Adoption of workplaces and reach of employees for a multi-faceted intervention targeting low back pain among nurses' aides.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Workplace adoption and reach of health promotion are important, but generally poorly reported. The aim of this study is therefore to evaluate the adoption of workplaces (organizational level) and reach of employees (individual level) of a multi-faceted workplace health promotion and work environment intervention targeting low back pain among nurses' aides in elderly care. METHODS: Percentage of adopters was calculated among eligible workplaces and differences between adopters and non-adopters were evaluated through workplace registrations and manager questionnaires from all eligible workplaces. From the adopted workplaces reach was calculated among eligible employees as the percentage who responded on a questionnaire. Responders were compared with non-responders using data from company registrations. Among responders, comparisons based on questionnaire data were performed between those consenting to participate in the intervention (consenters) and those not consenting to participate in the intervention (non-consenters). Comparisons were done using Student's t-test for the continuous variables, Fisher's exact test for dichotomous variables and the Pearson's chi(2) for categorical variables. Moreover odds ratios for non-responding and non-consenting were investigated with binary logistic regression analyses. RESULTS: The project was adopted by 44% of the offered workplaces. The main differences between adopters and non-adopters were that workplaces adopting the intervention had a more stable organization as well as a management with positive beliefs of the intervention's potential benefits. Of eligible employees, 71% responded on the questionnaire and 57% consented to participate. Non-responders and non-consenters did not differ from the responders and consenters on demographic factors and health. However, more non-responders and non-consenters were low skilled, worked less than 30 hours pr. week, and worked evening and nightshift compared to responders and consenters, respectively. Consenters had more musculoskeletal pain and reduced self-rated health, as well as higher physical exertion during work compared to non-consenters. CONCLUSIONS: Our recruitment effort yielded a population of consenters that was representative of the target population of nurses' aides with respect to demographic factors, and health. Moreover more consenters had problems like pain and high physical exertion during work, which fitted the scope of the intervention. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The study is registered as ISRCTN78113519.
Project description:<h4>Purpose</h4>Workplace social capital (WSC) may be beneficial for employees' health and well-being; however, most studies have analyzed WSC on the individual and not the workplace level. We test whether higher compared to lower levels of vertical WSC (WSC between employees and superiors) and horizontal WSC (WSC between employees), measured at the workplace level, is prospectively associated with higher levels of employees' well-being.<h4>Methods</h4>Using data from an intervention study, we analyzed associations between workplace aggregated vertical and horizontal WSC at baseline with job satisfaction, exhaustion and sleep disturbances at 24-months follow-up. The sample included 606 municipal pre-school employees (71 workplaces). We adjusted for individual and workplace characteristics, baseline scores of outcomes, intervention status, and the interaction of exposure with intervention status. We used the Genmod procedure in SAS with a repeated statement to account for correlation of individuals within workplaces. We repeated analyses using individual-level WSC measurements.<h4>Results</h4>Higher levels of vertical and horizontal WSC at baseline predicted a higher level of job satisfaction (0.20, p?=?0.01 and 0.24, p?=?0.01, respectively) and a lower level of exhaustion (-?0.33, p?=?0.04 and -?0.43, p?=?0.04) at follow-up in the most adjusted model. Analyses with individual-level measures yielded similar results and further showed an association of a higher level of horizontal WSC with a lower level of sleep disturbances.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Higher levels of vertical and horizontal WSC were prospectively associated with better well-being of employees in municipal pre-schools. Workplaces may thus consider focusing on improving WSC as a means for ensuring or improving employees' well-being.
Project description:PURPOSE OF REVIEW:This study aims to summarize the recent peer-reviewed literature on workplace interventions for prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), including studies that translate the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) curriculum to workplace settings (n?=?10) and those that use different intervention approaches to achieve the specific objective of T2DM prevention among employees (n?=?3). RECENT FINDINGS:Weight reduction was achieved through workplace interventions to prevent T2DM, though such interventions varied substantially in their effectiveness. The greatest weight loss was reported among intensive lifestyle interventions (i.e., at least 4 months in duration) that implemented the structured DPP curriculum (n?=?3). Weight reduction was minimal among less intensive interventions, including those that substantially modified the DPP curriculum (n?=?2) and those that used non-DPP intervention approaches to prevent T2DM (n?=?3). Most studies (n?=?12) reported increased levels of physical activity following the intervention. Implementation of the DPP in workplaces may be an effective strategy to prevent T2DM among employees.
Project description:BACKGROUND:To reduce the negative consequences of smoking, workplaces have adopted and implemented anti-smoking initiatives. Compared to large workplaces, less research exists about these initiatives at smaller workplaces, which are more likely to hire low-wage workers with higher rates of smoking. The purpose of this study was to describe and compare the smoking policies and smoking cessation activities at small (20-99 employees) and very small (<?20 employees) workplaces. METHODS:Thirty-two key informants coming from small and very small workplaces in Iowa completed qualitative telephone interviews. Data collection occurred between October 2016 and February 2017. Participants gave descriptions of the anti-smoking initiatives at their workplace. Additional interview topics included questions on enforcement, reasons for adoption, and barriers and facilitators to adoption and implementation. The data were analyzed using counts and content and thematic analysis. RESULTS:Workplace smoking policies were nearly universal (n?=?31, 97%), and most workplaces (n?=?21, 66%) offered activities to help employees quit smoking. Reasons for adoption included the Iowa Smokefree Air Act, to improve employee health, and organizational benefits (e.g., reduced insurance costs). Few challenges existed to adoption and implementation. Commonly cited facilitators included the Iowa Smokefree Air Act, no issues with compliance, and support from others. Compared to small workplaces, very small workplaces offered cessation activities less often and had fewer tobacco policy restrictions. CONCLUSIONS:This study showed well-established tobacco control efforts in small workplaces, but very small workplaces lagged behind. To reduce potential health disparities in smoking, future research and intervention efforts in tobacco control should focus on very small workplaces.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:To examine the effects of a workplace flexibility/support intervention on employees' sleep quantity and quality during nights and days and whether the effects differ by employee age. DESIGN:Cluster-randomized controlled trial. SETTING:Information technology industry workplaces. PARTICIPANTS:US employees (Mage = 46.9 years) at an information technology firm who provided actigraphy at baseline and a 12-month follow-up (N = 396; n = 195 intervention, n = 201 control). INTERVENTION:The Work, Family, and Health Study intervention aimed to increase workplace flexibility and support. The intervention consisted of facilitated discussions to help employees increase control over when and where they work as well as manager-specific training sessions to increase manager support for employees' work-family issues. MEASUREMENTS:Nighttime sleep duration, wake after sleep onset (WASO), and nap duration were measured with wrist actigraphy. Day-to-day variability in these variables (min2) was also estimated. RESULTS:Intervention employees increased nighttime sleep duration at 12 months, by 9 minutes per day, relative to control employees. There were interaction effects between the intervention and age on daytime nap duration and day-to-day variability in WASO. Older employees (56-70 years) in the intervention condition decreased nap duration at 12 months relative to older employees in the control condition. Older employees in the intervention condition also exhibited a greater decrease in day-to-day variability of WASO at 12 months compared with their baseline. CONCLUSIONS:The workplace flexibility/support intervention was effective in enhancing employees' sleep health by increasing nighttime sleep duration. Furthermore, the intervention was particularly effective for older employees in decreasing their daytime nap duration and day-to-day variability in WASO.
Project description:Changing health behaviors and health-related environments is important in reducing chronic disease. Minority workplaces are potential venues to provide regular, effective health promotion opportunities to underserved individuals. The purpose of this study was to test the feasibility of changing workplace policy, programs, and practices in minority-owned workplaces.Four minority Native American-owned businesses were recruited to participate in this study. The intervention was a set of recommended standards and guidelines gleaned from the US Preventive Task Force and The Community Guide relevant to workplaces. Each workplace selected between 4 and 6 target areas to improve over the year-long intervention period. The evaluation tool was a semi-structured survey conducted at baseline and at one-year follow-up, with workplace staff responsible for benefits and services to employees. Feasibility was evaluated by assessing the likelihood that the workplaces implemented health promotion activities in the year-long intervention.Several practices and policies changed significantly during the intervention in the four workplaces, including coverage for nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), elimination of out of pocket costs for screening and tobacco cessation, accountability systems for providers, posted stair use, cessation line availability that included NRT, offering weight loss programs, offering physical activity programs, and conducting targeted communication programs about health promotion. Other practices and polices changed in the expected direction, but were not significant.Changing workplace programs, practices, and policies is feasible in minority workplaces, with support and tools provided by outside organizations. These findings could drive a full-scale test of the intervention in minority businesses in order to improve the health of disadvantaged workers.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:This study examined the association between workplace rules and training programs regarding combining employees' work and treatment for chronic diseases, and actions actually taken by employees to manage this issue. These workplace measures (rules and training programs) are consistent with the Japanese Guideline for Workplace Patient Coordination and Disease Treatment. METHODS:In February 2018, we conducted an online, cross-sectional survey of 1134 employed individuals with chronic diseases who needed workplace support to combine work and disease treatment. All participants were aged 18-65 years and lived in Japan. We investigated associations between workplace rules and training programs (two items) and employee actions (eight items), using a questionnaire based on the guideline and logistic regression analysis. RESULTS:In total, 76.5% of the participants said they had reported their chronic disease to their employer (manager, personnel department, or occupational physician). However, less than half (47.5%) had submitted a written report about their job to their doctor. Employees were more likely to take action in workplaces that had rules or training programs than in workplaces without such measures. More actions were taken among employees in workplaces with both rules and training programs than in those with either measure alone. CONCLUSION:It is important to establish rules to support employees with chronic diseases and provide training to improve awareness of these rules to encourage employees with chronic diseases to take action to access the support they need.
Project description:Randomized studies have shown that financial incentives can significantly increase the effect of smoking cessation treatment in company settings. Evidence of effectiveness alone is, however, not enough to ensure that companies will offer this intervention. Knowledge about the barriers and facilitators for implementation in the workplace is needed, in order to develop an implementation strategy. We performed a qualitative needs assessment among 18 employers working in companies with relatively many employees with a low educational level, and our study revealed priority actions that aim to improve the implementation process in these types of workplaces. First, employers need training and support in how to reach their employees and convince them to take part in the group training. Second, employers need to be convinced that their non-smoking employees will not consider the incentives unfair, or they should be enabled to offer alternative incentives that are considered less unfair. Third, the cost-effectiveness of smoking cessation group trainings including financial incentives should be explained to employers. Finally, smoking cessation should become a standard part of workplace-based health policies.
Project description:Background:Workplace smoking cessation (SC) intervention is effective in increasing quit rate but little was known about the factors associated with voluntary SC promotion. Comprehensive smoke-free legislation, including banning smoking in all indoor area of workplaces, has been enforced in Hong Kong. This survey investigated the prevalence of company's compliance with smoke-free legislation and examined the relation between voluntary SC promotion in workplace and employer's knowledge of and attitude towards smoking and SC. Methods:Half (50.3%, n = 292) of a convenience sample of companies completed a self-administered questionnaire on company's voluntary SC promotion in the workplace. Factors investigated included company's characteristics (size, type, and number of smoking employees); employers' knowledge of smoking, second-hand smoke and SC effects on health; perceived responsibility in assisting employees to quit smoking and smoking prohibition in workplace (smoke free policy). Logistic regression yielded adjusted odds ratio (aOR) for voluntary SC promotion. Results:A notable proportion of companies (14.7%) showed non-compliance with the smoke free workplace ordinance and only 10% voluntarily promoted SC. Perceived greater negative impact of smoking on the company (adjusted odds ratio[aOR] 1.94, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.18-3.20) and better knowledge of smoking (aOR 1.40, 95%CI 1.00-1.94) were associated with voluntary SC promotion. Positive but non-significant associations were observed between perceived responsibility of assisting employees to quit, workplace smoke free policy and voluntary SC promotion. Company characteristics were generally not associated with voluntary SC promotion except white collar companies were less likely to promote SC (aOR 0.26, 95% CI 0.08-0.85). Conclusions:This is the first survey on company's SC promotion in the Chinese population. A notable proportion of companies was not compliant with the smoke-free workplace ordinance. Employers with a higher level of knowledge and perceived impact of smoking on companies and from blue-collar companies were more likely to promote SC in workplace. The findings inform future workplace intervention design and policy. Trial registration:The study was retrospectively registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT02179424) dated 27 June 2014.
Project description:Guided by self-determination theory, we investigated the potential impact of work climate on employee motivation, and pro-environmental behavior (PEB) inside and outside of the workplace. We found that in workplaces with stronger pro-environmental climates and at least moderate levels of autonomy support, employees reported higher levels of autonomous motivation to engage in PEB. In turn, autonomously motivated employees engaged in more PEBs, both inside and outside the workplace. Controlled motivation played a more limited role in predicting employee PEBs. Overall, our findings suggest work climates that support pro-environmental actions and employee autonomy may not only foster PEBs within the workplace but also lay the foundation for PEBs in other non-workplace settings.
Project description:Introduction: With two thirds of adults in paid employment and one third physically inactive, workplaces are an important setting for promoting more physical activity. We explored the attitudes and practices of employees and managers from different industries towards sitting and moving at work, to inform the development of acceptable solutions for encouraging businesses to adopt activity-promoting workplaces. Method: We conducted focus groups with employees and structured interviews with upper/middle managers from 12 organisations in a range of industries (e.g., education, healthcare, manufacturing, construction, insurance, mining). Topics focused on past and current workplace health and wellness initiatives, workplace culture and environment related to physical activity, responsibility for employee physical activity patterns at work, and enablers of/barriers to activity promoting workplaces. Results: Physical activity was not an explicit priority in existing occupational health and wellness initiatives. Instead, there was a strong focus on education about preventing and managing injuries, such as manual handling among non-office workers and desk-based ergonomics for office workers. Physical activity was viewed as a strategy for maintaining work ability and preventing injury, particularly in blue-collar staff, rather than for chronic disease prevention. Managers noted structural/organisational barriers/enablers to promoting physical activity at work (e.g., regulations, costs, competing concerns), while employees tended to focus on individual constraints such as time and geographic location. The issues of "initiative overload" and making physical activity a part of "business as usual" emerged as strong themes from employees and managers. Conclusions: While there is stakeholder enthusiasm for creating activity-promoting workplaces, multi-level support is needed to make physical activity an integral part of day-to-day business. The synergism between occupational health and safety priorities could be leveraged to facilitate the creation of activity-promoting workplaces.