Room temperature plasmonic lasing in a continuous wave operation mode from an InGaN/GaN single nanorod with a low threshold.
ABSTRACT: It is crucial to fabricate nano photonic devices such as nanolasers in order to meet the requirements for the integration of photonic and electronic circuits on the nanometre scale. The great difficulty is to break down a bottleneck as a result of the diffraction limit of light. Nanolasers on a subwavelength scale could potentially be fabricated based on the principle of surface plasmon amplification by stimulated emission of radiation (SPASER). However, a number of technological challenges will have to be overcome in order to achieve a SPASER with a low threshold, allowing for a continuous wave (cw) operation at room temperature. We report a nano-SPASER with a record low threshold at room temperature, optically pumped by using a cw diode laser. Our nano-SPASER consists of a single InGaN/GaN nanorod on a thin SiO2 spacer layer on a silver film. The nanorod containing InGaN/GaN multi-quantum-wells is fabricated by means of a cost-effective post-growth fabrication approach. The geometry of the nanorod/dielectric spacer/plasmonic metal composite allows us to have accurate control of the surface plasmon coupling, offering an opportunity to determine the optimal thickness of the dielectric spacer. This approach will open up a route for further fabrication of electrically injected plasmonic lasers.
Project description:Effective and bright light-emitting-diodes (LEDs) have attracted broad interests in fundamental research and industrial application, especially on short wavelength LEDs. In this paper, a well aligned ZnO nanorod arrays grown on the p-GaN substrate to form a heterostructured light-emitting diode and Al nanoparticles (NPs) were decorated to improve the electroluminescence performance. More than 30-folds enhancement of the electroluminescence intensity was obtained compared with the device without Al NPs decoration. The investigation on the stable and transient photoluminescence spectraof the ZnO nanorod arrays before and after Al NPs decoration demonstrated that the metal surface plasmon resonance coupling with excitons of ZnO leads to the enhancement of the internal quantum efficiency (IQE). Our results provide aneffective approach to design novel optoelectronic devices such as light-emitting diodes and plasmonic nanolasers.
Project description:Plasmonic nanolasers (spasers) are of intense interest, attributable to their ability to generate a high-intensity coherent radiation. We infiltrated a three-dimensional silica-based photonic crystal (PhC) film with spasers, composed of spherical gold cores, surrounded by silica shells with dye molecules. In spasers, the gold nanospheres supported the surface plasmons and the dye molecules transferred incoming optical energy to the surface plasmons. Our experiments show that such a structure, consisting of a PhC, which acts as an external distributed feedback resonator, and spasers, can serve as a coherent source of electromagnetic radiation. Spasers were locked in phase by the common radiation causing a phenomenon called the lasing spaser: the emission of spatially and temporarily coherent light normal to the surface of the PhC film. The far-field radiation patterns appeared in the shape of the Star-of-David, which is due to the dispersion along the Brillouin zone boundary. The infiltration of the spasers into the PhC led to drastic narrowing of the emission peak and an 80-fold decrease in the spaser generation threshold with respect to the same spasers in a suspension at room temperature.
Project description:Carrier transport issues in a (11-22) semi-polar GaN based white light emitting diode (consisting of yellow and blue emissions) have been investigated by detailed simulations, demonstrating that the growth order of yellow and blue InGaN quantum wells plays a critically important role in achieving white emission. The growth order needs to be yellow InGaN quantum wells first and then a blue InGaN quantum well after the growth of n-type GaN. The fundamental reason is due to the poor hole concentration distribution across the whole InGaN quantum well region. In order to effectively capture holes in both the yellow InGaN quantum wells and the blue InGaN quantum well, a thin GaN spacer has been introduced prior to the blue InGaN quantum well. The detailed simulations of the band diagram and the hole concentration distribution across the yellow and the blue quantum wells have been conducted, showing that the thin GaN spacer can effectively balance the hole concentration between the yellow and the blue InGaN quantum wells, eventually determining their relative intensity between the yellow and the blue emissions. Based on this simulation, we have demonstrated a monolithically multi-colour LED grown on our high quality semi-polar (11-22) GaN templates.
Project description:In this study, we report the concerted fabrication process, which is easy to transform the size of active emitting area and produce polarized surface light, using the electric-field-assisted assembly for horizontally assembled many tiny nanorod LEDs between two metal electrodes. We fabricate the millions of individually separated 1D nanorod LEDs from 2D nanorod arrays using nanosphere lithography, etching and cutting process of InGaN/GaN LED structure on a flat sapphire substrate. The horizontally assembled InGaN-based nanorods LED device shows bright (~2,130 cd/m(2)) and uniform polarized (polarization ratio, ρ = ~0.61) green emissions from large area (0.7 cm × 0.6 cm) planar surface. The realization of a horizontally assembled nanorod LED device can prove the concept of an innovative idea to fabricate formable and scalable polarized surface LED lighting.
Project description:Current laser-based display and lighting applications are invariably using blue laser diodes (LDs) grown on free-standing GaN substrates, which are costly and smaller in size compared with other substrate materials.1-3 Utilizing less expensive and large-diameter Si substrates for hetero-epitaxial growth of indium gallium nitride/gallium nitride (InGaN/GaN) multiple quantum well (MQW) structure can substantially reduce the cost of blue LDs and boost their applications. To obtain a high crystalline quality crack-free GaN thin film on Si for the subsequent growth of a blue laser structure, a hand-shaking structure was formed by inserting Al-composition step down-graded AlN/AlxGa1-xN buffer layers between GaN and Si substrate. Thermal degradation in InGaN/GaN blue MQWs was successfully suppressed with indium-rich clusters eliminated by introducing hydrogen during the growth of GaN quantum barriers (QBs) and lowering the growth temperature for the p-type AlGaN/GaN superlattice optical cladding layer. A continuous-wave (CW) electrically pumped InGaN/GaN quantum well (QW) blue (450 nm) LD grown on Si was successfully demonstrated at room temperature (RT) with a threshold current density of 7.8 kA/cm2.
Project description:Highly polarized photoluminescence (PL) from c-plane InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells (MQWs) grown on stripe-shaped cavity-engineered sapphire substrate (SCES) was realized. The polarization ratio was as high as 0.74 at room temperature. High-resolution X-ray reciprocal space mapping measurements revealed that the InGaN quantum wells on GaN/SCES template were under considerable anisotropic in-plane strain states of -1.178% and -1.921% along the directions perpendicular and parallel to the stripe-pattern, respectively. The anisotropic strain states were attributed to the anisotropic alignment of cavity-incorporated sapphire nano-membranes, which accommodated both anisotropic elastic relaxation in the InGaN quantum well plane as well as the graded elastic relaxation along the vertical direction in the GaN template adjacent to the InGaN/GaN MQWs. The partial strain relaxation in the InGaN wells also contributed to reduction of quantum confined Stark effect, resulting in four times higher PL intensity than InGaN/GaN MQWs on planar sapphire substrate. From theoretical calculations based on k∙p perturbation theory, it was found that fundamental origin of the polarized optical emission was strain-induced modification of valence band structures of the InGaN/GaN MQWs on the SCES. This study will allow us to realize light emitting diodes with highly polarized emission with conventional c-plane sapphire substrates by strain-induced valence band modification.
Project description:The photoelectrodes based on III-nitride semiconductors with high energy conversion efficiency especially for those self-driven ones are greatly desirable for hydrogen generation. In this study, highly ordered InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-well nanorod-based photoelectrodes have been fabricated by a soft UV-curing nano-imprint lithography and a top-down etching technique, which improve the incident photon conversion efficiency (IPCE) from 16% (planar structure) to 42% (@ wavelength?=?400?nm). More significantly, the turn-on voltage is reduced low to -0.6?V, which indicates the possibility of achieving self-driven. Furthermore, SiO2/Si3N4 dielectric distributed Bragg reflectors are employed to further improve the IPCE up to 60%. And the photocurrent (@ 1.1?V) is enhanced from 0.37?mA/cm(2) (original planar structure) to 1.5?mA/cm(2). These improvements may accelerate the possible applications for hydrogen generation with high energy-efficiency.
Project description:Multiple luminescence peaks emitted by a single InGaN/GaN quantum-well(QW) nanorod, extending from the blue to the red, were analysed by a combination of electron microscope based imaging techniques. Utilizing the capability of cathodoluminescence hyperspectral imaging it was possible to investigate spatial variations in the luminescence properties on a nanoscale. The high optical quality of a single GaN nanorod was demonstrated, evidenced by a narrow band-edge peak and the absence of any luminescence associated with the yellow defect band. Additionally two spatially confined broad luminescence bands were observed, consisting of multiple peaks ranging from 395?nm to 480?nm and 490?nm to 650?nm. The lower energy band originates from broad c-plane QWs located at the apex of the nanorod and the higher energy band from the semipolar QWs on the pyramidal nanorod tip. Comparing the experimentally observed peak positions with peak positions obtained from plane wave modelling and 3D finite difference time domain(FDTD) modelling shows modulation of the nanorod luminescence by cavity modes. By studying the influence of these modes we demonstrate that this can be exploited as an additional parameter in engineering the emission profile of LEDs.
Project description:Realization of phosphor-free white-light emitters is becoming an important milestone on the road to achieve high quality and reliability in high-power white-light-emitting diodes (LEDs). However, most of reported methods have not been applied to practical use because of their difficulties and complexity. In this study we demonstrated a novel and practical growth method for phosphor-free white-light emitters without any external processing, using only in-situ high-density GaN nanostructures that were formed by overgrowth on a silicon nitride (SiNx) interlayer deposited by metal organic chemical vapor deposition. The nano-sized facets produced variations in the InGaN thickness and the indium concentration when an InGaN/GaN double heterostructure was monolithically grown on them, leading to white-color light emission. It is important to note that the in-situ SiNx interlayer not only facilitated the GaN nano-facet structure, but also blocked the propagation of dislocations.
Project description:An effective-area photovoltaic efficiency of 1.27% in power conversion, excluding the grid metal contact area and under 1 sun, AM 1.5G conditions, has been obtained for the p-GaN/i-InGaN/n-GaN diode arrays epitaxially grown on (111)-Si. The short-circuit current density is 14.96?mA/cm2 and the open-circuit voltage is 0.28?V. Enhanced light trapping acquired via multiple reflections within the strain and defect free III-nitride nanorod array structures and the short-wavelength responses boosted by the wide bandgap III-nitride constituents are believed to contribute to the observed enhancements in device performance.