CD163+ tumor-associated macrophages correlated with poor prognosis and cancer stem cells in oral squamous cell carcinoma.
ABSTRACT: Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) play an important role in the progression and prognostication of numerous cancers. However, the role and clinical significance of TAM markers in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) has not been elucidated. The present study was designed to investigate the correlation between the expression of TAM markers and pathological features in OSCC by tissue microarray. Tissue microarrays containing 16 normal oral mucosa, 6 oral epithelial dysplasia, and 43 OSCC specimens were studied by immunohistochemistry. We observed that the protein expression of the TAM markers CD68 and CD163 as well as the cancer stem cell (CSC) markers ALDH1, CD44, and SOX2 increased successively from the normal oral mucosa to OSCC. The expressions of CD68 and CD163 were significantly associated with lymph node status, and SOX2 was significantly correlated with pathological grade and lymph node status, whereas ALDH1 was correlated with tumor stage. Furthermore, CD68 was significantly correlated with CD163, SOX2, and ALDH1 (P < 0.05). Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that OSCC patients overexpressing CD163 had significantly worse overall survival (P < 0.05). TAM markers are associated with cancer stem cell marker and OSCC overall survival, suggesting their potential prognostic value in OSCC.
Project description:Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) can be polarized into antitumoral M1 and protumoral and immunosuppressive M2 macrophages. This study investigated the clinical relevance of TAM infiltration in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), evaluating CD68 (M1 and M2 macrophage marker) and CD163 expression (M2 macrophage marker) in the tumor nests and surrounding stroma. Immunohistochemical analysis of both stromal/tumoral CD68+ and CD163+ TAMs was performed in paraffin-embedded tissue specimens from 125 OSCC patients, and correlated with clinical data. Potential relationships with the expression of cancer stem cell (CSC) markers and PD-L1 in the tumors were also assessed. Stromal CD163+ infiltration was significantly associated with the tumor location in the tongue, and stromal and tumoral CD68+ and CD163+-infiltrating TAMs were more abundant in nonsmokers and non-alcohol-drinkers. Strikingly, this study uncovers an inverse relationship between CD68+ and CD163+ TAMs and CSC marker expression (NANOG and SOX2) in OSCC. High infiltration of CD163+ TAMs in both tumor and stroma was strongly and significantly correlated with the absence of NANOG expression. Moreover, infiltration of both CD68+ and CD163+ TAMs was also significantly associated with high tumor expression of PD-L1. Our results suggest that there is a link between TAM infiltration and immune escape in OSCC.
Project description:Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) promote tumor progression and inhibit anti-tumor immune response by producing various mediators and preferentially express CD163, CD204, and CD206. However, the role of these TAM subsets in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) remains unclear. Here we investigated the expression and function of TAM subsets in OSCC, especially in cancer cell proliferation. Biopsy sample from 44 patients with OSCC were examined for the expression of TAM markers and EGF by immunohistochemistry. EGF production of TAM subsets isolated from OSCC patients was assessed by flow cytometry. We also examined the effect of conditioned medium from TAM subsets on the proliferation of OSCC cells. CD163+ cells were detected diffusely all over the tumor and connective tissue area, while CD204+ and CD206+ cells were mainly detected in/around the tumors. Flow cytometric analysis found that CD206+ TAMs strongly produced EGF compared with CD163+ and CD204+ TAMs. Cell proliferation and invasion of OSCC cells cultured with conditioned medium of CD206+ TAMs were strongly enhanced and inhibited by anti-EGFR. The number of CD206+ TAMs positively correlated with worse clinical prognosis. Our results revealed differences in localization and EGF production among these TAM subsets. CD206+ TAMs might play a critical role in the proliferation of OSCC via EGF production.
Project description:Our study investigated the expression of malic enzyme 2 (ME2) in human oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and associated pathological and clinical pattern. We demonstrated that human OSCC tissues expressed a high level of ME2, and the overexpression of ME2 is closely connected to a high pathological grade, lymphatic metastasis, large tumor size and human papillomavirus (HPV) (P <i><</i> 0.001). Similarly, high levels of ME2 expression in OSCC tissue were shown to be correlated with poor prognosis (P < 0.05). The expression of ME2 was correlated with Slug, SOX2, and aldehyde dehydrogenase-1 (ALDH1) immunoreactivity.ME2 was shown to be overexpressed in OSCC tissue and indicated a poor prognosis for OSCC. ME2 may be correlated with several immune markers.
Project description:Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) promote cancer cell proliferation, invasion, and metastasis by producing various mediators. Although preclinical studies demonstrated that TAMs preferentially express CD163 and CD204, the TAM subsets in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) remain unknown. In this study, we examined the expression and role of TAM subsets in OSCC. Forty-six patients with OSCC were analyzed for expression of TAMs in biopsy samples by immunohistochemistry. We examined TAM subsets and their production of immune suppressive molecules (IL-10 and PD-L1) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from three OSCC patients by flow cytometry. CD163 was detected around the tumor or connective tissue, while CD204 was detected in/around the tumors. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that CD163+CD204+ TAMs strongly produced IL-10 and PD-L1 in comparison with CD163+CD204- and CD163-CD204+ TAMs. Furthermore, the number of activated CD3+ T cells after co-culture with CD163+CD204+ TAMs was significantly lower than that after co-culture with other TAM subsets. In clinical findings, the number of CD163+CD204+ TAMs was negatively correlated with that of CD25+ cells and 5-year progression-free survival. These results suggest that CD163+CD204+ TAMs possibly play a key role in the invasion and metastasis of OSCC by T-cell regulation via IL-10 and PD-L1 production.
Project description:Tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) play a controversial role in epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and prognosis of colorectal cancer (CRC). In particular, the microlocalization, polarization and prognostic impact of TAM in the immediate environment of invading CRC cells has not yet been established. To address this clinically relevant question, intraepithelial (iCD68) and stromal macrophages (sCD68), M1-macrophages (iNOS), M2-macrophages (CD163), cytokeratin-positive cancer cells (tumor buds) and expression of the anti-phagocytic marker CD47 were investigated in primary tumors of 205 well-characterized CRC patients. Cell-to-cell contacts between tumor buds and TAM were detected using high-resolution digital scans. The composition of the tumor microenvironment was analyzed with clinicopathological and molecular features. High CD68 counts predicted long term overall survival independent of microlocalization (iCD68 p=0.0016; sCD68 p=0.03), pT, pN, pM and post-operative therapy. CD68 infiltration correlated with significantly less tumor budding (iCD68 p=0.0066; sCD68 p=0.0091) and absence of lymph node metastasis (sCD68 p=0.0286). Cell-to-cell contact of sCD68 and invading cancer cells was frequent and ameliorated the detrimental prognostic effect of the tumor budding phenotype. Subgroup analysis identified long-term survival with CD47 loss and predominance of CD163(+) M2 macrophages (p = 0.0366). CD163(+) macrophages represented 40% of the total population, and positively correlated with total CD68 macrophage numbers (r[CD68/CD163] = 0.32; p = 0.0001). Strong CD163 infiltration predicted lower tumor grade (p = 0.0026) and less lymph node metastasis (p = 0.0056). This study provides direct morphological evidence of an interaction between TAM and infiltrating cancer cells. The prognostic impact of TAM is modulated by phenotype, microlocalization and the expression of anti-phagocytic markers in CRC.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The role of tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) in the cancer immune landscape and their potential as treatment targets or modulators of response to treatment are gaining increasing interest. TAMs display high molecular and functional complexity. Therefore their objective assessment as breast cancer biomarkers is critical. The aims of this study were to objectively determine the in situ expression and significance of TAM biomarkers (CD68, CD163, and MMP-9) in breast cancer and to identify subclasses of patients who could benefit from TAM-targeting therapies. METHODS:We measured CD68, CD163, and MMP-9 protein expression in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues of breast carcinomas represented in tissue microarray format using multiplexed quantitative immunofluorescence (QIF) in two independent Yale cohorts: cohort A-n = 398, estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) and ER- cases-and the triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC)-only cohort B (n = 160). Associations between macrophage markers, ER status, and survival were assessed. Protein expression measured by QIF was compared with mRNA expression data from the METABRIC study. RESULTS:All three macrophage markers were co-expressed, displaying higher expression in ER- cancers. High pan-macrophage marker CD68 correlated with poorer overall survival (OS) only in ER- cases of cohort A (P = 0.02). High expression of CD163 protein in TAMs was associated with improved OS in ER- cases (cohort A, P = 0.03 and TNBC cohort B, P = 0.04, respectively) but not in ER+ cancers. MMP-9 protein was not individually associated with OS. High expression of MMP-9 in the CD68+/CD163+ TAMs was associated with worse OS in ER+ tumors (P <0.001) but not in ER- cancers. In the METABRIC dataset, mRNA levels followed the co-expression pattern observed in QIF but did not always show the same trend regarding OS. CONCLUSIONS:Macrophage activity markers correlate with survival differently in ER+ and ER- cancers. The association between high co-expression and co-localization of MMP-9/CD163/CD68 and poor survival in ER+ cancers suggests that these cancers may be candidates for macrophage-targeted therapies.
Project description:Stromal cells in the tumor microenvironment (TME) closely interact with tumor cells and affect tumor cell behavior in diverse manners. We herein investigated the mechanisms by which cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) affect the functional polarization of tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) in vitro and in human cancer samples. The expression of CD68, CD14, CD163, CD200R, CD206, HLA-G, CD80, and CD86 was higher in CD14-positive cells co-cultured with the culture supernatants of CAFs established from OSCC specimens (CAF-educated cells) than in control cells. The gene expression level of ARG1, IL10, and TGFB1 was increased in CAF-educated cells. CAF-educated cells suppressed T cell proliferation more strongly than control cells, and the neutralization of TGF-? IL-10, or arginase I significantly restored T cell proliferation. We then investigated the relationship between the infiltration of CAFs and TAMs using tissue samples obtained from patients with OSCC. The infiltration of CAFs was associated with the numbers of CD68-positive and CD163-positive macrophages. It also correlated with lymphatic invasion, vascular invasion, lymph node involvement, and the TNM stage. The infiltration of CAFs was identified as an independent prognostic factor in OSCC. Our results indicate that CAFs play important roles in shaping the tumor immunosuppressive microenvironment in OSCC by inducing the protumoral phenotype of TAMs. Therapeutic strategies to reverse CAF-mediated immunosuppression need to be considered.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Microenvironment has a prognostic influence in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL); among its components, tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) play a leading role. TAM can be classified into M1 (anti-tumor) and M2 (pro-tumor). Another prognostic factor could be represented by lymphocyte-to-monocyte and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (LMR and NLR). OBJECTIVE:The aim of the study is to evaluate the prognostic impact of M1 and M2 TAM subtypes, LMR and NLR in DLBCL. METHODS:We analyzed 37 consecutive patients between 2009 and 2013. Out of 37 patients, 28/37 (75.6%) received R-CHOP/CHOP-like regimens, 9/37 (24.4%) less intensive therapies. Immunohistochemistry was performed with antibodies against CD68 and CD163. We divided our cohort into 2 categories according to the Steidl score. TAM who coexpressed CD68 and CD163 were considered as M2. For LMR and NLR we used previously published cut-offs of 2.71 and 2.81. RESULTS:CR rate was 70.3%; we did not record a significant correlation between CD68+ TAM, CD163+ TAM, CD68+/CD163+ TAM, LMR, NLR and CR. We observed a reduced PFS in patients with IPI ? 2 and high M2 TAM expression and a trend between higher expression of CD68+ TAM and improved PFS. CONCLUSION:M2 TAM could have a prognostic role for IPI ? 2 DLBCL patients receiving R-CHOP, which thus warrants further investigation.
Project description:Recent studies have indicated the clinical significance of tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) in several malignant tumors including breast cancer. Although recent studies have focused on CD68-positive or CD163-positive TAM in breast cancer, no study has investigated the significance of CD204-positive TAM in breast cancer. We found that CD204 expression on macrophages was evaluated following stimulation with the conditioned medium (CM) of breast cancer cell lines. Paraffin sections of 149 breast cancer samples which were diagnosed as invasive ductal carcinoma were immunohistochemically analyzed for CD68, CD163 and CD204 expression. The results of analyses indicated that a high number of CD204-positive TAM was associated with worse clinical prognoses, including relapse-free survival, distant relapse-free survival and breast cancer-specific survival; however, neither the numbers of CD68-positive or CD163-positive TAM were associated with clinical courses. Of the clinicopathological factors investigated, estrogen receptor, Ki-67 index, hormone subtype, and histological grade were significantly related to the increased number of CD163-positive and CD204-positive TAM. These data indicate the clinical significance of CD204-positive TAM in breast cancer progression and CD204 is a marker for predicting clinical prognosis in breast cancer.
Project description:Ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme 2C (UBE2C) involves in numerous cellular processes and the tumor progression in many cancers. However, its role in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is unclear. We aimed to investigate the role and clinical significance of UBE2C in OSCC. The expression levels of UBE2C were examined by immunohistochemistry in 185 buccal mucosa squamous cell carcinomas, 247 tongue squamous cell carcinomas (TSCCs) and 75 lip squamous cell carcinomas. The roles of UBE2C in cell growth, invasion/migration and cancer stemness were also examined in OSCC cells. The expression levels of UBE2C protein were higher in tumor tissues than they were in the corresponding tumor adjacent normal tissues from OSCC patients. Higher UBE2C expression was associated with poor cell differentiation and lymph node invasion in OSCC patients. High UBE2C expression was also correlated with shorter disease-specific survival in TSCC patients having poor cell differentiation, advanced pathological stages, lymph node metastasis as well as receiving radiation therapy. Compared to control cells, OSCC cells in which UBE2C was silenced showed decreased cell proliferation, migration/invasion and colony formation and they exhibited lower expression levels of the following cancer stemness markers-ALDH1/A2, CD44, CD166 and EpCAM. High co-expression levels of UBE2C/CD44, UBE2C/CD166 and UBE2C/EpCAM were associated with poor prognosis in oral cancer patients from The Cancer Genome Atlas database. Our findings indicated that UBE2C might be a potential biomarker for tumorigenesis and prognosis in TSCC.