Ultrasound exfoliation of inorganic analogues of graphene.
ABSTRACT: High-intensity ultrasound exfoliation of a bulk-layered material is an attractive route for large-scale preparation of monolayers. The monolayer slices could potentially be prepared with a high yield (up to 100%) in a few minutes. Exfoliation of natural minerals (such as tungstenite and molybdenite) or bulk synthetic materials (including hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN), hexagonal boron carbon nitride (h-BCN), and graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4)) in liquids leads to the breakdown of the 3D graphitic structure into a 2D structure; the efficiency of this process is highly dependent upon the physical effects of the ultrasound. Atomic force microscopy (AFM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and selected area electron diffraction (SAED) were employed to verify the quality of the exfoliation. Herein, this new method of exfoliation with ultrasound assistance for application to mono- and bilayered materials in hydrophobic and hydrophilic environments is presented.
Project description:Boron nitride nanosheets (BNNS) hold the similar two-dimensional structure as graphene and unique properties complementary to graphene, which makes it attractive in application ranging from electronics to energy storage. The exfoliation of boron nitride (BN) still remains challenge and hinders the applications of BNNS. In this work, the preparation of BNNS has been realized by a shear-assisted supercritical CO2 exfoliation process, during which supercritical CO2 intercalates and diffuses between boron nitride layers, and then the exfoliation of BN layers is obtained in the rapid depressurization process by overcoming the van der Waals forces. Our results indicate that the bulk boron nitride has been successfully exfoliated into thin nanosheets with an average 6 layers. It is found that the produced BNNS is well-dispersed in isopropyl alcohol (IPA) with a higher extinction coefficient compared with the bulk BN. Moreover, the BNNS/epoxy composite used as thermal interface materials has been prepared. The introduction of BNNS results in a 313% enhancement in thermal conductivity. Our results demonstrate that BNNS produced by supercritical CO2 exfoliation show great potential applications for heat dissipation of high efficiency electronics.
Project description:The insulator characteristic of hexagonal boron nitride limits its applications in microelectronics. In this paper, the fluorinated hexagonal boron nitride nanosheets were prepared by doping fluorine into the boron nitride nanosheets exfoliated from the bulk boron nitride in isopropanol via a facile chemical solution method with fluoboric acid; interestingly, these boron nitride nanosheets demonstrate a typical semiconductor characteristic which were studied on a new scanning tunneling microscope-transmission electron microscope holder. Since this property changes from an insulator to a semiconductor of the boron nitride, these nanosheets will be able to extend their applications in designing and fabricating electronic nanodevices.
Project description:A metal-free photoanode nanojunction architecture, composed of B-doped carbon nitride nanolayer and bulk carbon nitride, was fabricated by a one-step approach. This type of nanojunction (s-BCN) overcomes a few intrinsic drawbacks of carbon nitride film (severe bulk charge recombination and slow charge transfer). The top layer of the nanojunction has a depth of ca. 100?nm and the bottom layer is ca. 900?nm. The nanojunction photoanode results into a 10-fold higher photocurrent than bulk graphitic carbon nitride (G-CN) photoanode, with a record photocurrent density of 103.2??A?cm-2 at 1.23?V vs. RHE under one sun irradiation and an extremely high incident photon-to-current efficiency (IPCE) of ca. 10?% at 400?nm. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, Mott-Schottky plots, and intensity-modulated photocurrent spectroscopy show that such enhancement is mainly due to the mitigated deep trap states, a more than 10 times faster charge transfer rate and nearly three times higher conductivity due to the nanojunction architecture.
Project description:In this study, we demonstrate the use of silicone/few-layered hexagonal boron nitride (FL-hBN) composites for heat dissipation applications. FL-hBN is synthesized via a green, facile, low-cost and scalable liquid exfoliation method using a jet cavitation process. The crystal structures, surface morphologies and specific surface areas of pristine h-BN and FL-hBN were characterized by XRD, SEM, TEM and AFM (atomic force microscopy). The results confirmed that FL-hBN with a thickness of ~4 nm was successfully obtained from the exfoliation process. In addition, we introduced both pristine h-BN and FL-hBN into silicone with different ratios to study their thermal properties. The results of the laser flash analysis indicate that the silicon/FL-hBN composite exhibited a higher thermal conductivity than that of the silicone/h-BN composite. With the optimal loading content of 30 wt.% FL-hBN content, the thermal conductivity of the composite could be enhanced to 230%, which is higher than that of silicone/h-BN (189%). These results indicate that jet cavitation is an effective and swift way to obtain few-layered hexagonal boron nitride that could effectively enhance the thermal conductivity of silicone composites.
Project description:A strategy was reported to prepare boron nitride nanosheets (BNNSs) by a molten hydroxide assisted liquid exfoliation from hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) powder. BNNSs with an average thickness of 3?nm were obtained by a facile, low-cost, and scalable exfoliation method. Highly thermally conductive polyimide (PI) composite films with BNNSs filler were prepared by solution-casting process. The in-plane thermal conductivity of PI composite films with 7?wt% BNNSs is up to 2.95?W/mK, which increased by 1,080% compared to the neat PI. In contrast, the out-of plane thermal conductivity of the composites is 0.44?W/mK, with an increase by only 76%. The high anisotropy of thermal conductivity was verified to be due to the high alignment of the BNNSs. The PI/BNNSs composite films are attractive for the thermal management applications in the field of next-generation electronic devices.
Project description:The cost-effective exfoliation of layered materials such as transition metal dichalcogenides into mono- or few- layers is of significant interest for various applications. This paper reports the preparation of few-layered MoS? from natural SiO?-containing molybdenite by exfoliation in isopropanol (IPA) under mild ultrasonic conditions. One- to six-layer MoS? nanosheets with dimensions in the range of 50-200 nm are obtained. By contrast, MoS? quantum dots along with nanosheets are produced using N-methyl-pyrrolidone (NMP) and an aqueous solution of poly (ethylene glycol)-block-poly (propylene glycol)-block-poly (ethylene glycol) (P123) as exfoliation solutions. Compared with molybdenite, commercial bulk MoS? cannot be exfoliated to nanosheets under the same experimental conditions. In the exfoliation process of the mineral, SiO? associated in molybdenite plays the role of similar superfine ball milling, which significantly enhances the exfoliation efficiency. This work demonstrates that isopropanol can be used to exfoliate natural molybdenite under mild conditions to produce nanosheets, which facilitates the preparation of highly concentrated MoS? dispersions or MoS? in powder form due to the volatility of the solvent. Such exfoliated MoS? nanosheets exhibit excellent photoconductivity under visible light. Hence, the direct mild exfoliation method of unrefined natural molybdenite provides a solution for low-cost and convenient production of few-layered MoS? which is appealing for industrial applications.
Project description:Understanding the interaction between nanoscale materials and nucleobases is essential for their use in nanobiotechnology and nanomedicine. Our ab initio calculations indicate that the interaction of nucleobases [adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G), thymine (T), and uracil (U)] with boron-carbon-nitride (BCN) is mainly governed by van der Waals interactions. The adsorption energies, ranging from -0.560 to -0.879 eV, decrease in the order of G > A > T > C > U, which can be attributed to ?-? interactions and different side groups of the nucleobases. We found that anions (N and O atoms) of nucleobases prefer to stay on top of cation (B) of the substrate. The results also showed that BCN exhibits superior binding strength than graphene and boron-nitride-based materials. We also found that upon adsorption, the fundamental properties of BCN and nucleobases remains unaltered, which suggests that BCN is a promising template for self-assembly of nucleobases.
Project description:Manufacturing of aerogels and membranes from hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) is much more difficult than from graphene or graphene oxides because of the poor dispersibility of h-BN in water, which limits its exfoliation and preparation of colloidal solutions. Here, a simple, one-step mechano-chemical process to exfoliate and functionalize h-BN into highly water-dispersible, few-layer h-BN containing amino groups is presented. The colloidal solutions of few-layer h-BN can have unprecedentedly high concentrations, up to 30?mg?ml(-1), and are stable for up to several months. They can be used to produce ultralight aerogels with a density of 1.4?mg?cm(-3), which is ?1,500 times less than bulk h-BN, and freestanding membranes simply by cryodrying and filtration, respectively. The material shows strong blue light emission under ultraviolet excitation, in both dispersed and dry state.
Project description:Hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) is a promising material for implementation in spintronics due to a large band gap, low spin-orbit coupling, and a small lattice mismatch to graphene and to close-packed surfaces of fcc-Ni(111) and hcp-Co(0001). Epitaxial deposition of h-BN on ferromagnetic metals is aimed at small interface scattering of charge and spin carriers. We report on the controlled growth of h-BN/Ni(111) by means of molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). Structural and electronic properties of this system are investigated using cross-section transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and electron spectroscopies which confirm good agreement with the properties of bulk h-BN. The latter are also corroborated by density functional theory (DFT) calculations, revealing that the first h-BN layer at the interface to Ni is metallic. Our investigations demonstrate that MBE is a promising, versatile alternative to both the exfoliation approach and chemical vapour deposition of h-BN.
Project description:A green approach to prepare exfoliated hexagonal boron nitride nanosheets (h-BNNS) from commercially pristine h-BN involving a two-step procedure was investigated. The first step involves the dispersion of pristine h-BN within an aqueous solution containing gelatin and potassium or zinc chloride using a sonication method. The second involves the removal of larger exfoliated h-BNNS through a centrifugation procedure. The exfoliation was caused not only by the sonication effect but also by intercalation of K? and Zn<sup>2+</sup> ions. Transmission electronic microscopy, X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy techniques show that the obtained h-BNNS generally display a thickness of about a few (2?3) layers with an exfoliation efficiency as high as 16.3 ± 0.4%.