Quantifying iron-oxide nanoparticles at high concentration based on longitudinal relaxation using a three-dimensional SWIFT Look-Locker sequence.
ABSTRACT: Iron-oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) have proven utility as contrast agents in many MRI applications. Previous quantitative IONP mapping has been performed using mainly T2 * mapping methods. However, in applications requiring high IONP concentrations, such as magnetic nanoparticles based thermal therapies, conventional pulse sequences are unable to map T2 * because the signal decays too rapidly. In this article, sweep imaging with Fourier transformation (SWIFT) sequence is combined with the Look-Locker method to map T1 of IONPs in high concentrations.T1 values of agar containing IONPs in different concentrations were measured with the SWIFT Look-Locker method and with inversion recovery spectroscopy. Precisions of Look-Locker and variable flip angle (VFA) methods were compared in simulations.The measured R1 (=1/T1 ) has a linear relationship with IONP concentration up to 53.6 mM of Fe. This concentration exceeds concentrations measured in previous work by almost an order of magnitude. Simulations show SWIFT Look-Locker method is also much less sensitive to B1 inhomogeneity than the VFA method.SWIFT Look-Locker can accurately measure T1 of IONP concentrations ?53.6 mM. By mapping T1 as a function of IONP concentration, IONP distribution maps might be used in the future to plan effective magnetic nanoparticle hyperthermia therapy.
Project description:We investigated the feasibility of free-breathing modified Look-Locker inversion recovery (MOLLI) sequence for measuring hepatic T1 values in children and young adults. To investigate the accuracy and the reproducibility of the T1 maps, a phantom study was performed with 12 different gadoterate meglumine concentrations and the T1 relaxation times of phantoms measured with the MOLLI sequence were compared against those measured with three different sequences: spin-echo inversion recovery, variable flip angle (VFA), and VFA with B1 correction. To evaluate the feasibility of free-breathing MOLLI sequence, hepatic T1 relaxation times obtained by free-breathing and breath-hold technique in twenty patients were compared. The phantom study revealed the excellent accuracy and reproducibility of MOLLI. In twenty patients, the mean value of hepatic T1 values obtained by free-breathing (606.7?±?64.5 ms) and breath-hold (609.8?±?64.0 ms) techniques showed no significant difference (p?>?0.05). The Bland-Altman plot between the free-breathing and breath-hold revealed that the mean difference of T1 values was - 3.0 ms (- 0.5%). Therefore, T1 relaxation times obtained by MOLLI were comparable to the values obtained using the standard inversion recovery method. The hepatic T1 relaxation times measured by MOLLI technique with free-breathing were comparable to those obtained with breath-hold in children and young adults.
Project description:BACKGROUND:CMR T1 mapping is a quantitative imaging technique allowing the assessment of myocardial injury early after ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction. We sought to investigate the ability of acute native T1 mapping to differentiate reversible and irreversible myocardial injury and its predictive value for left ventricular remodeling. METHODS AND RESULTS:Sixty ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction patients underwent acute and 6-month 3T CMR, including cine, T2-weighted (T2W) imaging, native shortened modified look-locker inversion recovery T1 mapping, rest first pass perfusion, and late gadolinium enhancement. T1 cutoff values for oedematous versus necrotic myocardium were identified as 1251 ms and 1400 ms, respectively, with prediction accuracy of 96.7% (95% confidence interval, 82.8% to 99.9%). Using the proposed threshold of 1400 ms, the volume of irreversibly damaged tissue was in good agreement with the 6-month late gadolinium enhancement volume (r=0.99) and correlated strongly with the log area under the curve troponin (r=0.80) and strongly with 6-month ejection fraction (r=-0.73). Acute T1 values were a strong predictor of 6-month wall thickening compared with late gadolinium enhancement. CONCLUSIONS:Acute native shortened modified look-locker inversion recovery T1 mapping differentiates reversible and irreversible myocardial injury, and it is a strong predictor of left ventricular remodeling in ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction. A single CMR acquisition of native T1 mapping could potentially represent a fast, safe, and accurate method for early stratification of acute patients in need of more aggressive treatment. Further confirmatory studies will be needed.
Project description:Although MEMRI (Manganese Enhanced MRI) informations were obtained on primary tumors in small animals, MEMRI data on metastases are lacking. Thus, our goal was to determine if 3D Look-Locker T1 mapping was an efficient method to evaluate Mn ions transport in brain metastases in vivo. The high spatial resolution in 3D (156?×?156?×?218??m) of the sequence enabled to detect metastases of 0.3?mm3. In parallel, the T1 quantitation enabled to distinguish three populations of MDA-MB-231 derived brain metastases after MnCl2 intravenous injection: one with a healthy blood-tumor barrier that did not internalize Mn2+ ions, and two others, which T1 shortened drastically by 54.2% or 24%. Subsequent scans of the mice, enabled by the fast acquisition (23?min), demonstrated that these T1 reached back their pre-injection values in 24?h. Contrarily to metastases, the T1 of U87-MG glioma remained 26.2% shorter for one week. In vitro results supported the involvement of the Transient Receptor Potential channels and the Calcium-Sensing Receptor in the uptake and efflux of Mn2+ ions, respectively. This study highlights the ability of the 3D Look-Locker T1 mapping sequence to study heterogeneities (i) amongst brain metastases and (ii) between metastases and glioma regarding Mn transport.
Project description:The identification of effective polypeptide ligands for magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) could considerably accelerate the high-throughput analysis of IONP-based reagents for imaging and cell labeling. We developed a procedure for screening IONP ligands and applied it to compare candidate peptides that incorporated carboxylic acid side chains, catechols, and sequences derived from phage display selection. We found that only l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA)-containing peptides were sufficient to maintain particles in solution. We used a DOPA-containing sequence motif as the starting point for generation of a further library of over 30 peptides, each of which was complexed with IONPs and evaluated for colloidal stability and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast properties. Optimal properties were conferred by sequences within a narrow range of biophysical parameters, suggesting that these sequences could serve as generalizable anchors for formation of polypeptide-IONP complexes. Differences in the amino acid sequence affected T1- and T2-weighted MRI contrast without substantially altering particle size, indicating that the microstructure of peptide-based IONP coatings exerts a substantial influence and could be manipulated to tune properties of targeted or responsive contrast agents. A representative peptide-IONP complex displayed stability in biological buffer and induced persistent MRI contrast in mice, indicating suitability of these species for in vivo molecular imaging applications.
Project description:PURPOSE:Magnetic resonance imaging protocols for the assessment of quantitative information suffer from long acquisition times since multiple measurements in a parametric dimension are required. To facilitate the clinical applicability, accelerating the acquisition is of high importance. To this end, we propose a model-based optimization framework in conjunction with undersampling 3D radial stack-of-stars data. THEORY AND METHODS:High resolution 3D T1 maps are generated from subsampled data by employing model-based reconstruction combined with a regularization functional, coupling information from the spatial and parametric dimension, to exploit redundancies in the acquired parameter encodings and across parameter maps. To cope with the resulting non-linear, non-differentiable optimization problem, we propose a solution strategy based on the iteratively regularized Gauss-Newton method. The importance of 3D-spectral regularization is demonstrated by a comparison to 2D-spectral regularized results. The algorithm is validated for the variable flip angle (VFA) and inversion recovery Look-Locker (IRLL) method on numerical simulated data, MRI phantoms, and in vivo data. RESULTS:Evaluation of the proposed method using numerical simulations and phantom scans shows excellent quantitative agreement and image quality. T1 maps from accelerated 3D in vivo measurements, e.g. 1.8 s/slice with the VFA method, are in high accordance with fully sampled reference reconstructions. CONCLUSIONS:The proposed algorithm is able to recover T1 maps with an isotropic resolution of 1 mm3 from highly undersampled radial data by exploiting structural similarities in the imaging volume and across parameter maps.
Project description:BACKGROUND: In magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, T1, T2 and T2* relaxation times represent characteristic tissue properties that can be quantified with the help of specific imaging strategies. While there are basic software tools for specific pulse sequences, until now there is no universal software program available to automate pixel-wise mapping of relaxation times from various types of images or MR systems. Such a software program would allow researchers to test and compare new imaging strategies and thus would significantly facilitate research in the area of quantitative tissue characterization. RESULTS: After defining requirements for a universal MR mapping tool, a software program named MRmap was created using a high-level graphics language. Additional features include a manual registration tool for source images with motion artifacts and a tabular DICOM viewer to examine pulse sequence parameters. MRmap was successfully tested on three different computer platforms with image data from three different MR system manufacturers and five different sorts of pulse sequences: multi-image inversion recovery T1; Look-Locker/TOMROP T1; modified Look-Locker (MOLLI) T1; single-echo T2/T2*; and multi-echo T2/T2*. Computing times varied between 2 and 113 seconds. Estimates of relaxation times compared favorably to those obtained from non-automated curve fitting. Completed maps were exported in DICOM format and could be read in standard software packages used for analysis of clinical and research MR data. CONCLUSIONS: MRmap is a flexible cross-platform research tool that enables accurate mapping of relaxation times from various pulse sequences. The software allows researchers to optimize quantitative MR strategies in a manufacturer-independent fashion. The program and its source code were made available as open-source software on the internet.