RNA binding protein HuR regulates the expression of ABCA1.
ABSTRACT: ABCA1 is a major regulator of cellular cholesterol efflux and plasma HDL biogenesis. Even though the transcriptional activation of ABCA1 is well established, the posttranscriptional regulation of ABCA1 expression is poorly understood. Here, we investigate the potential contribution of the RNA binding protein (RBP) human antigen R (HuR) on the posttranscriptional regulation of ABCA1 expression. RNA immunoprecipitation assays demonstrate a direct interaction between HuR and ABCA1 mRNA. We found that HuR binds to the 3' untranslated region of ABCA1 and increases ABCA1 translation, while HuR silencing reduces ABCA1 expression and cholesterol efflux to ApoA1 in human hepatic (Huh-7) and monocytic (THP-1) cells. Interestingly, cellular cholesterol levels regulate the expression, intracellular localization, and interaction between HuR and ABCA1 mRNA. Finally, we found that HuR expression was significantly increased in macrophages from human atherosclerotic plaques, suggesting an important role for this RBP in controlling macrophage cholesterol metabolism in vivo. In summary, we have identified HuR as a novel posttranscriptional regulator of ABCA1 expression and cellular cholesterol homeostasis, thereby opening new avenues for increasing cholesterol efflux from atherosclerotic foam macrophages and raising circulat-ing HDL cholesterol levels.
Project description:The efflux capacity of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) with cultured macrophages associates strongly and negatively with coronary artery disease status, indicating that impaired sterol efflux capacity might be a marker-and perhaps mediator-of atherosclerotic burden. However, the mechanisms that contribute to impaired sterol efflux capacity remain poorly understood.Our aim was to determine the relationship between myeloperoxidase-mediated oxidative damage to apolipoprotein A-I, the major HDL protein, and the ability of HDL to remove cellular cholesterol by the ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) pathway.We quantified both site-specific oxidation of apolipoprotein A-I and HDL's ABCA1 cholesterol efflux capacity in control subjects and subjects with stable coronary artery disease or acute coronary syndrome. Subjects with coronary artery disease and acute coronary syndrome had higher levels of chlorinated tyrosine 192 and oxidized methionine 148 compared with control subjects. In contrast, plasma levels of myeloperoxidase did not differ between the groups. HDL from the subjects with coronary artery disease and acute coronary syndrome was less able to accept cholesterol from cells expressing ABCA1 compared with HDL from control subjects. Levels of chlorinated tyrosine and oxidized methionine associated inversely with ABCA1 efflux capacity and positively with atherosclerotic disease status. These differences remained significant after adjusting for HDL-cholesterol levels.Our observations indicate that myeloperoxidase may contribute to the generation of dysfunctional HDL with impaired ABCA1 efflux capacity in humans with atherosclerosis. Quantification of chlorotyrosine and oxidized methionine in circulating HDL might be useful indicators of the risk of cardiovascular disease that are independent of HDL-cholesterol.
Project description:ABCA1 plays a key role in the initial lipidation of apoA-I, which generates circulating HDL cholesterol. Whereas it is known that the transcriptional upregulation of ABCA1 promotes HDL formation and reverse cholesterol transport (RCT), it is not known how the inhibition of ABCA1 protein degradation impacts HDL function. Employing the small molecule triacetyl-3-hydroxyphenyladenosine (IMM-H007), we determined how the attenuation of ABCA1 protein degradation affects HDL cholesterol efflux capacity, RCT, and atherosclerotic lesion formation. Pulse-chase analysis revealed that IMM-H007 inhibits ABCA1 degradation and facilitates its cell-surface localization in macrophages, and additional studies in macrophages showed that IMM-H007 thereby promotes cholesterol efflux. IMM-H007 treatment of Paigen diet-fed mice caused an increase in circulating HDL level, it increased the cholesterol efflux capacity of HDL, and it enhanced in vivo RCT from macrophages to the plasma, liver, and feces. Furthermore, ABCA1 degradation suppression by IMM-H007 reduced atherosclerotic plaque formation in apoE(-/-) mice. Thus, via effects on both ABCA1-expressing cells and circulating HDL function, the inhibition of ABCA1 protein degradation by IMM-H007 promotes HDL cholesterol efflux capacity and RCT and attenuates atherogenesis. IMM-H007 potentially represents a lead compound for the development of agents to augment HDL function.
Project description:Adipose tissue is the body largest free cholesterol reservoir and abundantly expresses ATP binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1), which maintains plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels. HDLs have a protective role in atherosclerosis by mediating reverse cholesterol transport (RCT). Soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) is a cytosolic enzyme whose inhibition has various beneficial effects on cardiovascular disease. The sEH is highly expressed in adipocytes, and it converts epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) into less bioactive dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids. We previously showed that increasing EETs levels with a sEH inhibitor (sEHI) (t-AUCB) resulted in elevated ABCA1 expression and promoted ABCA1-mediated cholesterol efflux from 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The present study investigates the impacts of t-AUCB in mice deficient for the low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor (Ldlr(-/-) mice) with established atherosclerotic plaques. The sEH inhibitor delivered in vivo for 4 weeks decreased the activity of sEH in adipose tissue, enhanced ABCA1 expression and cholesterol efflux from adipose depots, and consequently increased HDL levels. Furthermore, t-AUCB enhanced RCT to the plasma, liver, bile and feces. It also showed the reduction of plasma LDL-C levels. Consistently, t-AUCB-treated mice showed reductions in the size of atherosclerotic plaques. These studies establish that raising adipose ABCA1 expression, cholesterol efflux, and plasma HDL levels with t-AUCB treatment promotes RCT, decreasing LDL-C and atherosclerosis regression, suggesting that sEH inhibition may be a promising strategy to treat atherosclerotic vascular disease.
Project description:Aims:The recent failures of HDL-raising therapies have underscored our incomplete understanding of HDL biology. Therefore there is an urgent need to comprehensively investigate HDL metabolism to enable the development of effective HDL-centric therapies. To identify novel regulators of HDL metabolism, we performed a joint analysis of human genetic, transcriptomic, and plasma HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) concentration data and identified a novel association between trafficking protein, kinesin binding 2 (TRAK2) and HDL-C concentration. Here we characterize the molecular basis of the novel association between TRAK2 and HDL-cholesterol concentration. Methods and results:Analysis of lymphocyte transcriptomic data together with plasma HDL from the San Antonio Family Heart Study (n?=?1240) revealed a significant negative correlation between TRAK2 mRNA levels and HDL-C concentration, HDL particle diameter and HDL subspecies heterogeneity. TRAK2 siRNA-mediated knockdown significantly increased cholesterol efflux to apolipoprotein A-I and isolated HDL from human macrophage (THP-1) and liver (HepG2) cells by increasing the mRNA and protein expression of the cholesterol transporter ATP-binding cassette, sub-family A member 1 (ABCA1). The effect of TRAK2 knockdown on cholesterol efflux was abolished in the absence of ABCA1, indicating that TRAK2 functions in an ABCA1-dependent efflux pathway. TRAK2 knockdown significantly increased liver X receptor (LXR) binding at the ABCA1 promoter, establishing TRAK2 as a regulator of LXR-mediated transcription of ABCA1. Conclusion:We show, for the first time, that TRAK2 is a novel regulator of LXR-mediated ABCA1 expression, cholesterol efflux, and HDL biogenesis. TRAK2 may therefore be an important target in the development of anti-atherosclerotic therapies.
Project description:Mechanisms to increase plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL) or to promote egress of cholesterol from cholesterol-loaded cells (e.g., foam cells from atherosclerotic lesions) remain an important target to regress heart disease. Reconstituted HDL (rHDL) serves as a valuable vehicle to promote cellular cholesterol efflux in vitro and in vivo. rHDL were prepared with wild type apolipoprotein (apo) A-I and the rare variant, apoA-I Milano (M), and each apolipoprotein was reconstituted with phosphatidylcholine (PC) or sphingomyelin (SM). The four distinct rHDL generated were incubated with CHO cells, J774 macrophages, and BHK cells in cellular cholesterol efflux assays. In each cell type, apoA-I(M) SM-rHDL promoted the greatest cholesterol efflux. In BHK cells, the cholesterol efflux capacities of all four distinct rHDL were greatly enhanced by increased expression of ABCG1. Efflux to PC-containing rHDL was stimulated by transfection of a nonfunctional ABCA1 mutant (W590S), suggesting that binding to ABCA1 represents a competing interaction. This interpretation was confirmed by binding experiments. The data show that cholesterol efflux activity is dependent upon the apoA-I protein employed, as well as the phospholipid constituent of the rHDL. Future studies designed to optimize the efflux capacity of therapeutic rHDL may improve the value of this emerging intervention strategy.
Project description:Foam cell formation because of excessive accumulation of cholesterol by macrophages is a pathological hallmark of atherosclerosis, the major cause of morbidity and mortality in Western societies. Liver X nuclear receptors (LXRs) regulate the expression of the adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette (ABC) transporters, including adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) and adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette transporter G1 (ABCG1). ABCA1 and ABCG1 facilitate the efflux of cholesterol from macrophages and regulate high-density lipoprotein (HDL) biogenesis. Increasing evidence supports the role of microRNA (miRNAs) in regulating cholesterol metabolism through ABC transporters.We aimed to identify novel miRNAs that regulate cholesterol metabolism in macrophages stimulated with LXR agonists.To map the miRNA expression signature of macrophages stimulated with LXR agonists, we performed an miRNA profiling microarray analysis in primary mouse peritoneal macrophages stimulated with LXR ligands. We report that LXR ligands increase miR-144 expression in macrophages and mouse livers. Overexpression of miR-144 reduces ABCA1 expression and attenuates cholesterol efflux to apolipoproteinA1 in macrophages. Delivery of miR-144 oligonucleotides to mice attenuates ABCA1 expression in the liver, reducing HDL levels. Conversely, silencing of miR-144 in mice increases the expression of ABCA1 and plasma HDL levels. Thus, miR-144 seems to regulate both macrophage cholesterol efflux and HDL biogenesis in the liver.miR-144 regulates cholesterol metabolism via suppressing ABCA1 expression and modulation of miRNAs may represent a potential therapeutical intervention for treating dyslipidemia and atherosclerotic vascular disease.
Project description:Cholesterol metabolism is tightly regulated at the cellular level. Here we show that miR-33, an intronic microRNA (miRNA) located within the gene encoding sterol-regulatory element-binding factor-2 (SREBF-2), a transcriptional regulator of cholesterol synthesis, modulates the expression of genes involved in cellular cholesterol transport. In mouse and human cells, miR-33 inhibits the expression of the adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette (ABC) transporter, ABCA1, thereby attenuating cholesterol efflux to apolipoprotein A1. In mouse macrophages, miR-33 also targets ABCG1, reducing cholesterol efflux to nascent high-density lipoprotein (HDL). Lentiviral delivery of miR-33 to mice represses ABCA1 expression in the liver, reducing circulating HDL levels. Conversely, silencing of miR-33 in vivo increases hepatic expression of ABCA1 and plasma HDL levels. Thus, miR-33 appears to regulate both HDL biogenesis in the liver and cellular cholesterol efflux.
Project description:CER-001 is a novel engineered HDL-mimetic comprised of recombinant human apoA-I and charged phospholipids that was designed to mimic the beneficial properties of nascent pre-ß HDL. In this study, we have evaluated the dose-dependent regulation of ABCA1 expression in vitro and in vivo in the presence of CER-001 and native HDL (HDL3).CER-001 induced cholesterol efflux from J774 macrophages in a dose-dependent manner similar to natural HDL. A strong down-regulation of the ATP-binding cassette A1 (ABCA1) transporter mRNA (- 50%) as well as the ABCA1 membrane protein expression (- 50%) was observed at higher doses of CER-001 and HDL3 compared to non-lipidated apoA-I. In vivo, in an apoE-/- mouse "flow cessation model," in which the left carotid artery was ligatured to induce local inflammation, the inhibition of atherosclerotic plaque burden progression in response to a dose-range of every-other-day CER-001 or HDL in the presence of a high-fat diet for two weeks was assessed. We observed a U-shaped dose-response curve: inhibition of the plaque total cholesterol content increased with increasing doses of CER-001 or HDL3 up to a maximum inhibition (- 51%) at 5 mg/kg; however, as the dose was increased above this threshold, a progressively less pronounced inhibition of progression was observed, reaching a complete absence of inhibition of progression at doses of 20 mg/kg and over. ABCA1 protein expression in the same atherosclerotic plaque was decreased by-45% and-68% at 50 mg/kg for CER-001 and HDL respectively. Conversely, a-12% and 0% decrease in ABCA1 protein expression was observed at the 5 mg/kg dose for CER-001 and HDL respectively.These data demonstrate that high doses of HDL and CER-001 are less effective at slowing progression of atherosclerotic plaque in apoE-/- mice compared to lower doses, following a U-shaped dose-response curve. A potential mechanism for this phenomenon is supported by the observation that high doses of HDL and CER-001 induce a rapid and strong down-regulation of ABCA1 both in vitro and in vivo. In conclusion, maximally efficient HDL- or CER-001-mediated cholesterol removal from atherosclerotic plaque is achieved by maximizing macrophage-mediated efflux from the plaque while minimizing dose-dependent down-regulation of ABCA1 expression. These observations may help define the optimal dose of HDL mimetics for testing in clinical trials of atherosclerotic burden regression.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) experience high rates of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and death that are not fully explained by traditional risk factors. In animal studies, defective cellular cholesterol efflux pathways which are mediated by the ATP binding cassette transporters ABCA1 and ABCG1 are associated with accelerated atherosclerosis. We hypothesized that cholesterol efflux in humans would vary in terms of cellular components, with potential implications for cardiovascular disease. METHODS:We recruited 120 CKD patients (eGFR<30mL/min/1.73m2) and 120 control subjects (eGFR ?60mL/min/1.73m2) in order to measure cholesterol efflux using either patients' HDL and THP-1 macrophages or patients' monocytes and a flow cytometry based cholesterol efflux assay. We also measured cell-surface levels of the common ? subunit of the IL-3/GM-CSF receptor (IL-3R?) which has been linked to defective cholesterol homeostasis and may promote monocytosis. In addition, we measured plasma inflammatory cytokines and plasma metabolite profiles. RESULTS:There was a strong positive correlation between cell-surface IL-3R? levels and monocyte counts in CKD (P<0.001). ABCA1 mRNA was reduced in CKD vs. control monocytes (P<0.05), across various etiologies of CKD. Cholesterol efflux to apolipoprotein A1 was impaired in monocytes from CKD patients with diabetic nephropathy (P<0.05), but we found no evidence for a circulating HDL-mediated defect in cholesterol efflux in CKD. Profiling of plasma metabolites showed that medium-chain acylcarnitines were both independently associated with lower levels of cholesterol transporter mRNA in CKD monocytes at baseline (P<0.05), and with cardiovascular events in CKD patients after median 2.6years of follow-up. CONCLUSIONS:Cholesterol efflux in humans varies in terms of cellular components. We report a cellular defect in ABCA1-mediated cholesterol efflux in monocytes from CKD patients with diabetic nephropathy. Unlike several traditional risk factors for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, plasma metabolites inversely associated with endogenous cholesterol transporters predicted cardiovascular events in CKD patients. (Funded by the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney DiseasesK23DK097288 and others.).
Project description:Plasma HDL levels are inversely related to the incidence of atherosclerotic disease. Some of the atheroprotective effects of HDL are likely mediated via preservation of EC function. Whether the beneficial effects of HDL on ECs depend on its involvement in cholesterol efflux via the ATP-binding cassette transporters ABCA1 and ABCG1, which promote efflux of cholesterol and oxysterols from macrophages, has not been investigated. To address this, we assessed endothelial function in Abca1(-/-), Abcg1(-/-), and Abca1(-/-)Abcg1(-/-) mice fed either a high-cholesterol diet (HCD) or a Western diet (WTD). Non-atherosclerotic arteries from WTD-fed Abcg1(-/-) and Abca1(-/-)Abcg1(-/-) mice exhibited a marked decrease in endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation, while Abca1(-/-) mice had a milder defect. In addition, eNOS activity was reduced in aortic homogenates generated from Abcg1(-/-) mice fed either a HCD or a WTD, and this correlated with decreased levels of the active dimeric form of eNOS. More detailed analysis indicated that ABCG1 was expressed primarily in ECs, and that these cells accumulated the oxysterol 7-ketocholesterol (7-KC) when Abcg1(-/-) mice were fed a WTD. Consistent with these data, ABCG1 had a major role in promoting efflux of cholesterol and 7-KC in cultured human aortic ECs (HAECs). Furthermore, HDL treatment of HAECs prevented 7-KC-induced ROS production and active eNOS dimer disruption in an ABCG1-dependent manner. Our data suggest that ABCG1 and HDL maintain EC function in HCD-fed mice by promoting efflux of cholesterol and 7-oxysterols and preserving active eNOS dimer levels.