Molecular Insights into Poly(ADP-ribose) Recognition and Processing.
ABSTRACT: Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation is a post-translational protein modification involved in the regulation of important cellular functions including DNA repair, transcription, mitosis and apoptosis. The amount of poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation (PAR) in cells reflects the balance of synthesis, mediated by the PARP protein family, and degradation, which is catalyzed by a glycohydrolase, PARG. Many of the proteins mediating PAR metabolism possess specialised high affinity PAR-binding modules that allow the efficient sensing or processing of the PAR signal. The identification of four such PAR-binding modules and the characterization of a number of proteins utilising these elements during the last decade has provided important insights into how PAR regulates different cellular activities. The macrodomain represents a unique PAR-binding module which is, in some instances, known to possess enzymatic activity on ADP-ribose derivatives (in addition to PAR-binding). The most recently discovered example for this is the PARG protein, and several available PARG structures have provided an understanding into how the PARG macrodomain evolved into a major enzyme that maintains PAR homeostasis in living cells.
Project description:Post-translational modification of proteins by poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation regulates many cellular pathways that are critical for genome stability, including DNA repair, chromatin structure, mitosis and apoptosis. Poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) is composed of repeating ADP-ribose units linked via a unique glycosidic ribose-ribose bond, and is synthesized from NAD by PAR polymerases. PAR glycohydrolase (PARG) is the only protein capable of specific hydrolysis of the ribose-ribose bonds present in PAR chains; its deficiency leads to cell death. Here we show that filamentous fungi and a number of bacteria possess a divergent form of PARG that has all the main characteristics of the human PARG enzyme. We present the first PARG crystal structure (derived from the bacterium Thermomonospora curvata), which reveals that the PARG catalytic domain is a distant member of the ubiquitous ADP-ribose-binding macrodomain family. High-resolution structures of T. curvata PARG in complexes with ADP-ribose and the PARG inhibitor ADP-HPD, complemented by biochemical studies, allow us to propose a model for PAR binding and catalysis by PARG. The insights into the PARG structure and catalytic mechanism should greatly improve our understanding of how PARG activity controls reversible protein poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation and potentially of how the defects in this regulation are linked to human disease.
Project description:Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation is a post-translational modification of proteins involved in regulation of many cellular pathways. Poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) consists of chains of repeating ADP-ribose nucleotide units and is synthesized by the family of enzymes called poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs). This modification can be removed by the hydrolytic action of poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (PARG) and ADP-ribosylhydrolase 3 (ARH3). Hydrolytic activity of macrodomain proteins (MacroD1, MacroD2 and TARG1) is responsible for the removal of terminal ADP-ribose unit and for complete reversion of protein ADP-ribosylation. Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation is widely utilized in eukaryotes and PARPs are present in representatives from all six major eukaryotic supergroups, with only a small number of eukaryotic species that do not possess PARP genes. The last common ancestor of all eukaryotes possessed at least five types of PARP proteins that include both mono and poly(ADP-ribosyl) transferases. Distribution of PARGs strictly follows the distribution of PARP proteins in eukaryotic species. At least one of the macrodomain proteins that hydrolyse terminal ADP-ribose is also always present. Therefore, we can presume that the last common ancestor of all eukaryotes possessed a fully functional and reversible PAR metabolism and that PAR signalling provided the conditions essential for survival of the ancestral eukaryote in its ancient environment. PARP proteins are far less prevalent in bacteria and were probably gained through horizontal gene transfer. Only eleven bacterial species possess all proteins essential for a functional PAR metabolism, although it is not known whether PAR metabolism is truly functional in bacteria. Several dsDNA viruses also possess PARP homologues, while no PARP proteins have been identified in any archaeal genome. Our analysis of the distribution of enzymes involved in PAR metabolism provides insight into the evolution of these important signalling systems, as well as providing the basis for selection of the appropriate genetic model organisms to study the physiology of the specific human PARP proteins.
Project description:Protein poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation (PARylation) regulates a number of important cellular processes. Poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (PARG) is the primary enzyme responsible for hydrolyzing the poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) polymer in vivo. Here we report crystal structures of the mouse PARG (mPARG) catalytic domain, its complexes with ADP-ribose (ADPr) and a PARG inhibitor ADP-HPD, as well as four PARG catalytic residues mutants. With these structures and biochemical analysis of 20 mPARG mutants, we provide a structural basis for understanding how the PAR polymer is recognized and hydrolyzed by mPARG. The structures and activity complementation experiment also suggest how the N-terminal flexible peptide preceding the PARG catalytic domain may regulate the enzymatic activity of PARG. This study contributes to our understanding of PARG catalytic and regulatory mechanisms as well as the rational design of PARG inhibitors.
Project description:Post-translational poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation has diverse essential functions in the cellular response to DNA damage as it contributes to avid DNA damage detection and assembly of the cellular repair machinery but extensive modification eventually also induces cell death. While there are 17 human poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) genes, there is only one poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (PARG) gene encoding several PARG isoforms located in different subcellular compartments. To investigate the recruitment of PARG isoforms to DNA repair sites we locally introduced DNA damage by laser microirradiation. All PARG isoforms were recruited to DNA damage sites except for a mitochondrial localized PARG fragment. Using PARP knock out cells and PARP inhibitors, we showed that PARG recruitment was only partially dependent on PARP-1 and PAR synthesis, indicating a second, PAR-independent recruitment mechanism. We found that PARG interacts with PCNA, mapped a PCNA binding site and showed that binding to PCNA contributes to PARG recruitment to DNA damage sites. This dual recruitment mode of the only nuclear PARG via the versatile loading platform PCNA and by a PAR dependent mechanism likely contributes to the dynamic regulation of this posttranslational modification and ensures the tight control of the switch between efficient DNA repair and cell death.
Project description:Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation is a common post-translational modification that mediates a wide variety of cellular processes including DNA damage repair, chromatin regulation, transcription, and apoptosis. The difficulty associated with accessing poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) in a homogeneous form has been an impediment to understanding the interactions of PAR with poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (PARG) and other binding proteins. Here we describe the chemical synthesis of the ADP-ribose dimer, and we use this compound to obtain the first human PARG substrate-enzyme cocrystal structure. Chemical synthesis of PAR is an attractive alternative to traditional enzymatic synthesis and fractionation, allowing access to products such as dimeric ADP-ribose, which has been detected but never isolated from natural sources. Additionally, we describe the synthesis of an alkynylated dimer and demonstrate that this compound can be used to synthesize PAR probes including biotin and fluorophore-labeled compounds. The fluorescently labeled ADP-ribose dimer was then utilized in a general fluorescence polarization-based PAR-protein binding assay. Finally, we use intermediates of our synthesis to access various PAR fragments, and evaluation of these compounds as substrates for PARG reveals the minimal features for substrate recognition and enzymatic cleavage. Homogeneous PAR oligomers and unnatural variants produced from chemical synthesis will allow for further detailed structural and biochemical studies on the interaction of PAR with its many protein binding partners.
Project description:Important cellular processes are regulated by poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation. This protein modification is catalyzed mainly by nuclear poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) 1 in response to DNA damage. Cytosolic PARP isoforms have been described, whereas the presence of poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) metabolism in mitochondria is controversial. PAR is degraded by poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (PARG). Recently, ADP-ribosylhydrolase 3 (ARH3) was also shown to catalyze PAR-degradation in vitro. PARG is encoded by a single, essential gene. One nuclear and three cytosolic isoforms result from alternative splicing. The presence and origin of a mitochondrial PARG is still unresolved. We establish here the genetic background of a human mitochondrial PARG isoform and investigate the molecular basis for mitochondrial poly(ADP-ribose) degradation. In common with a cytosolic 60-kDa human PARG isoform, the mitochondrial protein did not catalyze PAR degradation because of the absence of exon 5-encoded residues. In mice, we identified a transcript encoding an inactive cytosolic 52-kDa PARG lacking the mitochondrial targeting sequence and a substantial portion of exon 5. Thus, mammalian PARG genes encode isoforms that do not catalyze PAR degradation. On the other hand, embryonic fibroblasts from ARH3(-/-) mice lack most of the mitochondrial PAR degrading activity detected in wild-type cells, demonstrating a potential involvement of ARH3 in PAR metabolism.
Project description:Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation (PAR) has been implicated in various aspects of the cellular response to DNA damage and genome stability. Although 17 human poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) genes have been identified, a single poly(ADP-ribosyl) glycohydrolase (PARG) mediates PAR degradation. Here we investigated the role of PARG in the replication of human chromosomes. We show that PARG depletion affects cell proliferation and DNA synthesis, leading to replication-coupled H2AX phosphorylation. Furthermore, PARG depletion or inhibition per se slows down individual replication forks similarly to mild chemotherapeutic treatment. Electron microscopic analysis of replication intermediates reveals marked accumulation of reversed forks and single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) gaps in unperturbed PARG-defective cells. Intriguingly, while we found no physical evidence for chromosomal breakage, PARG-defective cells displayed both ataxia-telangiectasia-mutated (ATM) and ataxia-Rad3-related (ATR) activation, as well as chromatin recruitment of standard double-strand-break-repair factors, such as 53BP1 and RAD51. Overall, these data prove PAR degradation to be essential to promote resumption of replication at endogenous and exogenous lesions, preventing idle recruitment of repair factors to remodeled replication forks. Furthermore, they suggest that fork remodeling and restarting are surprisingly frequent in unperturbed cells and provide a molecular rationale to explore PARG inhibition in cancer chemotherapy.
Project description:The biological functions of poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNPs) are not well understood. However, it is known that hnRNPs are involved in the regulation of alternative splicing for many genes, including the Ddc gene in Drosophila. Therefore, we first confirmed that poly(ADP-ribose) (pADPr) interacts with two Drosophila hnRNPs, Squid/hrp40 and Hrb98DE/hrp38, and that this function is regulated by Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerase 1 (PARP1) and Poly(ADP-ribose) Glycohydrolase (PARG) in vivo. These findings then provided a basis for analyzing the role of pADPr binding to these two hnRNPs in terms of alternative splicing regulation. Our results showed that Parg null mutation does cause poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of Squid and hrp38 protein, as well as their dissociation from active chromatin. Our data also indicated that pADPr binding to hnRNPs inhibits the RNA-binding ability of hnRNPs. Following that, we demonstrated that poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of Squid and hrp38 proteins inhibits splicing of the intron in the Hsr omega-RC transcript, but enhances splicing of the intron in the Ddc pre-mRNA. Taken together, these findings suggest that poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation regulates the interaction between hnRNPs and RNA and thus modulates the splicing pathways.
Project description:PARG [poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase] is the only known enzyme that catalyses the hydrolysis of poly(ADP-ribose), a branched polymer that is synthesized by the poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase family of enzymes. Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation is a transient post-translational modification that alters the functions of the acceptor proteins. It has mostly been studied in the context of DNA-damage signalling or DNA transaction events, such as replication and transcription reactions. Growing evidence now suggests that poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation could have a much broader impact on cellular functions. To elucidate the roles that could be played by PARG, we performed a proteomic identification of PARG-interacting proteins by mass spectrometric analysis of PARG pulled-down proteins. In the present paper, we report that PARG is resident in FMRP (Fragile-X mental retardation protein)-associated messenger ribonucleoparticles complexes. The localization of PARG in these complexes, which are components of the translation machinery, was confirmed by sedimentation and microscopy analysis. A functional link between poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation modulation and FMRP-associated ribonucleoparticle complexes are discussed in a context of translational regulation.
Project description:Poly(ADP-ribose), or PAR, is a cellular polymer implicated in DNA/RNA metabolism, cell death, and cellular stress response via its role as a post-translational modification, signaling molecule, and scaffolding element. PAR is synthesized by a family of proteins known as poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases, or PARPs, which attach PAR polymers to various amino acids of substrate proteins. The nature of these polymers (large, charged, heterogeneous, base-labile) has made these attachment sites difficult to study by mass spectrometry. Here we propose a new pipeline that allows for the identification of mono(ADP-ribosyl)ation and poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation sites via the enzymatic product of phosphodiesterase-treated ADP-ribose, or phospho(ribose). The power of this method lies in the enrichment potential of phospho(ribose), which we show to be enriched by phosphoproteomic techniques when a neutral buffer, which allows for retention of the base-labile attachment site, is used for elution. Through the identification of PARP-1 in vitro automodification sites as well as endogenous ADP-ribosylation sites from whole cells, we have shown that ADP-ribose can exist on adjacent amino acid residues as well as both lysine and arginine in addition to known acidic modification sites. The universality of this technique has allowed us to show that enrichment of ADP-ribosylated proteins by macrodomain leads to a bias against ADP-ribose modifications conjugated to glutamic acids, suggesting that the macrodomain is either removing or selecting against these distinct protein attachments. Ultimately, the enrichment pipeline presented here offers a universal approach for characterizing the mono- and poly(ADP-ribosyl)ated proteome.