proline and methionine were higher in BALF but lower in serum than those in the control. Furthermore, analysis of public RNA-Seq data from the lungs of patients with IPF revealed that proline- and methionine-related genes were significantly upregulated compared to those in the lungs of healthy controls. These results suggest that proline and methionine may be potential biomarkers for IPF and may help to deepen our understanding of the pathophysiology of the disease. Based on our results, we propose a model capable of recapitulating the proline and methionine metabolism of fibrotic lungs, thereby providing better means for studying the disease and developing novel therapeutic strategies for IPF.
Project description:Background:The role of the lectin pathway of complement in the pathogenesis of interstitial lung diseases (ILDs) is largely unknown. Pattern recognition receptors (PRR) of the lectin pathway are involved in the clearance of apoptotic cells either via activation of the complement system or as direct opsonins. As recent findings suggest a role of apoptosis in the development of pulmonary fibrosis, the influence of plasma lectins has lately been considered in various ILDs, but data on local concentrations in the lungs are lacking. This study investigated the role of mannose-binding lectin (MBL), ficolin-2 and ficolin-3 in ILD patients with a focus on idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and sarcoidosis. Methods:A case control study was conducted involving 80 patients with different forms of ILD as well as 40 control patients undergoing routine flexible bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). Plasma and BAL fluid (BALF) levels of MBL, ficolin-2 and ficolin-3 as well as complement split products C4d and C5a (only in BALF) were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Eight single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of MBL and ficolin-2 were determined by genotyping and tested for their association with ILDs. Results:We included 35, 35, 10, and 40 patients with sarcoidosis, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), other ILD, and a control group, respectively. BALF but not plasma levels of the three PRR were significantly elevated in sarcoidosis patients compared to a control group without ILD (MBL: median 66.8 vs. 24.6 ng/ml, p = 0.02, ficolin-2: 140 vs. 58.8 ng/ml, p = 0.01, ficolin-3: 2523 vs. 1180 ng/ml, p = 0.02), whereas the frequency of the investigated SNPs was similar. In line, complement split products were markedly elevated in BALF of sarcoidosis patients (C4d, median 97.4 vs. 0 ng/ml, p = 0.10; C5a, 23.9 vs. 9.1 ng/ml, p = 0.01). There was a weak positive correlation of BALF ficolin-3 with serum neopterin, a marker of sarcoidosis activity. In IPF patients, we observed numerically higher MBL plasma and BALF levels (plasma, median 1511 vs. 879 ng/ml, p = 0.44; BALF, 37.5 vs. 24.6 ng/ml, p = 0.7) as well as lower ficolin-2 plasma levels (plasma 1111 vs. 1647 ng/ml, p = 0.11). Ficolin-2 plasma levels were inversely correlated with the forced vital capacity (r = 0.55, p = 0.1). Conclusion:This is the first study to simultaneously assess systemic and local lectin pathway protein levels in ILD patients. Our data suggest an involvement of PRR of the lectin pathway in the pathogenesis of sarcoidosis given the significantly higher BALF levels compared to a control group. Additional analyses in a larger patient cohort are required to confirm or refute a potential effect of local and/or systemic ficolin-2 levels in IPF patients.
Project description:Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) cleaves various proteins to regulate inflammatory and injury responses. However, MMP-9's activities during influenza A viral (IAV) infections are incompletely understood. Herein, plasma MMP-9 levels were increased in patients with pandemic H1N1 and seasonal IAV infections. MMP-9 lung levels were increased and localized to airway epithelial cells and leukocytes in H1N1-infected WT murine lungs. H1N1-infected Mmp-9-/- mice had lower mortality rates, reduced weight loss, lower lung viral titers, and reduced lung injury, along with lower E-cadherin shedding in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) samples than WT mice. H1N1-infected Mmp-9-/- mice had an altered immune response to IAV with lower BALF PMN and macrophage counts, higher Th1-like CD4+ and CD8+ T cell subsets, lower T regulatory cell counts, reduced lung type I interferon levels, and higher lung interferon-? levels. Mmp-9 bone marrow-chimera studies revealed that Mmp-9 deficiency in lung parenchymal cells protected mice from IAV-induced mortality. H1N1-infected Mmp-9-/- lung epithelial cells had lower viral titers than H1N1-infected WT cells in vitro. Thus, H1N1-infected Mmp-9-/- mice are protected from IAV-induced lung disease due to a more effective adaptive immune response to IAV and reduced epithelial barrier injury due partly to reduced E-cadherin shedding. Thus, we believe that MMP-9 is a novel therapeutic target for IAV infections.
Project description:The causes underlying the self-perpetuating nature of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), a progressive and usually lethal disease, remain unknown. We hypothesised that alveolar soluble annexin V contributes to lung fibrosis, based on the observation that human IPF bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) containing high annexin V levels promoted fibroblast involvement in alveolar epithelial wound healing that was reduced when annexin V was depleted from the BALF. Conditioned medium from annexin V-treated alveolar epithelial type 2 cells (AEC2), but not annexin V per se, induced proliferation of human fibroblasts and contained pro-fibrotic, IPF-associated proteins, as well as pro-inflammatory cytokines that were found to correlate tightly (r>0.95) with annexin V levels in human BALF. ErbB2 receptor tyrosine kinase in AECs was activated by annexin V, and blockade reduced the fibrotic potential of annexin V-treated AEC-conditioned medium. In vivo, aerosol delivery of annexin V to mouse lung induced inflammation, fibrosis and increased hydroxyproline, with activation of Wnt, transforming growth factor-?, mitogen-activated protein kinase and nuclear factor-?B signalling pathways, as seen in IPF. Chronically increased alveolar annexin V levels, as reflected in increased IPF BALF levels, may contribute to the progression of IPF by inducing the release of pro-fibrotic mediators.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The endogenous secretory receptor for advanced glycation end products (esRAGE) is a soluble isoform produced by alternative splicing of the RAGE gene. The isoform has anti-inflammatory properties due to its inhibition of the RAGE/ligand interaction and is reduced in the lung tissue of patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). This study aimed to investigate the association of esRAGE serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) levels with progression of IPF. METHODS:This study included 79 IPF patients and 90 healthy controls. IPF and control serum esRAGE levels were compared, and the correlation between serum and BALF esRAGE levels was analyzed in 57 IPF patient samples. We also investigated the relationship of esRAGE serum and BALF levels with prognoses and lung function parameters in patients with IPF. RESULTS:Serum esRAGE levels in IPF patients were significantly lower than those in healthy controls (162.0?±?102.4?ng/ml and 200.7?±?107.3?ng/ml, p?=?0.009), although the baseline characteristics of age and smoking history were not matched. Serum levels of esRAGE were correlated with BALF esRAGE levels (rs?=?0.317). The BALF esRAGE levels were also correlated with diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide (rs?=?0.406). A Kaplan-Meier curve analysis and univariate/multivariate Cox hazard proportion analysis revealed that lower levels of esRAGE in blood and BALF were significantly associated with poorer prognoses in patients with IPF. CONCLUSIONS:Decreased esRAGE levels in BALF and blood were associated with poor prognoses in patients with IPF. These results suggest that esRAGE could be related to the pathophysiology of IPF and serum esRAGE could be a potential prognostic marker of IPF.
Project description:RATIONALE:Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF) is thought to be triggered by repeated alveolar epithelial cell injury. Current evidence suggests that aberrant immune activation may contribute. However, the role of B-cell activation remains unclear. We determined the phenotype and activation status of B-cell subsets and evaluated the contribution of activated B-cells to the development of lung fibrosis both in humans and in mice. METHODS:B-cells in blood, mediastinal lymph node, and lung single-cell suspensions of IPF patients and healthy controls (HC) were characterized using 14-color flow cytometry. Mice were exposed to bleomycin to provoke pulmonary fibrosis. RESULTS:More IgA+ memory B-cells and plasmablasts were found in blood (n?=?27) and lungs (n?=?11) of IPF patients compared to HC (n?=?21) and control lungs (n?=?9). IPF patients had higher levels of autoreactive IgA in plasma, which correlated with an enhanced decline of forced vital capacity (p?=?0.002, r?=?-?0.50). Bruton's tyrosine kinase expression was higher in circulating IPF B-cells compared to HC, indicating enhanced B-cell activation. Bleomycin-exposed mice had increased pulmonary IgA+ germinal center and plasma cell proportions compared to control mice. The degree of lung fibrosis correlated with pulmonary germinal center B-cell proportions (p?=?0.010, r?=?0.88). CONCLUSION:Our study demonstrates that IPF patients have more circulating activated B-cells and autoreactive IgA, which correlate with disease progression. These B-cell alterations were also observed in the widely used mouse model of experimental pulmonary fibrosis. Autoreactive IgA could be useful as a biomarker for disease progression in IPF.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is a heterogeneous group of diseases characterized by varying degrees of lung inflammation and/or fibrosis. We investigated biomarkers to infer whether patients with collagen vascular diseases associated ILD (CVD-ILD) and interstitial pneumonia with autoimmune features (IPAF) benefit from immunosuppressive therapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS:We retrospectively investigated patients with CVD-ILD, IPAF, and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) between June 2013 and May 2017 at our department. First, we assessed differences in serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) levels of cytokines between groups. Second, we assessed the associations of patient's clinical variables with serum and BALF levels of those cytokines that were different between groups. Finally, we assessed the associations of diagnosis and response to immunosuppressive therapy with serum levels of those cytokines that were different between groups. RESULTS:We included 102 patients (51 with IPF, 35 with IPAF, and 16 with CVD-ILD). Serum and BALF levels of CXCL9, CXCL10, and CXCL11 were significantly elevated in patients with IPAF or CVD-ILD compared with those in patients with IPF. BALF levels of CXCL9 and CXCL10 were correlated with the percentages of lymphocytes and macrophages in BALF. Serum levels of CXCL9 and CXCL10 were correlated with BALF levels. Serum levels of CXCL9, CXCL10, and CXCL11 were correlated C-reactive protein, percent predicted forced vital capacity, alveolar-arterial oxygen difference, and the percentages of lymphocytes and macrophages in BALF. Serum levels of CXCL9, CXCL10, and CXCL11 showed moderate accuracy to distinguish patients with CVD-ILD from those with IPAF and IPF. Pre-treatment serum levels of CXCL9 and CXCL11 showed strong positive correlations with the annual forced vital capacity changes in patients with IPAF and CVD-ILD treated with immunosuppressive drugs. CONCLUSIONS:Serum CXCL9, CXCL10, and CXCL11 are potential biomarkers for autoimmune inflammation and predictors of the immunosuppressive therapy responses in ILD with background autoimmunity.
Project description:Rats with Metabolic Syndrome (MetaS) have a dysregulated immune response to the aseptic trauma of surgery. We hypothesized that rats with MetaS would have dysregulated inflammation, increased lung injury, and less effective antibacterial defenses during Staphylococcus (S.) aureus sepsis as compared to rats without MetaS. Low capacity runner (LCR; a model of MetaS) and high capacity runner (HCR) rats were challenged intravenously with S. aureus bacteria. After 48 h, inflammatory mediators and bacteria were quantified in the blood, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), and lung homogenates. Lungs were analyzed histologically. BALF protein and lung wet-dry ratios were quantified to assess for vascular leak. Endpoints were compared in infected LCR vs HCR rats. LCR rats had higher blood and lung S. aureus counts, as well as higher levels of IL-6 in plasma, lungs and BALF, MIP-2 in plasma and lung, and IL-17A in lungs. Conversely, LCR rats had lower levels of IL-10 in plasma and lungs. Although lactate levels, and liver and renal function tests were similar between groups, LCR rats had higher BALF protein and lung wet-dry ratios, and more pronounced acute lung injury histologically. During S. aureus bacteremia, as compared with HCR rats, LCR (MetaS) rats have heightened pro-inflammatory responses, accompanied by increased acute lung injury and vascular leak. Notably, despite an augmented pro-inflammatory phenotype, LCR rats have higher bacterial levels in their blood and lungs. The MetaS state may exacerbate lung injury and vascular leak by attenuating the inflammation-resolving response, and by weakening antimicrobial defenses.
Project description:Therapies targeting inflammation reveal inconsistent results in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Aerosolised interferon (IFN)-? has been proposed as a novel therapy. Changes in the host airway microbiome are associated with the inflammatory milieu and may be associated with disease progression. Here, we evaluate whether treatment with aerosolised IFN-? in IPF impacts either the lower airway microbiome or the host immune phenotype. Patients with IPF who enrolled in an aerosolised IFN-? trial underwent bronchoscopy at baseline and after 6?months. 16S rRNA sequencing of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was used to evaluate the lung microbiome. Biomarkers were measured by Luminex assay in plasma, BALF and BAL cell supernatant. The compPLS framework was used to evaluate associations between taxa and biomarkers. IFN-? treatment did not change ? or ? diversity of the lung microbiome and few taxonomic changes occurred. While none of the biomarkers changed in plasma, there was an increase in IFN-? and a decrease in Fit-3 ligand, IFN-?2 and interleukin-5 in BAL cell supernatant, and a decrease in tumour necrosis factor-? in BALF. Multiple correlations between microbial taxa common to the oral mucosa and host inflammatory biomarkers were found. These data suggest that the lung microbiome is independently associated with the host immune tone and may have a potential mechanistic role in IPF.