Active invasion of oral and aortic tissues by Porphyromonas gingivalis in mice causally links periodontitis and atherosclerosis.
ABSTRACT: Atherosclerotic vascular disease is a leading cause of myocardial infarction and cerebrovascular accident, and independent associations with periodontal disease (PD) are reported. PD is caused by polymicrobial infections and aggressive immune responses. Genomic DNA of Porphyromonas gingivalis, the best-studied bacterial pathogen associated with severe PD, is detected within atherosclerotic plaque. We examined causal relationships between chronic P. gingivalis oral infection, PD, and atherosclerosis in hyperlipidemic ApoEnull mice. ApoEnull mice (n?=?24) were orally infected with P. gingivalis for 12 and 24 weeks. PD was assessed by standard clinical measurements while the aorta was examined for atherosclerotic lesions and inflammatory markers by array. Systemic inflammatory markers serum amyloid A, nitric oxide, and oxidized low-density lipoprotein were analyzed. P. gingivalis infection elicited specific antibodies and alveolar bone loss. Fluorescent in situ hybridization detected viable P. gingivalis within oral epithelium and aorta, and genomic DNA was detected within systemic organs. Aortic plaque area was significantly increased in P. gingivalis-infected mice at 24 weeks (P<0.01). Aortic RNA and protein arrays indicated a strong Th2 response. Chronic oral infection with P. gingivalis results in a specific immune response, significant increases in oral bone resorption, aortic inflammation, viable bacteria in oral epithelium and aorta, and plaque development.
Project description:Periodontal disease (PD) and atherosclerosis are both polymicrobial and multifactorial and although observational studies supported the association, the causative relationship between these two diseases is not yet established. Polymicrobial infection-induced periodontal disease is postulated to accelerate atherosclerotic plaque growth by enhancing atherosclerotic risk factors of orally infected Apolipoprotein E deficient (ApoE(null)) mice. At 16 weeks of infection, samples of blood, mandible, maxilla, aorta, heart, spleen, and liver were collected, analyzed for bacterial genomic DNA, immune response, inflammation, alveolar bone loss, serum inflammatory marker, atherosclerosis risk factors, and aortic atherosclerosis. PCR analysis of polymicrobial-infected (Porphyromonas gingivalis [P. gingivalis], Treponema denticola [T. denticola], and Tannerella forsythia [T. forsythia]) mice resulted in detection of bacterial genomic DNA in oral plaque samples indicating colonization of the oral cavity by all three species. Fluorescent in situ hybridization detected P. gingivalis and T. denticola within gingival tissues of infected mice and morphometric analysis showed an increase in palatal alveolar bone loss (p<0.0001) and intrabony defects suggesting development of periodontal disease in this model. Polymicrobial-infected mice also showed an increase in aortic plaque area (p<0.05) with macrophage accumulation, enhanced serum amyloid A, and increased serum cholesterol and triglycerides. A systemic infection was indicated by the detection of bacterial genomic DNA in the aorta and liver of infected mice and elevated levels of bacterial specific IgG antibodies (p<0.0001). This study was a unique effort to understand the effects of a polymicrobial infection with P. gingivalis, T. denticola and T. forsythia on periodontal disease and associated atherosclerosis in ApoE(null) mice.
Project description:Periodontal disease (PD) develops from a synergy of complex subgingival oral microbiome, and is linked to systemic inflammatory atherosclerotic vascular disease (ASVD). To investigate how a polybacterial microbiome infection influences atherosclerotic plaque progression, we infected the oral cavity of ApoE null mice with a polybacterial consortium of 4 well-characterized periodontal pathogens, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponema denticola, Tannerealla forsythia and Fusobacterium nucleatum, that have been identified in human atherosclerotic plaque by DNA screening. We assessed periodontal disease characteristics, hematogenous dissemination of bacteria, peripheral T cell response, serum inflammatory cytokines, atherosclerosis risk factors, atherosclerotic plaque development, and alteration of aortic gene expression. Polybacterial infections have established gingival colonization in ApoE null hyperlipidemic mice and displayed invasive characteristics with hematogenous dissemination into cardiovascular tissues such as the heart and aorta. Polybacterial infection induced significantly higher levels of serum risk factors oxidized LDL (p < 0.05), nitric oxide (p < 0.01), altered lipid profiles (cholesterol, triglycerides, Chylomicrons, VLDL) (p < 0.05) as well as accelerated aortic plaque formation in ApoE null mice (p < 0.05). Periodontal microbiome infection is associated with significant decreases in Apoa1, Apob, Birc3, Fga, FgB genes that are associated with atherosclerosis. Periodontal infection for 12 weeks had modified levels of inflammatory molecules, with decreased Fas ligand, IL-13, SDF-1 and increased chemokine RANTES. In contrast, 24 weeks of infection induced new changes in other inflammatory molecules with reduced KC, MCSF, enhancing GM-CSF, IFN?, IL-1?, IL-13, IL-4, IL-13, lymphotactin, RANTES, and also an increase in select inflammatory molecules. This study demonstrates unique differences in the host immune response to a polybacterial periodontal infection with atherosclerotic lesion progression in a mouse model.
Project description:Plasma membrane-associated Toll-like receptor (TLR2 and TLR4) signaling contributes to oral microbe infection-induced periodontitis and atherosclerosis. We recently reported that either TLR2 or TLR4 receptor deficiency alters recognition of a consortium of oral pathogens, modifying host responses in periodontitis and atherosclerosis. We evaluated the effects of combined TLR2-/-TLR4-/- double knockout mice on innate immune signaling and induction of periodontitis and atherosclerosis after polybacterial infection with Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponema denticola, Tannerella forsythia and Fusobacterium nucleatum in a mouse model. Multispecies infections established gingival colonization in all TLR2-/-TLR4-/- mice and induced production of bacterial-specific IgG antibodies. In combined TLR2-/-TLR4-/- deficiency there was, however, reduced alveolar bone resorption and mild gingival inflammation with minimal migration of junctional epithelium and infiltration of inflammatory cells. This indicates a central role for TLR2 and TLR4 in periodontitis. Atherosclerotic plaque progression was markedly reduced in infected TLR2-/-TLR4-/- mice or in heterozygotes indicating a profound effect on plaque growth. However, bacterial genomic DNA was detected in multiple organs in TLR2-/-TLR4-/- mice indicating an intravascular dissemination from gingival tissue to heart, aorta, kidney and lungs. TRL2 and TLR4 were dispensable for systemic spread after polybacterial infections but TLR2 and 4 deficiency markedly reduces atherosclerosis induced by oral bacteria.
Project description:The purpose of this study was to elucidate the role of nucleotide binding oligomerization domain-containing protein 2 (NOD2) signaling in atherosclerosis and periodontal bone loss using an Apolipoprotein E(-/-) (ApoE(-/-)) mouse model based on the proposed role of NOD2 in inflammation. NOD2(-/-)ApoE(-/-) and ApoE(-/-) mice fed a standard chow diet were given an oral gavage of Porphyromonas gingivalis for 15 wk. NOD2(-/-)ApoE(-/-) mice exhibited significant increases in inflammatory cytokines, alveolar bone loss, cholesterol, and atherosclerotic lesions in the aorta and the heart compared with ApoE(-/-) mice. In contrast, ApoE(-/-) mice injected i.p. with Muramyl DiPeptide (MDP) to stimulate NOD2 and given an oral gavage of P. gingivalis displayed a reduction of serum inflammatory cytokines, alveolar bone loss, cholesterol, and atherosclerotic lesions in the aorta and aortic sinus compared with ApoE(-/-) mice orally challenged but injected with saline. A reduction in body weight gain was observed in ApoE(-/-) mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) and injected with MDP compared with ApoE(-/-) mice fed a high-fat diet but injected with saline. MDP treatment of bone marrow-derived macrophages incubated with P. gingivalis increased mRNA expressions of NOD2, Toll-like receptor 2, myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88, and receptor-interacting protein-2 but reduced the expressions of inhibitor of NF-?B kinase-?, NF-?B, c-Jun N-terminal kinase 3, and TNF-? protein levels compared with saline control, highlighting pathways involved in MDP antiinflammatory effects. MDP activation of NOD2 should be considered in the treatment of inflammatory processes affecting atherosclerosis, periodontal bone loss ,and possibly, diet-induced weight gain.
Project description:Epidemiological and recent clinical studies implicate periodontitis as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Previously, we demonstrated that rabbits with experimental periodontitis and cholesterol diet exhibit more aortic plaque compared with diet alone. We also showed that a proresolution mediator, Resolvin E1 (RvE1), reverses the experimental periodontitis. Here, we determined whether oral/topical application of RvE1 attenuates aortic atherosclerosis induced by both diet and periodontal inflammation.Thirty-nine rabbits on a 13-week regimen of 0.5% cholesterol diet were included. Periodontitis was induced by Porphyromonas gingivalis in 24 rabbits and 15 rabbits were placed in no-periodontitis groups. Interventions were no-treatment, vehicle, and RvE1 treatment (4 ?g/site or 0.4 ?g/site) topically applied 3× per week. At 13 weeks, both periodontitis and atherosclerosis were quantified. Atherosclerotic plaques were assessed by Sudan IV staining, histology, and ex vivo MRI. Serum levels of C-reactive protein were evaluated as a measure of systemic inflammation. RvE1, used as an oral/topical agent, significantly diminished atherogenesis and prevented periodontitis (P<0.05). In the absence of periodontal inflammation, oral/topical application of RvE1 resulted in significantly less arterial plaque, a lower intima/media ratio, and decreased inflammatory cell infiltration compared with no-treatment (P<0.001). Local oral RvE1 application significantly reduced systemic levels of C-reactive protein (P<0.05).The results suggest that oral/topical RvE1 attenuates enhanced atherogenesis induced by periodontitis and prevents vascular inflammation and atherogenesis in the absence of periodontitis. The inhibition of vascular inflammation with endogenous mediators of resolution of inflammation provides a novel approach in the prevention of atherogenic events.
Project description:In atherosclerosis, several immune cells are involved in plaque formation. Foam cell formation is a major cellular process in atherosclerotic lesion. It is important to understand which cells participate in foam cell formation. To characterize the immune cells and foam cells in atherosclerotic aorta, we performed single cell RNA sequencing of aortic CD45+ leukocytes from Ldlr-/- mice and foamy cells from ApoE-/- mice. The single cell RNA-seq analyses revealed the heterogeneity of aortic macrophages and foam cells in atherosclerotic aorta. Overall design: Single cell RNA sequencing of aortic CD45+ cells from atherosclerotic Ldlr-/- mice (n=6, WD for 12 wks). 3781 cells identified, Using Illumina HiSeq4000. Single cell RNA sequencing of aortic foam cells from atherosclerotic ApoE-/- mice (n=6, WD for 27 wks), 809 cells identified, Using Illumina HiSeq4000.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Studies in humans support a role for the oral pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis in the development of inflammatory atherosclerosis. The goal of this study was to determine if P. gingivalis infection accelerates inflammation and atherosclerosis in the innominate artery of mice, an artery which has been reported to exhibit many features of human atherosclerotic disease, including plaque rupture. METHODS AND RESULTS:Apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE-/-) mice were orally infected with P. gingivalis, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to monitor the progression of atherosclerosis in live mice. P. gingivalis infected mice exhibited a statistically significant increase in atherosclerotic plaque in the innominate artery as compared to uninfected mice. Polarized light microscopy and immunohistochemistry revealed that the innominate arteries of infected mice had increased lipids, macrophages and T cells as compared to uninfected mice. Increases in plaque, total cholesterol esters and cholesterol monohydrate crystals, macrophages, and T cells were prevented by immunization with heat-killed P. gingivalis prior to pathogen exposure. CONCLUSIONS:These are the first studies to demonstrate progression of inflammatory plaque accumulation in the innominate arteries by in vivo MRI analysis following pathogen exposure, and to document protection from plaque progression in the innominate artery via immunization.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The CX3C chemokine receptor CX3CR1 is expressed on monocytes as well as tissue resident cells, such as smooth muscle cells (SMCs). Its role in atherosclerotic tissue remodeling of the aorta after transplantation has not been investigated.<h4>Methods</h4>We here have orthotopically transplanted infrarenal Cx3cr1-/-Apoe-/- and Cx3cr1+/+Apoe-/- aortic segments into Apoe-/-mice, as well as Apoe-/- aortic segments into Cx3cr1-/-Apoe-/- mice. The intimal plaque size and cellular plaque composition of the transplanted aortic segment were analyzed after four weeks of atherogenic diet.<h4>Results</h4>Transplantation of Cx3cr-/-Apoe-/- aortic segments into Apoe-/- mice resulted in reduced atherosclerotic plaque formation compared to plaque size in Apoe-/- or Cx3cr1-/-Apoe-/- mice after transplantation of Apoe-/- aortas. This reduction in lesion formation was associated with reduced numbers of lesional SMCs but not macrophages within the transplanted Cx3cr-/- Apoe-/- aortic segment. No differences in frequencies of proliferating and apoptotic cells could be observed.<h4>Conclusion</h4>These results indicate that CX3CR1 on resident vessel wall cells plays a key role in atherosclerotic plaque formation in transplanted aortic grafts. Targeting of vascular CX3CL1/CX3CR1 may therefore be explored as a therapeutic option in vascular transplantation procedures.
Project description:Cholesterol deposits and pro-inflammatory cytokines play an essential role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, a predominant cause of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Epidemiological evidence has linked periodontal disease (PD) with atherosclerotic CVD. Accordingly, viable periodontal pathogens, including Porphyromonas gingivalis, have been found in atherosclerotic plaques in humans and mice. We aimed to determine whether cholesterol crystals (CHCs) and oral bacteria synergize in the stimulation of human monocytes. Incubation of human monocytes with CHCs induced secretion of interleukin (IL)-1?, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?, IL-6, and IL-8. Moreover, CHCs markedly enhanced secretion of IL-1? by monocytes stimulated with the toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 agonist Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and the TLR2 agonist Staphylococcus aureus lipoteichoic acid. Notably, CHCs also enhanced IL-1? secretion induced by P. gingivalis LPS and IL-1? secretion induced by whole P. gingivalis bacteria. This enhancement was abrogated by the NLRP3 inflammasome inhibitors Z-YVAD-FMK and glibenclamide. CHCs had no effect on cytokine production induced by P. gingivalis gingipains. Taken together, our findings support that CHCs, via stimulation of NLRP3 inflammasomes, act in synergy with the periodontal pathogen P. gingivalis to promote monocyte secretion of pro-atherogenic cytokines.
Project description:The microbiota has been linked to the development of atherosclerosis, but the functional impact of these resident bacteria on the lesion size and cellular composition of atherosclerotic plaques in the aorta has never been experimentally addressed with the germ-free low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient (Ldlr-/- ) mouse atherosclerosis model. Here, we report that 16 weeks of high-fat diet (HFD) feeding of hypercholesterolemic Ldlr-/- mice at germ-free (GF) housing conditions did not impact relative aortic root plaque size, macrophage content, and necrotic core area. Likewise, we did not find changes in the relative aortic arch lesion size. However, late atherosclerotic GF Ldlr-/- mice had altered inflammatory plasma protein markers and reduced smooth muscle cell content in their atherosclerotic root plaques relative to CONV-R Ldlr-/- mice. Neither absolute nor relative aortic root or aortic arch plaque size correlated with age. Our analyses on GF Ldlr-/- mice did not reveal a significant contribution of the microbiota in late aortic atherosclerosis.