Deficiency in steroid receptor coactivator 3 enhances cytokine production in IgE-stimulated mast cells and passive systemic anaphylaxis in mice.
ABSTRACT: Steroid receptor coactivator 3 (SRC-3) is a multifunctional protein that plays an important role in malignancy of several cancers and in regulation of bacterial LPS-induced inflammation. However, the involvement of SRC-3 in allergic response remains unclear. Herein we used passive systemic anaphylaxis (PSA) and passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) mouse models to assess the role of SRC-3 in allergic response.SRC-3-deficient mice exhibited more severe allergic response as demonstrated by a significant drop in body temperature and a delayed recovery period compared to wild-type mice in PSA mouse model, whereas no significant difference was observed between two kinds of mice in PCA mouse models. Mast cells play a pivotal role in IgE-mediated allergic response. Antigen-induced aggregation of IgE receptor (Fc?RI) on the surface of mast cell activates a cascade of signaling events leading to the degranulation and cytokine production in mast cells. SRC-3-deficient bone marrow derived mast cells (BMMCs) developed normally but secreted more proinflammatory cytokines such as TNF-? and IL-6 than wild-type cells after antigen stimulation, whereas there was no significant difference in degranulation between two kinds of mast cells. Further studies showed that SRC-3 inhibited the activation of nuclear factor NF-?B pathway and MAPKs including extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and p38 in antigen-stimulated mast cells.Our data demonstrate that SRC-3 suppresses cytokine production in antigen-stimulated mast cells as well as PSA in mice at least in part through inhibiting NF-?B and MAPK signaling pathways. Therefore, SRC-3 plays a protective role in PSA and it may become a drug target for anaphylactic diseases.
Project description:Autocrine stimulation of S1PR2, a receptor for the lipid mediator sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), has been implicated in mast cell degranulation to IgE/antigen (Ag) although, paradoxically, its ligand cannot trigger substantial degranulation. Additionally, the in vivo role of S1PR2 in the overall allergic responses is unclear since S1PR2 was reported to be required for the onset of systemic anaphylaxis by IgE/Ag but, in apparent contradiction, also for the recovery from histamine-induced anaphylaxis in a mast cell independent manner. Here, we sought to clarify the role of S1PR2 in mast cell degranulation and in IgE and IgG-mediated anaphylaxis. Lack of S1PR2 reduced IgE/Ag-induced degranulation in in vitro experiments with mucosal mast cells, but had no effect on connective tissue type mast cells. This latter response correlated with a lack of involvement of S1PR2 in the onset of non-lethal IgE/Ag-mediated systemic and cutaneous anaphylaxis. However, S1pr2(-/-) mice were slow to recover (or did not recover) from Fc?RI-mediated anaphylaxis, an outcome that mirrored their known impairment in histamine clearance due to defective vascular tone. A minor role for S1PR2 in mast cell degranulation was uncovered upon engagement of low affinity receptors for IgG and in the onset of IgG-mediated anaphylaxis. Our findings show that S1PR2 is dispensable for initiating IgE/Ag-mediated connective tissue mast cell degranulation and anaphylaxis, but it is required for normal recovery from anaphylaxis.
Project description:<b>Background: </b>Previous studies have revealed an important role for the transcription factor GATA-1 in mast cell maturation and degranulation. However, there have been conflicting reports with respect to the requirement of GATA-1 function in mast cell dependent inflammatory processes. Herein, we examine the requirement of GATA-1 signaling in mast cell effector function and IgE-mast cell-dependent anaphylaxis.<br><br><b>Objective: </b>To study the requirement of GATA-1 dependent signaling in the development and severity of IgE-mast cell-dependent anaphylaxis in mice.<br><br><b>Methods: </b>Wild type (Balb/c) and mutant ?dblGata (Balb/c) mice were employed to study the role of GATA-1 signaling in in vitro IgE-mediated activation of bone marrow derived mast cells (BMMCs). Murine models of passive IgE-mediated and oral antigen-induced IgE-mediated anaphylaxis were employed in mice. Frequency of steady state mast cells in various tissues (duodenum, ear, and tongue), peritoneal cavity, and clinical symptoms (diarrhea, shock, and mast cell activation) and intestinal Type 2 immune cell analysis including CD4+ Th2 cells, type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2), and IL-9 secreting mucosal mast cells (MMC9) were assessed.<br><br><b>Results: </b>In vitro analysis revealed that ?dblGata BMMCs exhibit a reduced maturation rate, decreased expression of Fc?RI?, and degranulation capacity when compared to their wildtype (WT) counterparts. These in vitro differences did not impact tissue resident mast cell numbers, total IgE, and susceptibility to or severity of IgE-mediated passive anaphylaxis. Surprisingly, ?dblGata mice were more susceptible to IgE-mast cell-mediated oral antigen induced anaphylaxis. The increased allergic response was associated with increased Type 2 immunity (antigen-specific IgE, and CD4+ TH2 cells), MMC9 cells and small intestine (SI) mast cell load.<br><br><b>Conclusion: </b>Diminished GATA-1 activity results in reduced in vitro mast cell Fc?RI? expression, proliferation, and degranulation activity. However, in vivo, diminished GATA-1 activity results in normal homeostatic tissue mast cell levels and increased antigen-induced CD4+ Th2 and iMMC9 cell levels and heightened IgE-mast cell mediated reactions.
Project description:This study is aimed at determining whether Sesamum indicum Linn. beneficially influences Fc?RI-mediated allergic reactions in RBL-2H3 mast cells; it is also aimed at further investigating Lyn/Fyn and Syk signaling pathways. To examine the antiallergic effect of Sesamum indicum Linn. extract (SIE), we treated antigen/immunoglobulin E- (IgE-) sensitized mast cells with extracts of various concentrations. We examined the degranulation release and concentrations of inflammatory mediators. Additionally, the expressions of genes involved in the Fc?RI and arachidonate signaling pathways were examined. SIE inhibited the degranulation and secretion of inflammatory mediators in antigen/IgE-sensitized mast cells. SIE reduced the expressions of Fc?RI signaling-related genes, such as Syk, Lyn, and Fyn, and the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase in antigen/IgE-sensitized mast cells. Additionally, in late allergic responses, SIE reduced PGD2 release and COX-2 and cPLA2 phosphorylation expression in Fc?RI-mediated mast cell activation. Lastly, 250-500?mg/kg SIE significantly attenuated the Ag/IgE-induced passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) reaction in mice. The potent effect of SIE on RBL-2H3 mast cell activation indicates that the extract could potentially be used as a novel inhibitor against allergic reactions.
Project description:Mast cells, activated by antigen via the high affinity receptor for IgE (FcεRI), release an array of pro-inflammatory mediators that contribute to allergic disorders such as asthma and anaphylaxis. The KIT ligand, stem cell factor (SCF), is critical for mast cell expansion, differentiation and survival, and, under acute conditions, enhances mast cell activation. However, extended SCF exposure in vivo conversely protects against fatal antigen-mediated anaphylaxis. In investigating this dichotomy, we identified a novel mode of regulation of the mast cell activation phenotype through SCF-mediated programming. We found that mouse bone marrow-derived mast cells chronically exposed to SCF displayed a marked attenuation of FcεRI-mediated degranulation and cytokine production. The hypo-responsive phenotype was not a consequence of altered signals regulating calcium flux or protein kinase C, but of ineffective cytoskeletal reorganization, with evidence implicating a down-regulation of expression of the Src kinase Hck. Collectively, these findings demonstrate a major role for SCF in the homeostatic control of mast cell activation with potential relevance to mast cell-driven disease and the development of novel approaches for the treatment of allergic disorders. Mouse bone marrow-derived mast cells were treated with IL3, IL3+IL33, or IL3+SCF. Six replicates each.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>Anaphylaxis is a life-threatening outcome of immediate-type hypersensitivity to allergen, consecutive to mast cell degranulation by allergen-specific IgE. Regulatory T cells (Treg) can control allergic sensitization and mast cell degranulation, yet their clinical benefit on anaphylactic symptoms is poorly documented. Here we investigated whether Treg action during the effector arm of the allergic response alleviates anaphylaxis.<h4>Methods</h4>We used a validated model of IgE-mediated passive systemic anaphylaxis, induced by intravenous challenge with DNP-HSA in mice passively sensitized with DNP-specific IgE. Anaphylaxis was monitored by the drop in body temperature as well as plasma histamine and serum mMCP1 levels. The role of Treg was analyzed using MHC class II-deficient (A?(°/°)) mice, treatment with anti-CD25 or anti-CD4 mAbs and conditional ablation of Foxp3(+) Treg in DEREG mice. Therapeutic efficacy of Treg was also evaluated by transfer experiments using FoxP3-eGFP knock-in mice.<h4>Results</h4>Anaphylaxis did not occur in mast cell-deficient W/W(v) mutant mice and was only moderate and transient in mice deficient for histamine receptor-1. Defects in constitutive Treg, either genetic or induced by antibody or toxin treatment resulted in a more severe and/or sustained hypothermia, associated with a rise in serum mMCP1, but not histamine. Adoptive transfer of Foxp3(+) Treg from either naïve or DNP-sensitized donors similarly alleviated body temperature loss in Treg-deficient DEREG mice.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Constitutive Foxp3(+) Treg can control the symptomatic phase of mast cell and IgE-dependent anaphylaxis in mice. This might open up new therapeutic avenues using constitutive rather than Ag-specific Treg for inducing tolerance in allergic patients.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The regulation and function of IgE in healthy individuals and in antigen-naïve animals is not well understood. IL-33 administration increases serum IgE in mice with unknown mechanism. We tested the hypothesis that IL-33 provides an antigen-independent stimulus for IgE production and mast cell degranulation.<h4>Methods</h4>IL-33 was administered to naïve wild-type (WT), nude and ST2(-/-) , IL-4(-/-) , IL4R?(-/-) and T-or B-cell-specific IL-4R?(-/-) mice. IgE and cytokines were quantified by ELISA. T- and B-lymphocyte numbers and CD40L expression were determined by flow cytometry. Anaphylaxis was measured by temperature, mast cell degranulation and histamine release.<h4>Results</h4>IL-33 enhanced IgE production in naïve WT, T-IL-4R?(-/-) but not in ST2(-/-) , IL-4(-/-) , IL-4R?(-/-) or B-cell-specific IL-4R?(-/-) mice, demonstrating IL-33 specificity and IL-4 dependency. Moreover, IL-4 was required for IL-33-induced B-cell proliferation and T-cell CD40L expression, which promotes IgE production. IL-33-induced IL-4 production was mainly from innate cells including mast cells and eosinophils. IL-33 increased mast cell surface IgE and triggered degranulation and systemic anaphylaxis in allergen-naïve WT but not in IL-4R?(-/-) mice.<h4>Conclusion</h4>IL-33 amplifies IgE synthesis and triggers anaphylaxis in naïve mice via IL-4, independent of allergen. IL-33 may play an important role in nonatopic allergy and idiopathic anaphylaxis.
Project description:Polydatin(PD) shows anti-allergic inflammatory effect, and this study investigated its underlying mechanisms in in vitro and in vivo models. IgE-mediated passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) and passive systemic anaphylaxis (PSA) models were used to confirm PD effect in vivo. Various signaling pathway proteins in mast cell were examined. RT-PCR, ELISA and western blotting were applied when appropriate. Activity of Lyn and Fyn kinases in vitro was measured using the Kinase Enzyme System. PD dose-dependently reduced the pigmentation of Evans blue in the PCA model and decreased the concentration of serum histamine in PSA model, and attenuated the degranulation of mast cells without generating cytotoxicity. PD decreased pro-inflammatory cytokine expression (TNF-?, IL-4, IL-1?, and IL-8). PD directly inhibited activity of Lyn and Syk kinases and down-regulated downstream signaling pathway including MAPK, PI3K/AKT and NF-kB. In addition, PD also targets Nrf2/HO-1 pathway to inhibit mast cell-derived allergic inflammatory reactions. In conclusion, the study demonstrates that PD is a possible therapeutic candidate for allergic inflammatory diseases. It directly inhibited activity of Lyn and Syk kinases and down-regulates the signaling pathway of MAPK, PI3K/AKT and NF-?B, and up-regulates the signaling pathway of Nrf2/HO-1 to inhibit the degranulation of mast cells.
Project description:Summary: Long-lived IgE plasma cells reside in the bone marrow of allergic mice and atopic humans, confer IgE serological memory and produce allergen-specific IgE that can drive anaphylaxis. Abstract: Immunoglobulin E (IgE) plays an important role in allergic diseases. Nevertheless, the source of IgE serological memory remains controversial. We re-examined the mechanism of serological memory in allergy using a dual-reporter system to track IgE plasma cells (PCs) in mice. Short-term allergen exposure resulted in the generation of IgE plasma cells that resided mainly in secondarylymphoid organs and produced IgE that was unable to degranulate mast cells. In contrast, chronic allergen exposure led to the generation of long-lived IgE plasma cells that were primarily derived from sequential class switching of IgG1, accumulated in the bone marrow (BM) and produced IgE capable of inducing anaphylaxis. Most importantly, IgE plasma cells were found in the BM of human allergic, but not non-allergic donors, and allergen-specific IgE produced by these cells was able to induce mast cell degranulation when transferred to mice. These data demonstrate that longlived IgE BMPCs arise during chronic allergen exposure and establish serological memory in both mice and humans. Overall design: To study the IgE response in vivo, a house dust mite (HDM) driven lung inflammation model was conducted in WT, membrane-IgEvenus/Blimp-1mCherry single or dual reporter mice. Cellular responses were tracked by harvesting lymphoid tissues from the mice at the end of each experiment and analyzing them by flow cytometry. Molecular readouts were assessed using prepared RNA from harvested cells. Serum readouts, such as IgE or IgG1 levels, were assessed using ELISA. Pathogenicity of serum IgE derived from short-term and chronic HDM exposed mice was determined by passive cutaneous and passive systemic anaphylaxis assays (PCA and PSA). The human IgE response was also examined ex-vivo using BM samples from allergic and non-allergic donors. Human IgE-producing BMPCs were quantified using intracellular IgE staining, secretion of IgE was determined by ELISA from cultured BM supernatant and the capacity of the IgE to induce anaphylaxis was determined by PCA.
Project description:Mast cells, activated by antigen via the high affinity receptor for IgE (FcεRI), release an array of pro-inflammatory mediators that contribute to allergic disorders such as asthma and anaphylaxis. The KIT ligand, stem cell factor (SCF), is critical for mast cell expansion, differentiation and survival, and, under acute conditions, enhances mast cell activation. However, extended SCF exposure in vivo conversely protects against fatal antigen-mediated anaphylaxis. In investigating this dichotomy, we identified a novel mode of regulation of the mast cell activation phenotype through SCF-mediated programming. We found that mouse bone marrow-derived mast cells chronically exposed to SCF displayed a marked attenuation of FcεRI-mediated degranulation and cytokine production. The hypo-responsive phenotype was not a consequence of altered signals regulating calcium flux or protein kinase C, but of ineffective cytoskeletal reorganization, with evidence implicating a down-regulation of expression of the Src kinase Hck. Collectively, these findings demonstrate a major role for SCF in the homeostatic control of mast cell activation with potential relevance to mast cell-driven disease and the development of novel approaches for the treatment of allergic disorders. Overall design: Mouse bone marrow-derived mast cells were treated with IL3 or IL3+SCF. Six replicates each.
Project description:Mast cells play a key role in the induction of anaphylaxis, a life-threatening IgE-dependent allergic reaction, by secreting chemical mediators that are stored in secretory granules. Degranulation of mast cells is triggered by aggregation of the high-affinity IgE receptor, Fc?RI, and involves dynamic rearrangement of microtubules. Although much is known about proximal signals downstream of Fc?RI, the distal signaling events controlling microtubule dynamics remain elusive. Here we report that DOCK5, an atypical guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) for Rac, is essential for mast cell degranulation. As such, we found that DOCK5-deficient mice exhibit resistance to systemic and cutaneous anaphylaxis. The Rac GEF activity of DOCK5 is surprisingly not required for mast cell degranulation. Instead, DOCK5 associated with Nck2 and Akt to regulate microtubule dynamics through phosphorylation and inactivation of GSK3?. When DOCK5-Nck2-Akt interactions were disrupted, microtubule formation and degranulation response were severely impaired. Our results thus identify DOCK5 as a key signaling adaptor that orchestrates remodeling of the microtubule network essential for mast cell degranulation.