Inducible knockout mutagenesis reveals compensatory mechanisms elicited by constitutive BK channel deficiency in overactive murine bladder.
ABSTRACT: The large-conductance, voltage-dependent and Ca(2+)-dependent K(+) (BK) channel links membrane depolarization and local increases in cytosolic free Ca(2+) to hyperpolarizing K(+) outward currents, thereby controlling smooth muscle contractility. Constitutive deletion of the BK channel in mice (BK(-/-)) leads to an overactive bladder associated with increased intravesical pressure and frequent micturition, which has been revealed to be a result of detrusor muscle hyperexcitability. Interestingly, time-dependent and smooth muscle-specific deletion of the BK channel (SM-BK(-/-)) caused a more severe phenotype than displayed by constitutive BK(-/-) mice, suggesting that compensatory pathways are active in the latter. In detrusor muscle of BK(-/-) but not SM-BK(-/-) mice, we found reduced L-type Ca(2+) current density and increased expression of cAMP kinase (protein kinase A; PKA), as compared with control mice. Increased expression of PKA in BK(-/-) mice was accompanied by enhanced beta-adrenoceptor/cAMP-mediated suppression of contractions by isoproterenol. This effect was attenuated by about 60-70% in SM-BK(-/-) mice. However, the Rp isomer of adenosine-3',5'-cyclic monophosphorothioate, a blocker of PKA, only partially inhibited enhanced cAMP signaling in BK(-/-) detrusor muscle, suggesting the existence of additional compensatory pathways. To this end, proteome analysis of BK(-/-) urinary bladder tissue was performed, and revealed additional compensatory regulated proteins. Thus, constitutive and inducible deletion of BK channel activity unmasks compensatory mechanisms that are relevant for urinary bladder relaxation.
Project description:In this study, we investigated the effects of bladder outlet obstruction (BOO) on the expression and function of large conductance (BK) and small conductance (SK) Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channels in detrusor smooth muscle. The bladder from adult female Sprague-Dawley rats with 6-wk BOO were used. The mRNA expression of the BK channel alpha-subunit, beta1-, beta2-, and beta4-subunits and SK1, SK2, and SK3 channels were investigated using real-time RT-PCR. All subunits except for the BK-beta2, SK2, and SK3 channels were predominantly expressed in the detrusor smooth muscle rather than in the mucosa. The mRNA expression of the BK channel alpha-subunit was not significantly changed in obstructed bladders. However, the expression of the BK channel beta1-subunit and the SK3 channel was remarkably increased in obstructed bladders. On the other hand, the expression of the BK channel beta4-subunit was decreased as the severity of BOO-induced bladder overactivity progressed. In detrusor smooth muscle strips from obstructed bladders, blockade of BK channels by iberiotoxin (IbTx) or charybdotoxin (CTx) and blockade of SK channels by apamin increased the amplitude of spontaneous contractions. These blockers also increased the contractility and affinity of these strips for carbachol during cumulative applications. The facilitatory effects elicited by these K(+) channel blockers were larger in the strips from obstructed bladders compared with control bladders. These results suggest that long-term exposure to BOO for 6 wk enhances the function of both BK and SK types of Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channels in the detrusor smooth muscle to induce an inhibition of bladder contractility, which might be a compensatory mechanism to reduce BOO-induced bladder overactivity.
Project description:The muscularis mucosae, a type of smooth muscle located between the urothelium and the urinary bladder detrusor, has been described, although its properties and role in bladder function have not been characterized. Here, using mucosal tissue strips isolated from guinea pig urinary bladders, we identified spontaneous phasic contractions (SPCs) that appear to originate in the muscularis mucosae. This smooth muscle layer exhibited Ca(2+) waves and flashes, but localized Ca(2+) events (Ca(2+) sparks, purinergic receptor-mediated transients) were not detected. Ca(2+) flashes, often in bursts, occurred with a frequency (?5.7/min) similar to that of SPCs (?4/min), suggesting that SPCs are triggered by bursts of Ca(2+) flashes. The force generated by a single mucosal SPC represented the maximal force of the strip, whereas a single detrusor SPC was ?3% of maximal force of the detrusor strip. Electrical field stimulation (0.5-50 Hz) evoked force transients in isolated detrusor and mucosal strips. Inhibition of cholinergic receptors significantly decreased force in detrusor and mucosal strips (at higher frequencies). Concurrent inhibition of purinergic and cholinergic receptors nearly abolished evoked responses in detrusor and mucosae. Mucosal SPCs were unaffected by blocking small-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) (SK) channels with apamin and were unchanged by blocking large-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) (BK) channels with iberiotoxin (IbTX), indicating that SK and BK channels play a much smaller role in regulating muscularis mucosae SPCs than they do in regulating detrusor SPCs. Consistent with this, BK channel current density in myocytes from muscularis mucosae was ?20% of that in detrusor myocytes. These findings indicate that the muscularis mucosae in guinea pig represents a second smooth muscle compartment that is physiologically and pharmacologically distinct from the detrusor and may contribute to the overall contractile properties of the urinary bladder.
Project description:Large-conductance, calcium- and voltage-activated potassium (BK(Ca)) channels hyperpolarize coronary artery smooth muscle cells, causing vasorelaxation. Dopamine activates BK(Ca) channels by stimulating D(1)-like receptor-mediated increases in cAMP in porcine coronary artery myocytes. There are two D(1)-like receptors (R), D(1)R and D(5)R. We hypothesize that the specific D(1)-like receptor involved in BK(Ca) channel activation in human coronary artery smooth muscle cells (HCASMCs) is the D(5)R and that activation occurs via cAMP cross-activation of cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG), rather than cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA). The effects of D(1)-like receptor agonists and antagonists on BK(Ca) channel opening in HCASMCs were examined in the presence and absence of PKG/PKA inhibition by cell-attached patch clamp. In the absence of commercially available ligands specific for D(1)R or D(5)R, D(1)R or D(5)R protein was down-regulated by transfecting HCASMCs with human D(1)R or D(5)R antisense oligonucleotides, respectively: cells transfected with scrambled oligonucleotides and nontransfected HCASMCs served as controls. The predominant ion channel conducting outward currents in nontransfected HCASMCs was identified as the large-conductance, calcium- and voltage-activated potassium (BK(Ca)) channel, which was activated by D(1)-like receptor agonists despite PKA inhibition with (9R,10S,12S)-2,3,9,10,11,12-hexahydro-10-hydroxy-9-methyl-1-oxo-9,12-epoxy-1H-diindolo[1,2,3-fg:3',2',1'-kl]pyrrolo[3,4-i][1,6]benzodiazocine-10-carboxylic acid (KT 5720) (300 nM), but was abolished by inhibiting PKG with 9-methoxy-9-methoxycarbonyl-8-methyl-2,3,9,10-tetrahydro-8,11-epoxy-1H,8H,11H-2,7b-11a-triazadibenzo(a,g) cycloocta(cde)-trinden-1-one (KT 5823) (300 nM). D(1)-like receptor agonists activated BK(Ca) channels in all transfected cells except those transfected with D(5)R antisense oligonucleotides. Thus, the dopamine (D(1)-like) receptor mediates activation of BK(Ca) channels in HCASMCs by D(5)R, not D(1)R, and via PKG, not PKA. This is the first report of differential D(1)-like receptor regulation of vascular smooth muscle function in human cells.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Previously published results from our laboratory identified a mechano-gated two-pore domain potassium channel, TREK-1, as a main mechanosensor in the smooth muscle of the human urinary bladder. One of the limitations of in vitro experiments on isolated human detrusor included inability to evaluate in vivo effects of TREK-1 on voiding function, as the channel is also expressed in the nervous system, and may modulate micturition via neural pathways. Therefore, in the present study, we aimed to assess the role of TREK-1 channel in bladder function and voiding patterns in vivo by using TREK-1 knockout (KO) mice. METHODS:Adult C57BL/6?J wild-type (WT, N?=?32) and TREK-1 KO (N?=?33) mice were used in this study. The overall phenotype and bladder function were evaluated by gene and protein expression of TREK-1 channel, in vitro contractile experiments using detrusor strips in response to stretch and pharmacological stimuli, and cystometry in unanesthetized animals. RESULTS:TREK-1 KO animals had an elevated basal muscle tone and enhanced spontaneous activity in the detrusor without detectable changes in bladder morphology/histology. Stretch applied to isolated detrusor strips increased the amplitude of spontaneous contractions by 109% in the TREK-1 KO group in contrast to a 61% increase in WT mice (p???0.05 to respective baseline for each group). The detrusor strips from TREK-1 KO mice also generated more contractile force in response to electric field stimulation and high potassium concentration in comparison to WT group (p???0.05 for both tests). However, cystometric recordings from TREK-1 KO mice revealed a significant increase in the duration of the intermicturition interval, enhanced bladder capacity and increased number of non-voiding contractions in comparison to WT mice. CONCLUSIONS:Our results provide evidence that global down-regulation of TREK-1 channels has dual effects on detrusor contractility and micturition patterns in vivo. The observed differences are likely due to expression of TREK-1 channel not only in detrusor myocytes but also in afferent and efferent neural pathways involved in regulation of micturition which may underly the "mixed" voiding phenotype in TREK-1 KO mice.
Project description:We tested whether or not altered Ca2+ spark activity accounted for detrusor overactivity (DO) of Wistar rats after partial bladder outlet obstruction (PBOO). We constructed a DO model through PBOO and studied the Ca2+ spark activity of detrusor. By way of using confocal microscopy and the patch-clamp technique, Ca2+ sparks and spontaneous transient outward currents (STOCs) in detrusor myocytes were measured respectively. Our results indicated that Ca2+ spark activity and STOCs were significantly reduced in the DO detrusor myocytes compared to unafflicted control cells, and both of these had levels that were remarkably increased by applications of caffeine (10 ?M), a RyR agonist, in DO myocytes. In addition, measures of detrusor contractions were also recorded by using freshly isolated detrusor strips. These results indicated that the spontaneous contraction of DO detrusor was significantly enhanced, and that the effect of caffeine (10 ?M) upon detrusor contractions was reversed by applications of iberiotoxin (100 nM) which is a BK channel blocker. Western blotting (WB) analyses indicated that the levels of expression of ryanodine receptor type 2 (RyR2) and FK506 binding protein 12.6 (FKBP12.6) in bladder muscle were respectively decreased and increased in the samples from DO rats. Thus, we considered in the rat DO model wherein PBOO, the reduced Ca2+ spark activity in detrusor myocytes partly contributed to overactive detrusor contractions. The impaired Ca2+ spark activity may have resulted from decreased RyR2 expression and increased FKBP12.6 expression. Such novel findings in our research might help to provide means for better treatment outcomes for patients afflicted by bladder dysfunction.
Project description:The large-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channel (BK(Ca), K(Ca)1.1) links membrane excitability with intracellular Ca(2+) signaling and plays important roles in smooth muscle contraction, neuronal firing, and neuroendocrine secretion. This study reports the characterization of a novel BK(Ca) channel blocker, 2,4-dimethoxy-N-naphthalen-2-yl-benzamide (A-272651).(86)Rb(+) efflux in HEK-293 cells expressing BK(Ca) was measured. Effects of A-272651 on BK(Ca) alpha- and BK(Ca) alphabeta1-mediated currents were evaluated by patch-clamp. Effects on contractility were assessed using low-frequency electrical field stimulated pig detrusor and spontaneously contracting guinea pig detrusor. Effects of A-272651 on neuronal activity were determined in rat small diameter dorsal root ganglia (DRG).A-272651 (10 microM) inhibited (86)Rb(+) efflux evoked by NS-1608 in HEK-293 cells expressing BK(Ca) currents. A-272651 concentration-dependently inhibited BK(Ca) currents with IC(50) values of 4.59 microM (Hill coefficient 1.04, measured at +40 mV), and 2.82 microM (Hill coefficient 0.89), respectively, for BK(Ca) alpha and BK(Ca) alphabeta1-mediated currents. Like iberiotoxin, A-272651 enhanced field stimulated twitch responses in pig detrusor and spontaneous contractions in guinea pig detrusor with EC(50) values of 4.05+/-0.05 and 37.95+/-0.12 microM, respectively. In capsaicin-sensitive DRG neurons, application of A-272651 increased action potential firing and prolonged action potential duration.These data demonstrate that A-272651 modulates smooth muscle contractility and neuronal firing properties. Unlike previously reported peptide BK(Ca) blockers, A-272651 represents one of the first small molecule BK(Ca) channel blockers that could serve as a useful tool for further characterization of BK(Ca) channels in physiological and pathological states.
Project description:During filling, urinary bladder volume increases dramatically with little change in pressure. This is accomplished by suppressing contractions of the detrusor muscle that lines the bladder wall. Mechanisms responsible for regulating detrusor contraction during filling are poorly understood. Here we describe a novel pathway to stabilize detrusor excitability involving platelet-derived growth factor receptor-? positive (PDGFR?+) interstitial cells. PDGFR?+ cells express small conductance Ca2+-activated K+ (SK) and TRPV4 channels. We found that Ca2+ entry through mechanosensitive TRPV4 channels during bladder filling stabilizes detrusor excitability. GSK1016790A (GSK), a TRPV4 channel agonist, activated a non-selective cation conductance that coupled to activation of SK channels. GSK induced hyperpolarization of PDGFR?+ cells and decreased detrusor contractions. Contractions were also inhibited by activation of SK channels. Blockers of TRPV4 or SK channels inhibited currents activated by GSK and increased detrusor contractions. TRPV4 and SK channel blockers also increased contractions of intact bladders during filling. Similar enhancement of contractions occurred in bladders of Trpv4 -/- mice during filling. An SK channel activator (SKA-31) decreased contractions during filling, and rescued the overactivity of Trpv4 -/- bladders. Our findings demonstrate how Ca2+ influx through TRPV4 channels can activate SK channels in PDGFR?+ cells and prevent bladder overactivity during filling.
Project description:The nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT) is a Ca(2+)-dependent transcription factor that has been reported to regulate the expression of smooth muscle contractile proteins and ion channels. Here we report that large conductance Ca(2+)-sensitive potassium (BK) channels and voltage-gated K(+) (K(V)) channels may be regulatory targets of NFATc3 in urinary bladder smooth muscle (UBSM). UBSM myocytes from NFATc3-null mice displayed a reduction in iberiotoxin (IBTX)-sensitive BK currents, a decrease in mRNA for the pore-forming alpha-subunit of the BK channel, and a reduction in BK channel density compared with myocytes from wild-type mice. Tetraethylammonium chloride-sensitive K(V) currents were elevated in UBSM myocytes from NFATc3-null mice, as was mRNA for the Shab family member K(V)2.1. Despite K(V) current upregulation, bladder strips from NFATc3-null mice displayed an elevated contractile response to electrical field stimulation relative to strips from wild-type mice, but this difference was abrogated in the presence of the BK channel blocker IBTX. These results support a role for the transcription factor NFATc3 in regulating UBSM contractility, primarily through an NFATc3-dependent increase in BK channel activity.
Project description:Transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily M member 4 (TRPM4) has been shown to play a key role in detrusor contractility under physiological conditions. In this study, we investigated the potential role of TRPM4 in detrusor overactivity following spinal cord transection (SCT) in mice. TRPM4 expression and function were evaluated in bladder tissue with or without the mucosa from spinal intact (SI) and SCT female mice (T8-T9 vertebra; 1-28 days post SCT) using PCR, western blot, immunohistochemistry, and muscle strip contractility techniques. TRPM4 was expressed in the urothelium (UT) and detrusor smooth muscle (DSM) and was upregulated after SCT. Expression levels peaked 3-7 days post SCT in both the UT and DSM. Pharmacological block of TRPM4 with the antagonist, 9-Phenanthrol (30 ?M) greatly reduced spontaneous phasic activity that developed after SCT, regardless of the presence or absence of the mucosa. Detrusor overactivity following spinal cord injury leads to incontinence and/or renal impairment and represents a major health problem for which current treatments are not satisfactory. Augmented TRPM4 expression in the bladder after chronic SCT supports the hypothesis that TRPM4 channels play a role in DSM overactivity following SCT. Inhibition of TRPM4 may be beneficial for improving detrusor overactivity in SCI.
Project description:Bilateral pelvic nerve injury (BPNI) is a model of post-radical hysterectomy neuropraxia, a common sequela. This study assessed the time course of changes to detrusor autonomic innervation, smooth muscle (SM) content and cholinergic-mediated contraction post-BPNI.Female Sprague-Dawley rats underwent BPNI or sham surgery and were evaluated 3, 7, 14, and 30 days post-BPNI (n?=?8/group). Electrical field-stimulated (EFS) and carbachol-induced contractions were measured. Gene expression was assessed by qPCR for muscarinic receptor types 2 (M2) and 3 (M3), collagen type 1?1 and 3?1, and SM actin. Western blots measured M2 and M3 protein expression. Bladder sections were stained with Masson's trichrome for SM content and immunofluorescence staining for nerve terminals expressing vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT), tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS).Bilateral pelvic nerve injury caused larger bladders with less SM content and increased collagen type 1?1 and 3?1 gene expression. At early time points, cholinergic-mediated contraction increased, whereas EFS-mediated contraction decreased and returned to baseline by 30 days. Protein and gene expression of M3 was decreased 3 and 7 days post-BPNI, whereas M2 was unchanged. TH nerve terminals surrounding the detrusor decreased in all BPNI groups, whereas VAChT and nNOS terminals decreased 14 and 30 days post-BPNI.Bilateral pelvic nerve injury increased bladder size, impaired contractility, and decreased SM and autonomic innervation. Therapeutic strategies preventing nerve injury-mediated decline in neuronal input and SM content may prevent the development of a neurogenic bladder and improve quality of life after invasive pelvic surgery.