Metformin protects against systolic overload-induced heart failure independent of AMP-activated protein kinase ?2.
ABSTRACT: Activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-?2 protects the heart against pressure overload-induced heart failure in mice. Although metformin is a known activator of AMPK, it is unclear whether its cardioprotection acts independently of an AMPK?2-dependent pathway. Because the role of AMPK?1 stimulation on remodeling of failing hearts is poorly defined, we first studied the effects of disruption of both the AMPK?1 and AMPK?2 genes on the response to transverse aortic constriction-induced left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy and dysfunction in mice. AMPK?2 gene knockout significantly exacerbated the degree of transverse aortic constriction-induced LV hypertrophy and dysfunction, whereas AMPK?1 gene knockout had no effect on the degree of transverse aortic constriction-induced LV hypertrophy and dysfunction. Administration of metformin was equally effective in attenuating transverse aortic constriction-induced LV remodeling in both wild-type and AMPK?2 knockout mice, as evidenced by reduced LV and lung weights, a preserved LV ejection fraction, and reduced phosphorylation of mammalian target of rapamycin (p-mTOR(Ser2448)) and its downstream target p-p70S6K(Thr389). These data support the notion that activation of AMPK?1 plays a negligible role in protecting the heart against the adverse effects of chronic pressure overload, and that metformin protects against adverse remodeling through a pathway that seems independent of AMPK?2.
Project description:Pathological cardiac hypertrophy inevitably remodels, leading to functional decompensation. Although modulation of apoptosis-regulating genes occurs in cardiac hypertrophy, a causal role for programmed cardiomyocyte death in left ventricular (LV) remodeling has not been established.We targeted the gene for proapoptotic Nix, which is transcriptionally upregulated in pressure overload and Gq-dependent hypertrophies, in the mouse germ line or specifically in cardiomyocytes (knockout [KO]) and conditionally overexpressed it in the heart (transgenic [TG]). Conditional forced Nix expression acted synergistically with the prohypertrophic Gq transgene to increase cardiomyocyte apoptosis (0.8+/-0.1% in GqTG versus 7.8+/-0.6% in GqTG+NixTG; P<0.001), causing lethal cardiomyopathy with LV dilation and depressed systolic function (percent fractional shortening, 39+/-4 versus 23+/-4; P=0.042). In the reciprocal experiment, germ-line Nix ablation significantly reduced cardiomyocyte apoptosis (4.8+/-0.2% in GqTG+NixKO versus 8.4+/-0.5% in GqTG; P=0.001), which improved percent fractional shortening (43+/-3% versus 27+/-3%; P=0.017), attenuated LV remodeling, and largely prevented lethality in the Gq peripartum model of apoptotic cardiomyopathy. Cardiac-specific (Nkx2.5-Cre) Nix KO mice subjected to transverse aortic constriction developed significantly less LV dilation by echocardiography and magnetic resonance imaging, maintained concentric remodeling, and exhibited preserved LV ejection fraction (61+/-2% in transverse aortic constriction cardiac Nix KO versus 36+/-6% in transverse aortic constriction wild-type mice; P=0.003) at 9 weeks, with reduced cardiomyocyte apoptosis at day 4 (1.70+/-0.21% versus 2.73+/-0.35%; P=0.032).Nix-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis is a major determinant of adverse remodeling in pathological hypertrophies, a finding that suggests therapeutic value for apoptosis inhibition to prevent cardiomyopathic decompensation.
Project description:Despite the emerging association between heart failure (HF) and inflammation, the role of T cells, major players in chronic inflammation, has only recently begun to be explored. Whether T-cell recruitment to the left ventricle (LV) participates in the development of HF requires further investigation to identify novel mechanisms that may serve for the design of alternative therapeutic interventions.Real-time videomicroscopy of T cells from nonischemic HF patients or from mice with HF induced by transverse aortic constriction revealed enhanced adhesion to activated vascular endothelial cells under flow conditions in vitro compared with T cells from healthy subjects or sham mice. T cells in the mediastinal lymph nodes and the intramyocardial endothelium were both activated in response to transverse aortic constriction and the kinetics of LV T-cell infiltration was directly associated with the development of systolic dysfunction. In response to transverse aortic constriction, T cell-deficient mice (T-cell receptor, TCR?(-/-)) had preserved LV systolic and diastolic function, reduced LV fibrosis, hypertrophy and inflammation, and improved survival compared with wild-type mice. Furthermore, T-cell depletion in wild-type mice after transverse aortic constriction prevented HF.T cells are major contributors to nonischemic HF. Their activation combined with the activation of the LV endothelium results in LV T-cell infiltration negatively contributing to HF progression through mechanisms involving cytokine release and induction of cardiac fibrosis and hypertrophy. Reduction of T-cell infiltration is thus identified as a novel translational target in HF.
Project description:Aims: Dexmedetomidine (Dex) as a highly selective ?2-adrenoceptor agonist, was widely used anesthetic in perioperative settings, whether Dex induces cardiac hypertrophy during perioperative administration is unknown. Methods: The effects of Dex on cardiac hypertrophy were explored using the transverse aortic constriction model and neonatal rat cardiomyocytes. Results: We reported that Dex induces cardiomyocyte hypertrophy with activated ERK, AKT, PKC and inactivated AMPK in both wild-type mice and primary cultured rat cardiomyocytes. Additionally, pre-administration of Dex protects against transverse aortic constriction induced-heart failure in mice. We found that Dex up-regulates the activation of ERK, AKT, and PKC via suppression of AMPK activation in rat cardiomyocytes. However, suppression of mitochondrial coupling efficiency and membrane potential by FCCP blocks Dex induced AMPK inactivation as well as ERK, AKT, and PKC activation. All of these effects are blocked by the ?2-adrenoceptor antagonist atipamezole. Conclusion: The present study demonstrates Dex preconditioning induces cardiac hypertrophy that protects against heart failure through mitochondria-AMPK pathway in perioperative settings.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Tenascin-C (TN-C) plays a maladaptive role in left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy following pressure overload. However, the role of TN-C in LV regression following mechanical unloading is unknown.<h4>Methods</h4>LV hypertrophy was induced by transverse aortic constriction for 10 weeks followed by debanding for 2 weeks in wild type (Wt) and TN-C knockout (TN-C KO) mice. Cardiac function was assessed by serial magnetic resonance imaging. The expression of fibrotic markers and drivers (angiotensin-converting enzyme-1, ACE-1) was determined in LV tissue as well as human cardiac fibroblasts (HCFs) after TN-C treatment.<h4>Results</h4>Chronic pressure overload resulted in a significant decline in cardiac function associated with LV dilation as well as upregulation of TN-C, collagen 1 (Col 1), and ACE-1 in Wt as compared to TN-C KO mice. Reverse remodeling in Wt mice partially improved cardiac function and fibrotic marker expression; however, TN-C protein expression remained unchanged. In HCF, TN-C strongly induced the upregulation of ACE 1 and Col 1.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Pressure overload, when lasting long enough to induce HF, has less potential for reverse remodeling in mice. This may be due to significant upregulation of TN-C expression, which stimulates ACE 1, Col 1, and alpha-smooth muscle actin (?-SMA) upregulation in fibroblasts. Consequently, addressing TN-C in LV hypertrophy might open a new window for future therapeutics.
Project description:Pressure overload induces stress-induced signaling pathways and a coordinated transcriptional response that begets concentric cardiac hypertrophy. Although concentric hypertrophy initially attenuates wall stress and maintains cardiac function, continued stress can result in maladaptive cardiac remodeling. Cardiac remodeling is orchestrated by transcription factors that act within the context of an epigenetic landscape. Since the epigenetic landscape serves as a molecular link between environmental factors (stress) and cellular phenotype (disease), defining the role of the epigenome in the development and progression of cardiac remodeling could lead to new therapeutic approaches. In this study, we hypothesized that the epigenetic landscape is important in the development of cardiac hypertrophy and the progression to maladaptive remodeling. To demonstrate the importance of the epigenome in HF, we targeted the PTIP-associated histone methyltransferase complex in adult cardiac myocytes. This complex imparts histone H3 lysine 4 (H3K4) methylation marks at actively expressed genes. We subjected PTIP null (PTIP-) mice to 2 weeks of transverse aortic constriction, a stress that induces concentric hypertrophy in control mice (PTIP+). PTIP- mice have a maladaptive response to 2wk of transverse aortic constriction (TAC)-induced pressure overload characterized by cardiac dilatation, decreased LV function, cardiac fibrosis, and increased cell death. PTIP deletion resulted in altered stress-induced gene expression profiles including blunted expression of ADRA1A, ADRA1B, JUN, ATP2A2, ATP1A2, SCN4B, and CACNA1G. These results suggest that H3K4 methylation patterns and the complexes that regulate them, specifically the PTIP-associated HMT, are necessary for the adaptive response to TAC.
Project description:RATIONALE:The role of interleukin (IL)-6 in the pathogenesis of cardiac myocyte hypertrophy remains controversial. OBJECTIVE:To conclusively determine whether IL-6 signaling is essential for the development of pressure overload-induced left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy and to elucidate the underlying molecular pathways. METHODS AND RESULTS:Wild-type and IL-6 knockout (IL-6(-/-)) mice underwent sham surgery or transverse aortic constriction (TAC) to induce pressure overload. Serial echocardiograms and terminal hemodynamic studies revealed attenuated LV hypertrophy and superior preservation of LV function in IL-6(-/-) mice after TAC. The extents of LV remodeling, fibrosis, and apoptosis were reduced in IL-6(-/-) hearts after TAC. Transcriptional and protein assays of myocardial tissue identified Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) activation as important underlying mechanisms during cardiac hypertrophy induced by TAC. The involvement of these pathways in myocyte hypertrophy was verified in isolated cardiac myocytes from wild-type and IL-6(-/-) mice exposed to prohypertrophy agents. Furthermore, overexpression of CaMKII in H9c2 cells increased STAT3 phosphorylation, and exposure of H9c2 cells to IL-6 resulted in STAT3 activation that was attenuated by CaMKII inhibition. Together, these results identify the importance of CaMKII-dependent activation of STAT3 during cardiac myocyte hypertrophy via IL-6 signaling. CONCLUSIONS:Genetic deletion of IL-6 attenuates TAC-induced LV hypertrophy and dysfunction, indicating a critical role played by IL-6 in the pathogenesis of LV hypertrophy in response to pressure overload. CaMKII plays an important role in IL-6-induced STAT3 activation and consequent cardiac myocyte hypertrophy. These findings may have significant therapeutic implications for LV hypertrophy and failure in patients with hypertension.
Project description:Pressure overload (PO) cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure are associated with generalized insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia, which may exacerbate left ventricular (LV) remodeling. While PO activates insulin receptor tyrosine kinase activity that is transduced by insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1), the present study tested the hypothesis that IRS1 and IRS2 have divergent effects on PO-induced LV remodeling. We therefore subjected mice with cardiomyocyte-restricted deficiency of IRS1 (CIRS1KO) or IRS2 (CIRS2KO) to PO induced by transverse aortic constriction (TAC). In WT mice, TAC-induced LV hypertrophy was associated with hyperactivation of IRS1 and Akt1, but not IRS2 and Akt2. CIRS1KO hearts were resistant to cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure in concert with attenuated Akt1 activation. In contrast, CIRS2KO hearts following TAC developed more severe LV dysfunction than WT controls, and this was prevented by haploinsufficiency of Akt1. Failing human hearts exhibited isoform-specific IRS1 and Akt1 activation, while IRS2 and Akt2 activation were unchanged. Kinomic profiling identified IRS1 as a potential regulator of cardioprotective protein kinase G-mediated signaling. In addition, gene expression profiling revealed that IRS1 signaling may promote a proinflammatory response following PO. Together, these data identify IRS1 and Akt1 as critical signaling nodes that mediate LV remodeling in both mice and humans.
Project description:This study examined whether endogenous extracellular adenosine acts to facilitate the adaptive response of the heart to chronic systolic overload. To examine whether endogenous extracellular adenosine can protect the heart against pressure-overload-induced heart failure, transverse aortic constriction was performed on mice deficient in extracellular adenosine production as the result of genetic deletion of CD73. Although there was no difference in left ventricular size or function between CD73-deficient mice (knockout [KO] mice) and wild-type mice under unstressed conditions, aortic constriction for 2 or 4 weeks induced significantly more myocardial hypertrophy, left ventricular dilation, and left ventricular dysfunction in KO mice compared with wild-type mice. Thus, after 2 weeks of transverse aortic constriction, left ventricular fractional shortening decreased to 27.4+/-2.5% and 21.9+/-1.7% in wild-type and KO mice, respectively (P<0.05). Consistent with a role of adenosine in reducing tissue remodeling, KO mice displayed increased myocardial fibrosis and myocyte hypertrophy compared with wild-type mice. Furthermore, adenosine treatment reduced phenylephrine-induced cardiac myocyte hypertrophy and collagen production in cultured neonatal rat cardiac myocytes and cardiac fibroblasts, respectively. Consistent with a role for adenosine in modulating cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, KO mice demonstrated increased activation of mammalian target of rapamycin signaling, accompanied by higher expression of the hypertrophy marker atrial natriuretic peptide. Conversely, the adenosine analogue 2-chloro-adenosine significantly reduced cell size, mammalian target of rapamycin/p70 ribosomal S6 kinase activation, and atrial natriuretic peptide expression in cultured neonatal cardiomyocytes. These data demonstrate that CD73 helps to preserve cardiac function during chronic systolic overload by preventing maladaptive tissue remodeling.
Project description:Recent data suggest adiponectin, an adipocyte-derived hormone, affects development of heart failure in response to hypertension. Severe short-term pressure overload [1-3 wk of transverse aortic constriction (TAC)] in adiponectin(-/-) mice causes greater left ventricle (LV) hypertrophy than in wild-type (WT) mice, but conflicting results are reported regarding LV remodeling, with either increased or decreased LV end diastolic volume compared with WT mice. Here we assessed the effects of prolonged TAC on LV hypertrophy and remodeling. WT and adiponectin(-/-) mice were subjected to TAC and maintained for 6 wk. Regardless of strain, TAC induced similar LV hypertrophy ( approximately 70%) and upregulation of mRNA for heart failure marker genes. However, LV chamber size was dramatically different, with classic LV dilation in WT TAC mice but concentric LV hypertrophy in adiponectin(-/-) mice. LV end diastolic and systolic volumes were lower and ejection fraction higher in adiponectin(-/-) TAC mice compared with WT, indicating that adiponectin deletion prevented LV remodeling and deterioration in systolic function. The activities of marker enzymes of mitochondrial oxidative capacity were reduced in WT TAC mice by approximately 35%, whereas enzyme activities were maintained at sham levels in adiponectin(-/-) TAC mice. In conclusion, in WT mice, long-term pressure overload caused dilated LV hypertrophy accompanied by decreased activity of mitochondrial oxidative enzymes. Although adiponectin deletion did not affect LV hypertrophy, it prevented LV chamber remodeling and preserved mitochondrial oxidative capacity, suggesting that adiponectin plays a permissive role in mediating changes in cardiac structure and metabolism in response to pressure overload.
Project description:Estrogen regulation of myocardial chymase and chymase effects on cardiac remodeling are unknown. To test the hypothesis that estrogen prevents pressure overload-induced adverse cardiac remodeling by inhibiting mast cell (MC) chymase release, transverse aortic constriction or sham surgery was performed in 7-week-old intact and ovariectomized (OVX) rats. Three days before creating the constriction, additional groups of OVX rats began receiving 17?-estradiol, a chymase inhibitor, or a MC stabilizer. Left ventricular function, cardiomyocyte size, collagen volume fraction, MC density and degranulation, and myocardial and plasma chymase levels were assessed 18 days postsurgery. Aortic constriction resulted in ventricular hypertrophy in intact and OVX groups, whereas collagen volume fraction was increased only in OVX rats. Chymase protein content was increased by aortic constriction in the intact and OVX groups, with the magnitude of the increase being greater in OVX rats. MC density and degranulation, plasma chymase levels, and myocardial active transforming growth factor-?1 levels were increased by aortic constriction only in OVX rats. Estrogen replacement markedly attenuated the constriction-increased myocardial chymase, MC density and degranulation, plasma chymase, and myocardial active transforming growth factor-?1, as well as prevented ventricular hypertrophy and increased collagen volume fraction. Chymostatin attenuated the aortic constriction-induced ventricular hypertrophy and collagen volume fraction in the OVX rats similar to that achieved by estrogen replacement. Nedocromil yielded similar effects, except for the reduction of chymase content. We conclude that the estrogen-inhibited release of MC chymase is responsible for the cardioprotection against transverse aortic constriction-induced adverse cardiac remodeling.