Preventing smoking initiation or relapse following 8.5 weeks of involuntary smoking abstinence in basic military training: trial design, interventions, and baseline data.
ABSTRACT: Smoking cessation is a primary method of reducing excess mortality and morbidity. Unfortunately, the vast majority of cessation attempts end in eventual relapse. Relapse-prevention interventions have shown some success at improving the long-term maintenance of tobacco abstinence among individuals motivated to abstain. However, involuntary tobacco abstinence (e.g., military training, hospitalization, incarceration) presents another opportunity for intervention to prevent relapse. During basic military training (BMT), tobacco use is strictly forbidden in all service branches, but tobacco relapse (and initiation) following BMT is extremely high. This paper reports on the design, intervention development, and baseline characteristics of a randomized controlled trial testing minimal interventions designed to prevent tobacco relapse among United States Air Force (USAF) personnel following BMT. Participants are randomized by squadron to receive either a standard smoking-cessation booklet, a new motivation-based booklet designed specifically for USAF personal, or the latter booklet combined with a brief, face-to-face motivational session. Primary outcomes will be self-reported tobacco use at 12 and 24month follow-up. Given that the Department of Defense is the world's largest employer, the potential of leveraging involuntary tobacco abstinence during BMT into extended abstinence has substantial public health significance.
Project description:This study examined gender, prior tobacco use, and social-environmental factors as predictors of intentions to use tobacco (cigarette smoking and/or smokeless tobacco [ST]) after a forced period of abstinence among U.S. Air Force (USAF) trainees. Trainees completed 8½?weeks of basic military training (BMT), then 4?weeks of Technical Training; both required abstinence from tobacco. A cross-sectional survey of 13,514 USAF trainees (73% male, 90% age 18-24, 43% prior tobacco use) was conducted at the beginning of the 4-week Technical Training period. Overall, 17% of the sample reported future tobacco use intentions. Intentions for future tobacco use were less prevalent among non-tobacco users before BMT (1%) than those reporting any tobacco use (37%). From a multivariable logistic regression model predicting intentions to use any tobacco after Technical Training, significant two-way interaction effects were detected between gender, and tobacco use prior to BMT (p?=?0.0001), and number of close friends who smoked cigarettes (p?=?0.018), and number of close friends who used ST (p?=?0.029). Among non-tobacco users before BMT, females were more than twice as likely as males to report tobacco intentions (Odds Ratio?=?2.2, Bonferroni corrected 95% CI: 1.14.4, p?=?0.011); no gender differences were detected among tobacco users. For females, but not males, having more friends who smoked was associated with greater likelihood of tobacco intentions (Bonferroni corrected p???0.05). In contrast, for males, but not females, having more friends using ST was associated with greater likelihood of tobacco intentions (Bonferroni corrected p?<?0.05). In this sample of USAF trainees, the study provides novel findings on how males and females are influenced differently by their prior tobacco use and peers' tobacco use in predicting tobacco intentions. Prevention efforts focused on uptake and resumption of tobacco use, along with gender-specific strategies, may be warranted.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND AIMS:Sustained psychosocial support via online social groups may help former tobacco users maintain abstinence. This study aims to examine the effectiveness of participating in a WhatsApp social group for long-term smoking cessation. DESIGN:Two-arm, open-labelled, pragmatic, individually randomized controlled trial. SETTING:All participants are service users of smoking cessation clinics, and all interventions are delivered via mobile phones. PARTICIPANTS:Participants included 1008 adult quitters who self-report no tobacco use in the past 3-30 days. INTERVENTIONS:The intervention group (n = 504) will join a WhatsApp social group to receive standardized and theory-based reminders of smoking relapse prevention and participate in discussion with other WhatsApp group members using their own mobile phones. All social groups will be led by counselors or specialist nurse practitioners. The control group (n = 504) will receive similar reminders via short messages to their own mobile phones but will not interact with other participants. The intervention duration for both groups is 8 weeks. Both groups will receive a booklet at baseline about how to prevent smoking relapse. MEASUREMENTS:The primary outcome is biochemically validated tobacco abstinence at 12 months after consent. COMMENTS:The findings will provide evidence concerning the utility of operating online social group discussion for prevention of smoking relapse and sustaining long-term abstinence.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Smoking outcome expectancies were investigated in treatment-seeking military Veteran smokers with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The investigation of smoking outcome expectancies may enhance our understanding of the relationship between PTSD and cigarette smoking. METHODS:Participants were 943 military Veterans with a diagnosis of PTSD who were current smokers enrolled in a randomized multisite effectiveness trial to test whether the integration of smoking cessation treatment into mental health care (integrated care) improves prolonged abstinence rates compared with referral to specialized smoking cessation clinics (usual care). Using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), we evaluated the conceptual model of smoking outcome expectancies measured on the Smoking Consequences Questionnaire-Adult (SCQ-A) version. The Kraemer method of mediation analysis was used to investigate the role of smoking outcome expectancies in mediating relationships between PTSD symptoms and smoking behavior, tobacco dependence, and abstinence self-efficacy. RESULTS:The CFA supported the 10-factor structure of the SCQ-A in smokers with PTSD. Relationships between measures of PTSD symptoms and tobacco dependence were mediated by the smoking outcome expectancy regarding negative affect reduction. This same smoking outcome expectancy mediated relationships between PTSD symptoms and smoking abstinence self-efficacy. CONCLUSIONS:The findings support the use of the SCQ-A as a valid measure of smoking outcome expectancies in military Veteran smokers with PTSD. Moreover, they suggest that smoking outcome expectancies may play an important role in explaining the relationship between PTSD and cigarette smoking.
Project description:This study evaluated whether tobacco quitline telephone coaches can be trained to counsel hazardous-drinking smokers to improve smoking cessation success and to limit or abstain from alcohol use.Smokers (N = 1,948) who called the New York State Smokers' Quitline and reported hazardous drinking (exceeding sex-specific weekly limits [14 drinks for men, 7 drinks for women] or meeting/exceeding daily drinking limits [5 drinks for men, 4 drinks for women] at least once in the past year) were randomized to receive either brief motivational counseling to limit or abstain from alcohol plus an alcohol reduction booklet added to standard care (Alcohol + Tobacco Counseling; ATC), or only smoking cessation counseling plus a smoking cessation booklet added to standard care (Tobacco-Only Counseling; TOC).Acceptable coach adherence was achieved. The intention-to-treat (ITT) analysis showed that ATC was associated with a significantly higher rate of smoking abstinence at 7-month follow-up (13.5%) compared with TOC (10.3%; p = .03). The respondent analysis (ATC= 26.2%; TOC = 20.4%) paralleled the ITT findings. When controlling for treatment condition, participants who did not report any heavy drinking were significantly more likely to quit smoking than those who reported any heavy drinking (OR = 1.87, 95% CI [1.29, 2.71]; p = .001).A brief alcohol intervention plus standard care via a telephone quitline resulted in significantly higher smoking cessation rates for hazardous-drinking callers. Given that quitline coaches were trained to provide the intervention with acceptable adherence, the potential to extend this intervention for wide-scale implementation and impact is promising.
Project description:Relapse to smoking after initial abstinence is a major clinical challenge with significant public health consequences. At the brain and behavioral level, those who relapse to tobacco smoking have both greater cue-reactivity and lower inhibitory control than those who remain abstinent. Little is known about neural activation during inhibitory control tasks in the presence of drug-related cues. In the current study, tobacco smokers (SMK; n?=?22) and non-smoking controls (CON; n?=?19) completed a Go/NoGo task involving smoking cues during a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scan. Following the scan session, smokers were required to quit smoking, and maintenance of abstinence was evaluated as part of a 12-week smoking cessation trial. We evaluated pre-cessation brain activity during NoGo trials in smokers who were versus were not able to quit smoking. We then compared fMRI and inhibitory control measures between smokers and non-smokers. We did not find differences between SMK and CON in performance or activation to smoking or neutral cues. However, compared to SMK who relapsed, SMK who attained biochemically-validated abstinence at the end of the smoking cessation trial had greater neural activation in the anterior insula during NoGo trials specifically with smoking-related cues. Results indicate that within SMK, decreased inhibitory control activation during direct exposure to drug-related stimuli may be a marker of difficulty quitting and relapse vulnerability.
Project description:Background E-cigarettes are the most popular aid to smoking cessation attempts in England and the USA. This research examined associations between e-cigarette device characteristics and patterns of use, tobacco-smoking relapse, and smoking abstinence. Methods A convenience sample of 371 participants with experience of vaping, and tobacco-smoking abstinence and/or relapse completed an online cross-sectional survey about e-cigarettes. Factors associated with smoking relapse were examined using multiple linear and logistic regression models. Results Most participants were self-reported long-term abstinent smokers (86.3%) intending to continue vaping. Most initiated e-cigarette use with a vape pen (45.8%) or cig-a-like (38.7%) before moving onto a tank device (89%). Due to missing data, managed through pairwise deletion, only around 70 participants were included in some of the main analyses. Those using a tank or vape pen appeared less likely to relapse than those using a cig-a-like (tank vs. cig-a-like OR?=?0.06, 95% CI 0.01–0.64, p?=?0.019). There was an inverse association between starting self-reported e-cigarette liquid nicotine concentration and relapse, interacting with device type (OR?=?0.79, 95% CI 0.63–0.99, p?=?0.047), suggesting that risk of relapse may have been greater if starting with a low e-cigarette liquid nicotine concentration and/or cig-a-like device. Participants reported moving from tobacco-flavored cig-a-likes to fruit/sweet/food flavors with tank devices. Conclusions Knowledge of how people have successfully maintained tobacco-smoking abstinence using vaping could help other tobacco smokers wishing to quit tobacco smoking through vaping.
Project description:Quit attempters often have episodes of smoking relapse before they eventually quit. Interactive text messaging through mobile phones has been shown to increase abstinence. This service can be potentially applied on the platform of a social networking service to help quitters maintain abstinence.Our aim was to determine if the group discussion and reminders via the WhatsApp or Facebook social group were effective to prevent smoking relapse in quitters who had stopped smoking recently.This was a single-blinded, parallel, 3-arm pilot cluster randomized controlled trial allocating recent quitters, who had completed an 8-week treatment and reported abstinence for at least 7 days, to WhatsApp (n=42), Facebook (n=40), and a control group (n=54). The 2 intervention groups participated in a 2-month online group discussion with either WhatsApp or Facebook moderated by a trained smoking cessation counselor and received a self-help booklet on smoking cessation. The control group only received the booklet. The primary outcome was the 2- and 6-month relapse rates, defined as the proportion of participants who smoked at least 5 cigarettes in 3 consecutive days.Fewer participants in the WhatsApp group (17%, 7/42) reported relapse than the control group (42.6%, 23/54) at 2-month (OR 0.27, 95% CI 0.10-0.71) and 6-month (40.5%, 17/42 vs 61.1%, 33/54; OR 0.43, 95% CI 0.19-0.99) follow-ups. The Facebook group (30.0%, 12/40) had an insignificantly lower relapse rate than the control group (42.6%, 23/54) at 2-month (OR 0.58, 95% CI 0.24-1.37) and 6-month (52.5%, 13/40 vs 61.1%, 33/54; OR 0.70, 95% CI 0.31-1.61) follow-ups. The WhatsApp social groups had more moderators' posts (median 60, IQR 25 vs median 32, IQR 7; P=.05) and participants' posts (median 35, IQR 50 vs median 6, IQR 9; P=.07) than their Facebook counterparts, but the difference was insignificant.The intervention via the WhatsApp social group was effective in reducing relapse probably because of enhanced discussion and social support. Inactive discussion in the Facebook social group might have attributed to the lower effectiveness.Clinicaltrials.gov NCT02007369; https://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT02007369 (Archived by WebCite® at http://www.webcitation.org/6c3RbltQG).
Project description:Tobacco use remains prevalent among Veterans of military service and those residing in rural areas. Smokers frequently experience tobacco-related issues including risky alcohol use, post-cessation weight gain, and depressive symptoms that may adversely impact their likelihood of quitting and maintaining abstinence. Telephone-based interventions that simultaneously address these issues may help to increase treatment access and improve outcomes.This study was a two-group randomized controlled pilot trial. Participants were randomly assigned to an individually-tailored telephone tobacco intervention combining counseling for tobacco use and related issues including depressive symptoms, risky alcohol use, and weight concerns or to treatment provided through their state tobacco quitline. Selection of pharmacotherapy was based on medical history and a shared decision interview in both groups. Participants included 63 rural Veteran smokers (mean age = 56.8 years; 87 % male; mean number of cigarettes/day = 24.7). The primary outcome was self-reported 7-day point prevalence abstinence at 12 weeks and 6 months.Twelve-week quit rates based on an intention-to-treat analysis did not differ significantly by group (Tailored = 39 %; Quitline Referral = 25 %; odds ratio [OR]; 95 % confidence interval [CI] = 1.90; 0.56, 5.57). Six-month quit rates for the Tailored and Quitline Referral conditions were 29 and 28 %, respectively (OR; 95 % CI = 1.05; 0.35, 3.12). Satisfaction with the Tailored tobacco intervention was high.Telephone-based treatment that concomitantly addresses other health-related factors that may adversely affect quitting appears to be a promising strategy. Larger studies are needed to determine whether this approach improves cessation outcomes.ClinicalTrials.gov identifier number NCT01592695 registered 11 April 2012.
Project description:Millions of Americans are forced to quit smoking as they enter tobacco-free prisons and jails, but most return to smoking within days of release. Interventions are needed to sustain tobacco abstinence after release from incarceration.To evaluate the extent to which the WISE intervention (Working Inside for Smoking Elimination), based on motivational interviewing (MI) and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), decreases relapse to smoking after release from a smoke-free prison.Participants were recruited approximately 8 weeks prior to their release from a smoke-free prison and randomized to 6 weekly sessions of either education videos (control) or the WISE intervention.A tobacco-free prison in the United States.A total of 262 inmates (35% female).Continued smoking abstinence was defined as 7-day point-prevalence abstinence validated by urine cotinine measurement.At the 3-week follow-up, 25% of participants in the WISE intervention (31 of 122) and 7% of the control participants (9 of 125) continued to be tobacco abstinent (odds ratio [OR], 4.4; 95% CI, 2.0-9.7). In addition to the intervention, Hispanic ethnicity, a plan to remain abstinent, and being incarcerated for more than 6 months were all associated with increased likelihood of remaining abstinent. In the logistic regression analysis, participants randomized to the WISE intervention were 6.6 times more likely to remain tobacco abstinent at the 3-week follow up than those randomized to the control condition (95% CI, 2.5-17.0). Nonsmokers at the 3-week follow-up had an additional follow-up 3 months after release, and overall 12% of the participants in the WISE intervention (14 of 122) and 2% of the control participants (3 of 125) were tobacco free at 3 months, as confirmed by urine cotinine measurement (OR, 5.3; 95% CI, 1.4-23.8).Forced tobacco abstinence alone during incarceration has little impact on postrelease smoking status. A behavioral intervention provided prior to release greatly improves cotinine-confirmed smoking cessation in the community.clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01122589.
Project description:Hospitalization provides an opportunity for smokers to quit, but tobacco-cessation interventions started in hospital must continue after discharge to be effective. This study aimed to improve the scalability of a proven effective post-discharge intervention by incorporating referral to a telephone quitline, a nationally available cessation resource.A three-site RCT compared Sustained Care, a post-discharge tobacco-cessation intervention, with Standard Care among hospitalized adult smokers who wanted to quit smoking and received in-hospital tobacco-cessation counseling.A total of 1,357 daily smokers admitted to three hospitals were enrolled from December 2012 to July 2014.Sustained Care started at discharge and included automated interactive voice response telephone calls and the patient's choice of cessation medication for 3 months. Each automated call advised cessation, supported medication adherence, and triaged smokers seeking additional counseling or medication support directly to a telephone quitline. Standard Care provided only medication and counseling recommendations at discharge.Biochemically confirmed past 7-day tobacco abstinence 6 months after discharge (primary outcome) and self-reported tobacco abstinence and tobacco-cessation treatment use at 1, 3, and 6 months and overall (0-6 months). Analyses were done in 2015-2016.Smokers offered Sustained Care (n=680), versus those offered Standard Care (n=677), did not have greater biochemically confirmed abstinence at 6 months (17% vs 16%, p=0.58). However, the Sustained Care group reported more tobacco-cessation counseling and medication use at each follow-up and higher rates of self-reported past 7-day tobacco abstinence at 1 month (43% vs 32%, p<0.0001) and 3 months (37% vs 30%, p=0.008). At 6 months, the difference narrowed (31% vs 27%, p=0.09). Overall, the intervention increased self-reported 7-day abstinence over the 6-month follow-up (relative risk, 1.25; 95% CI=1.10, 1.40; p=0.0006).A 3-month post-discharge smoking-cessation intervention for hospitalized smokers who wanted to quit did not increase confirmed tobacco abstinence at 6 months but did increase self-reported abstinence during the treatment period (3 months). Real-time linkage of interactive voice response calls to a quitline, done in this trial to increase scalability of a previously proven cessation intervention, demonstrated short-term promise but did not sustain long-term intervention effectiveness.This study is registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov NCT01714323.