Phosphoproteomic analysis of the non-seed vascular plant model Selaginella moellendorffii.
ABSTRACT: Selaginella (Selaginella moellendorffii) is a lycophyte which diverged from other vascular plants approximately 410 million years ago. As the first reported non-seed vascular plant genome, Selaginella genome data allow comparative analysis of genetic changes that may be associated with land plant evolution. Proteomics investigations on this lycophyte model have not been extensively reported. Phosphorylation represents the most common post-translational modifications and it is a ubiquitous regulatory mechanism controlling the functional expression of proteins inside living organisms.In this study, polyethylene glycol fractionation and immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography were employed to isolate phosphopeptides from wild-growing Selaginella. Using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis, 1593 unique phosphopeptides spanning 1104 non-redundant phosphosites with confirmed localization on 716 phosphoproteins were identified. Analysis of the Selaginella dataset revealed features that are consistent with other plant phosphoproteomes, such as the relative proportions of phosphorylated Ser, Thr, and Tyr residues, the highest occurrence of phosphosites in the C-terminal regions of proteins, and the localization of phosphorylation events outside protein domains. In addition, a total of 97 highly conserved phosphosites in evolutionary conserved proteins were identified, indicating the conservation of phosphorylation-dependent regulatory mechanisms in phylogenetically distinct plant species. On the other hand, close examination of proteins involved in photosynthesis revealed phosphorylation events which may be unique to Selaginella evolution. Furthermore, phosphorylation motif analyses identified Pro-directed, acidic, and basic signatures which are recognized by typical protein kinases in plants. A group of Selaginella-specific phosphoproteins were found to be enriched in the Pro-directed motif class.Our work provides the first large-scale atlas of phosphoproteins in Selaginella which occupies a unique position in the evolution of terrestrial plants. Future research into the functional roles of Selaginella-specific phosphorylation events in photosynthesis and other processes may offer insight into the molecular mechanisms leading to the distinct evolution of lycophytes.
Project description:Abscisic acid (ABA) regulates various developmental processes and stress responses in plants. Protein phosphorylation/dephosphorylation is a central post-translational modification (PTM) in ABA signaling. However, the phosphoproteins regulated by ABA under osmotic stress remain unknown in maize. In this study, maize mutant vp5 (deficient in ABA biosynthesis) and wild-type Vp5 were used to identify leaf phosphoproteins regulated by ABA under osmotic stress. Up to 4052 phosphopeptides, corresponding to 3017 phosphoproteins, were identified by Multiplex run iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomic and LC-MS/MS methods. The 4052 phosphopeptides contained 5723 non-redundant phosphosites; 512 phosphopeptides (379 in Vp5, 133 in vp5) displayed at least a 1.5-fold change of phosphorylation level under osmotic stress, of which 40 shared common in both genotypes and were differentially regulated by ABA. Comparing the signaling pathways involved in vp5 response to osmotic stress and those that in Vp5, indicated that ABA played a vital role in regulating these pathways related to mRNA synthesis, protein synthesis and photosynthesis. Our results provide a comprehensive dataset of phosphopeptides and phosphorylation sites regulated by ABA in maize adaptation to osmotic stress. This will be helpful to elucidate the ABA-mediate mechanism of maize endurance to drought by triggering phosphorylation or dephosphorylation cascades.
Project description:Drought stress is a major abiotic stress affecting plant growth and development. In this study, we performed the first dynamic phosphoproteome analysis of Brachypodium distachyon L. seedling leaves under drought stress for different times. A total of 4924 phosphopeptides, contained 6362 phosphosites belonging to 2748 phosphoproteins. Rigorous standards were imposed to screen 484 phosphorylation sites, representing 442 unique phosphoproteins. Comparative analyses revealed significant changes in phosphorylation levels at 0, 6, and 24?h under drought stress. The most phosphorylated proteins and the highest phosphorylation level occurred at 6?h. Venn analysis showed that the up-regulated phosphopeptides at 6?h were almost two-fold those at 24?h. Motif-X analysis identified the six motifs: [sP], [Rxxs], [LxRxxs], [sxD], [sF], and [TP], among which [LxRxxs] was also previously identified in B. distachyon. Results from molecular function and protein-protein interaction analyses suggested that phosphoproteins mainly participate in signal transduction, gene expression, drought response and defense, photosynthesis and energy metabolism, and material transmembrane transport. These phosphoproteins, which showed significant changes in phosphorylation levels, play important roles in signal transduction and material transmembrane transport in response to drought conditions. Our results provide new insights into the molecular mechanism of this plant's abiotic stress response through phosphorylation modification.
Project description:Protein phosphorylation regulates diverse cellular functions and plays a key role in the early development of plants. To complement and expand upon previous investigations of protein phosphorylation in Arabidopsis seedlings we used an alternative approach that combines protein extraction under non-denaturing conditions with immobilized metal-ion affinity chromatography (IMAC) enrichment of intact phosphoproteins in Rubisco-depleted extracts, followed by identification using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). In-gel trypsin digestion and analysis of selected gel spots identified 144 phosphorylated peptides and residues, of which only 18 phosphopeptides and 8 phosphosites were found in the PhosPhAt 4.0 and P3DB Arabidopsis thaliana phosphorylation site databases. More than half of the 82 identified phosphoproteins were involved in carbohydrate metabolism, photosynthesis/respiration or oxidative stress response mechanisms. Enrichment of intact phosphoproteins prior to 2-DE and LC-MS/MS appears to enhance detection of phosphorylated threonine and tyrosine residues compared with methods that utilize peptide-level enrichment, suggesting that the two approaches are somewhat complementary in terms of phosphorylation site coverage. Comparing results for young seedlings with those obtained previously for mature Arabidopsis leaves identified five proteins that are differentially phosphorylated in these tissues, demonstrating the potential of this technique for investigating the dynamics of protein phosphorylation during plant development.
Project description:Lycophytes are a key group for understanding vascular plant evolution. Lycophyte plastomes are highly distinct, indicating a dynamic evolutionary history, but detailed evaluation is hindered by the limited availability of sequences. Eight diverse plastomes were sequenced to assess variation in structure and functional content across lycophytes. Lycopodiaceae plastomes have remained largely unchanged compared with the common ancestor of land plants, whereas plastome evolution in Isoetes and especially Selaginella is highly dynamic. Selaginella plastomes have the highest GC content and fewest genes and introns of any photosynthetic land plant. Uniquely, the canonical inverted repeat was converted into a direct repeat (DR) via large-scale inversion in some Selaginella species. Ancestral reconstruction identified additional putative transitions between an inverted and DR orientation in Selaginella and Isoetes plastomes. A DR orientation does not disrupt the activity of copy-dependent repair to suppress substitution rates within repeats. Lycophyte plastomes include the most archaic examples among vascular plants and the most reconfigured among land plants. These evolutionary trends correlate with the mitochondrial genome, suggesting shared underlying mechanisms. Copy-dependent repair for DR-localized genes indicates that recombination and gene conversion are not inhibited by the DR orientation. Gene relocation in lycophyte plastomes occurs via overlapping inversions rather than transposase/recombinase-mediated processes.
Project description:Human plasma contains proteins that reflect overall health and represents a rich source of proteins for identifying and understanding disease pathophysiology. However, few studies have investigated changes in plasma phosphoproteins. In addition, little is known about the normal variations in these phosphoproteins, especially with respect to specific sites of modification. To address these questions, we evaluated variability in plasma protein phosphorylation in healthy individuals using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) and SWATH-MS2 data-independent acquisition. First, we developed a discovery workflow for phosphopeptide enrichment from plasma and identified targets for MRM assays. Next, we analyzed plasma from healthy donors using an analytical workflow consisting of MRM and SWATH-MS2 that targeted phosphopeptides from 58 and 68 phosphoproteins, respectively. These two methods produced similar results showing low variability in 13 phosphosites from 10 phosphoproteins (CVinter < 30%) and high interpersonal variation of 16 phosphosites from 14 phosphoproteins (CVinter > 30%). Moreover, these phosphopeptides originate from phosphoproteins involved in cellular processes governing homeostasis, immune response, cell-extracellular matrix interactions, lipid and sugar metabolism, and cell signaling. This limited assessment of technical and biological variability in phosphopeptides generated from plasma phosphoproteins among healthy volunteers constitutes a reference for future studies that target protein phosphorylation as biomarkers.
Project description:Vascular plants appeared ~410 million years ago, then diverged into several lineages of which only two survive: the euphyllophytes (ferns and seed plants) and the lycophytes. We report here the genome sequence of the lycophyte Selaginella moellendorffii (Selaginella), the first nonseed vascular plant genome reported. By comparing gene content in evolutionarily diverse taxa, we found that the transition from a gametophyte- to a sporophyte-dominated life cycle required far fewer new genes than the transition from a nonseed vascular to a flowering plant, whereas secondary metabolic genes expanded extensively and in parallel in the lycophyte and angiosperm lineages. Selaginella differs in posttranscriptional gene regulation, including small RNA regulation of repetitive elements, an absence of the trans-acting small interfering RNA pathway, and extensive RNA editing of organellar genes.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The lycophytes are an ancient lineage of vascular plants that diverged from the seed plant lineage about 400 Myr ago. Although the lycophytes occupy an important phylogenetic position for understanding the evolution of plants and their genomes, no genomic resources exist for this group of plants. RESULTS: Here we describe the construction of a large-insert bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library from the lycophyte Selaginella moellendorffii. Based on cell flow cytometry, this species has the smallest genome size among the different lycophytes tested, including Huperzia lucidula, Diphaiastrum digita, Isoetes engelmanii and S. kraussiana. The arrayed BAC library consists of 9126 clones; the average insert size is estimated to be 122 kb. Inserts of chloroplast origin account for 2.3% of the clones. The BAC library contains an estimated ten genome-equivalents based on DNA hybridizations using five single-copy and two duplicated S. moellendorffii genes as probes. CONCLUSION: The S. moellenforffii BAC library, the first to be constructed from a lycophyte, will be useful to the scientific community as a resource for comparative plant genomics and evolution.
Project description:The clade A protein phosphatase 2C Highly ABA-Induced 1 (HAI1) plays an important role in stress signaling, yet little information is available on HAI1-regulated phosphoproteins. Quantitative phosphoproteomics identified phosphopeptides of increased abundance in hai1-2 in unstressed plants and in plants exposed to low-water potential (drought) stress. The identity and localization of the phosphoproteins as well as enrichment of specific phosphorylation motifs indicated that these phosphorylation sites may be regulated directly by HAI1 or by HAI1-regulated kinases including mitogen-activated protein kinases, sucrose non-fermenting-related kinase 2, or casein kinases. One of the phosphosites putatively regulated by HAI1 was S313/S314 of AT-Hook-Like10 (AHL10), a DNA-binding protein of unclear function. HAI1 could directly dephosphorylate AHL10 in vitro, and the level of HAI1 expression affected the abundance of phosphorylated AHL10 in vivo. AHL10 S314 phosphorylation was critical for restriction of plant growth under low-water potential stress and for regulation of jasmonic acid and auxin-related gene expression as well as expression of developmental regulators including Shootmeristemless These genes were also misregulated in hai1-2 AHL10 S314 phosphorylation was required for AHL10 complexes to form foci within the nucleoplasm, suggesting that S314 phosphorylation may control AHL10 association with the nuclear matrix or with other transcriptional regulators. These data identify a set of HAI1-affected phosphorylation sites, show that HAI1-regulated phosphorylation of AHL10 S314 controls AHL10 function and localization, and indicate that HAI1-AHL10 signaling coordinates growth with stress and defense responses.
Project description:Brassinosteroids (BRs) are growth-promoting steroid hormones that regulate diverse physiological processes in plants. Most BR biosynthetic enzymes belong to the cytochrome P450 (CYP) family. The gene encoding the ultimate step of BR biosynthesis in Arabidopsis likely evolved by gene duplication followed by functional specialization in a dicotyledonous plant-specific manner. To gain insight into the evolution of BRs, we performed a genomic reconstitution of Arabidopsis BR biosynthetic genes in an ancestral vascular plant, the lycophyte Selaginella moellendorffii. Selaginella contains four members of the CYP90 family that cluster together in the CYP85 clan. Similar to known BR biosynthetic genes, the Selaginella CYP90s exhibit eight or ten exons and Selaginella produces a putative BR biosynthetic intermediate. Therefore, we hypothesized that Selaginella CYP90 genes encode BR biosynthetic enzymes. In contrast to typical CYPs in Arabidopsis, Selaginella CYP90E2 and CYP90F1 do not possess amino-terminal signal peptides, suggesting that they do not localize to the endoplasmic reticulum. In addition, one of the three putative CYP reductases (CPRs) that is required for CYP enzyme function co-localized with CYP90E2 and CYP90F1. Treatments with a BR biosynthetic inhibitor, propiconazole, and epi-brassinolide resulted in greatly retarded and increased growth, respectively. This suggests that BRs promote growth in Selaginella, as they do in Arabidopsis. However, BR signaling occurs through different pathways than in Arabidopsis. A sequence homologous to the Arabidopsis BR receptor BRI1 was absent in Selaginella, but downstream components, including BIN2, BSU1, and BZR1, were present. Thus, the mechanism that initiates BR signaling in Selaginella seems to differ from that in Arabidopsis. Our findings suggest that the basic physiological roles of BRs as growth-promoting hormones are conserved in both lycophytes and Arabidopsis; however, different BR molecules and BRI1-based membrane receptor complexes evolved in these plants.
Project description:Armadillo-related proteins regulate development throughout eukaryotic kingdoms. In the flowering plant Arabidopsis thaliana, Armadillo-related ARABIDILLO proteins promote multicellular root branching. ARABIDILLO homologues exist throughout land plants, including early-diverging species lacking true roots, suggesting that early-evolving ARABIDILLOs had additional biological roles. Here we investigated, using molecular genetics, the conservation and diversification of ARABIDILLO protein function in plants separated by c. 450 million years of evolution. We demonstrate that ARABIDILLO homologues in the moss Physcomitrella patens regulate a previously undiscovered inhibitory effect of abscisic acid (ABA) on spore germination. Furthermore, we show that A. thaliana ARABIDILLOs function similarly during seed germination. Early-diverging ARABIDILLO homologues from both P. patens and the lycophyte Selaginella moellendorffii can substitute for ARABIDILLO function during A. thaliana root development and seed germination. We conclude that (1) ABA was co-opted early in plant evolution to regulate functionally analogous processes in spore- and seed-producing plants and (2) plant ARABIDILLO germination functions were co-opted early into both gametophyte and sporophyte, with a specific rooting function evolving later in the land plant lineage.