Increased hepatic CD36 expression with age is associated with enhanced susceptibility to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.
ABSTRACT: CD36 has been associated with obesity and diabetes in human liver diseases, however, its role in age-associated nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is unknown. Therefore, liver biopsies were collected from individuals with histologically normal livers (n=30), and from patients diagnosed with simple steatosis (NAS; n=26). Patients were divided into two groups according to age and liver biopsy samples were immunostained for CD36. NAFLD parameters were examined in young (12-week) and middle-aged (52-week) C57BL/6J mice, some fed with chow-diet and some fed with low-fat (LFD; 10% kcal fat) or high-fat diet (HFD; 60% kcal fat) for 12-weeks. CD36 expression was positively associated with age in individuals with normal livers but not in NAS patients. However, CD36 was predominantly located at the plasma membrane of hepatocytes in aged NAS patients as compared to young. In chow-fed mice, aging, despite an increase in hepatic CD36 expression, was not associated with the development of NAFLD. However, middle-aged mice did exhibit the development of HFD-induced NAFLD, mediated by an increase of CD36 on the membrane. Enhanced CD36-mediated hepatic fat uptake may contribute to an accelerated progression of NAFLD in mice and humans. Therapies to prevent the increase in CD36 expression and/or CD36 from anchoring at the membrane may prevent the development of NAFLD.
Project description:Curcumin has the potential to cure dyslipidemia and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, its therapeutic effects are curbed by poor bioavailability. Our previous work has shown that modification of curcumin with polyethylene glycol (PEG) improves blood concentration and tissue distribution. This study sought to investigate the role of a novel PEGylated curcumin derivative (Curc-mPEG454) in regulating hepatic lipid metabolism and to elucidate the underlying molecular mechanism in a high-fat-diet- (HFD-) fed C57BL/6J mouse model. Mice were fed either a control chow diet (D12450B), an HFD (D12492) as the NAFLD model, or an HFD with Curc-mPEG454 administered by intraperitoneal injection at 50?mg/kg or 100?mg/kg for 16 weeks. We found that Curc-mPEG454 significantly lowered the body weight and serum triglyceride (TG) levels and reduced liver lipid accumulation in HFD-induced NAFLD mice. It was also shown that Curc-mPEG454 suppressed the HFD-induced upregulated expression of CD36 and hepatic peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-? (PPAR-?), a positive regulator of CD36. Moreover, Curc-mPEG454 dramatically activated cAMP response element-binding (CREB) protein, which negatively controls hepatic PPAR-? expression. These findings suggest that Curc-mPEG454 reverses HFD-induced hepatic steatosis via the activation of CREB inhibition of the hepatic PPAR-?/CD36 pathway, which may be an effective therapeutic for high-fat-diet-induced NAFLD.
Project description:Similar to neoplastic tissues, growth and development of adipose tissue are thought to be angiogenesis-dependent. Since visceral adipose tissue (VAT) is associated with development and progression of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), we hypothesized that angiogenesis inhibition would attenuate obesity-induced NAFLD. We fed C57BL/6J mice a low-fat diet (LFD, chow 10% kcal fat), a high-fat diet (HFD, 45% kcal fat) or HFD supplemented with the lemon-balm extract ALS-L1023 (HFD-ALS) for 15 weeks. ALS-L1023 reduced endothelial cell-tube formation in vitro. HFD increased VAT angiogenesis and induced weight gains including body weight, VAT mass and visceral adipocyte size compared with LFD. However, HFD-ALS led to weight reductions without affecting calorie intake compared with HFD. HFD-ALS also reduced serum ALT and AST levels and improved lipid metabolism. HFD-ALS suppressed steatosis, infiltration of inflammatory cells, and accumulation of collagen in livers. HFD-ALS modulated hepatic expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism, inflammation, fibrosis, antioxidation, and apoptosis. Concomitantly, analysis of VAT function revealed that HFD-ALS led to fewer CD68-positive macrophage numbers and lower expression of inflammatory cytokines compared with HFD. Our findings show that the anti-angiogenic herbal extract ALS-L1023 attenuates NAFLD by targeting VAT during obesity, suggesting that angiogenesis inhibitors could aid in the treatment and prevention of obesity-induced human NAFLD.
Project description:The roles of retinoids in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) remain unclear and a better understanding may lead to therapies that prevent or limit NAFLD progression. We examined the actions of retinoic acid receptor (RAR) agonists- AM80 for RAR? and AC261066 for RAR?2- in a murine model of NAFLD. We fed wild type C57Bl/6 mice a chow or a 45% high fat diet (HFD) for 12 weeks, followed by 4 additional weeks with the HFD+AM80; HFD+AC261066; or HFD. The HFD+AM80 group showed greater hyperglycemia and glucose intolerance compared to other groups. Histopathological evaluation of the livers showed the highest degree of steatosis, triglycerides levels, and inflammation, assessed by F4/80 staining, in the HFD+AM80-treated compared to the HFD, the HFD+AC261066, and chow-fed mice. Liver vitamin A (retinol (ROL)) and retinyl palmitate levels were markedly lower in all HFD groups compared to chow-fed controls. HFD+AC261066-treated mice showed higher levels of a key intracellular ROL transporter, retinol-binding protein-1 (RBP1) compared to the HFD and HFD+AM80 groups. In conclusion, these data demonstrate that the selective RAR? agonist AM80 exacerbates HFD-induced NAFLD and hyperglycemia. These findings should inform future studies examining the therapeutic potential of RAR agonists in HFD-related disorders.
Project description:Background:Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) poses a significant health concern worldwide. With the progression of urbanization, light pollution may be a previously unrecognized risk factor for NAFLD/NASH development. However, the role of light pollution on NAFLD is insufficiently understood, and the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Interestingly, recent studies indicate the gut microbiota affects NAFLD/NASH development. Therefore, the present study explored effects of constant light exposure on NAFLD and its related microbiotic mechanisms. Materials and Methods:Twenty-eight SD male rats were divided into four groups (n = 7 each): rats fed a normal chow diet, and exposed to standard light-dark cycle (ND-LD); rats fed a normal chow diet, and exposed to constant light (ND-LL); rats fed a high fat diet, and exposed to standard light-dark cycle (HFD-LD); and rats on a high fat diet, and exposed to constant light (HFD-LL). Body weight, hepatic pathophysiology, gut microbiota, and short/medium chain fatty acids in colon contents, serum lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and liver LPS-binding protein (LBP) mRNA expression were documented post intervention and compared among groups. Result:In normal chow fed groups, rats exposed to constant light displayed glucose abnormalities and dyslipidemia. In HFD-fed rats, constant light exposure exacerbated glucose abnormalities, insulin resistance, inflammation, and liver steatohepatitis. Constant light exposure altered composition of gut microbiota in both normal chow and HFD fed rats. Compared with HFD-LD group, HFD-LL rats displayed less Butyricicoccus, Clostridium, and Turicibacter, butyrate levels in colon contents, decreased colon expression of occludin-1 and zonula occluden-1 (ZO-1), and increased serum LPS and liver LBP mRNA expression. Conclusion:Constant light exposure impacts gut microbiota and its metabolic products, impairs gut barrier function and gut-liver axis, promotes NAFLD/NASH progression in HFD rats.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Somatotropic axis dysfunction associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has potential multisystemic detrimental effects. Here, we analysed the effects of growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) supplementation on liver histology, adipokine profile and muscle function in an NAFLD model. METHODS:C57BL/6 mice were fed with a high fat diet (HFD) for 12 weeks and were separated into three groups treated for 4 weeks with: (1) High fat diet (HFD) (n = 10); (2) HFD + GH 9 μg/g/d (n = 10); (3) HFD + IGF-1 0.02 µg/g/d (n = 9). A control group fed a chow diet was included (n = 6). Liver histology, liver triglycerides content, serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity, adiponectin and leptin serum levels, in vivo muscle strength, tetanic force and muscle fibre cross-sectional area (CSA) were measured. RESULTS:HFD + GH and HFD + IGF-1 groups showed significantly lower ALT activity compared to HFD (p < 0.01). Liver triglyceride content in HFD + GH was decreased compared to HFD (p < 0.01). Histologic steatosis score was increased in HFD and HFD + GH group (p < 0.01), whereas HFD + IGF-1 presented no difference compared to the chow group (p = 0.3). HFD + GH group presented lower serum leptin and adiponectin levels compared to HFD. GH and IGF-1 supplementation therapy reverted HFD-induced reduction in muscle strength and CSA (sarcopenia). CONCLUSIONS:GH and IGF-1 supplementation induced significant improvement in liver steatosis, aminotransferases and sarcopenia in a diet-induced NAFLD model.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:The gut-liver axis is associated with the progression of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Targeting the gut-liver axis and bile acid-based pharmaceuticals are potential therapies for NAFLD. The effect of tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA), a candidate drug for NAFLD, on intestinal barrier function, intestinal inflammation, gut lipid transport and microbiota composition was analysed in a murine model of NAFLD. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH:The NAFLD mouse model was established by feeding mice a high-fat diet (HFD) for 16 weeks. TUDCA was administered p.o. during the last 4 weeks. The expression levels of intestinal tight junction genes, lipid metabolic and inflammatory genes were determined by quantitative PCR. Tissue inflammation was evaluated by haematoxylin and eosin staining. The gut microbiota was analysed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. KEY RESULTS:TUDCA administration attenuated HFD-induced hepatic steatosis, inflammatory responses, obesity and insulin resistance in mice. Moreover, TUDCA attenuated gut inflammatory responses as manifested by decreased intestinal histopathology scores and inflammatory cytokine levels. In addition, TUDCA improved intestinal barrier function by increasing levels of tight junction molecules and the solid chemical barrier. The components involved in ileum lipid transport were also reduced by TUDCA administration in HFD-fed mice. Finally, the TUDCA-treated mice showed a different gut microbiota composition compared with that in HFD-fed mice but similar to that in normal chow diet-fed mice. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS:TUDCA attenuates the progression of HFD-induced NAFLD in mice by ameliorating gut inflammation, improving intestinal barrier function, decreasing intestinal fat transport and modulating intestinal microbiota composition.
Project description:The importance of Galectin-3 (Gal-3) in obesity-associated liver pathology is incompletely defined. To dissect the role of Gal-3 in fibrotic nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), Gal-3-deficient (LGALS3(-/-)) and wild-type (LGALS3(+/+)) C57Bl/6 mice were placed on an obesogenic high fat diet (HFD, 60% kcal fat) or standard chow diet for 12 and 24 wks. Compared to WT mice, HFD-fed LGALS3(-/-) mice developed, in addition to increased visceral adiposity and diabetes, marked liver steatosis, which was accompanied with higher expression of hepatic PPAR-?, Cd36, Abca-1 and FAS. However, as opposed to LGALS3(-/-) mice, hepatocellular damage, inflammation and fibrosis were more extensive in WT mice which had an elevated number of mature myeloid dendritic cells, proinflammatory CD11b(+)Ly6C(hi) monocytes/macrophages in liver, peripheral blood and bone marrow, and increased hepatic CCL2, F4/80, CD11c, TLR4, CD14, NLRP3 inflammasome, IL-1? and NADPH-oxidase enzymes mRNA expression. Thus, obesity-driven greater steatosis was uncoupled with attenuated fibrotic NASH in Gal-3-deficient mice. HFD-fed WT mice had a higher number of hepatocytes that strongly expressed IL-33 and hepatic CD11b(+)IL-13(+) cells, increased levels of IL-33 and IL-13 and up-regulated IL-33, ST2 and IL-13 mRNA in liver compared with LGALS3(-/-) mice. IL-33 failed to induce ST2 upregulation and IL-13 production by LGALS3(-/-) peritoneal macrophages in vitro. Administration of IL-33 in vivo enhanced liver fibrosis in HFD-fed mice in both genotypes, albeit to a significantly lower extent in LGALS3(-/-) mice, which was associated with less numerous hepatic IL-13-expressing CD11b(+) cells. The present study provides evidence of a novel role for Gal-3 in regulating IL-33-dependent liver fibrosis.
Project description:Aliskiren has been found to reduce chronic injury and steatosis in the liver of methionine-choline-deficient (MCD) diet-fed mice. This study investigated whether aliskiren has an anti-steatotic effect in HFD-fed mice, which are more relevant to human patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease than MCD mice. Mice fed with 4-week normal chow or HFD randomly received aliskiren (50 mg/kg/day) or vehicle via osmotic minipumps for further 4 weeks. Aliskiren reduced systemic insulin resistance, hepatic steatosis, epididymal fat mass and increased gastrocnemius muscle glucose transporter type 4 levels with lower tissue angiotensin II levels in the HFD-fed mice. In addition, aliskiren lowered nuclear peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma and its down-signaling molecules and increased cytochrome P450 4A14 and carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1A (CPT1a) in liver. In epididymal fat, aliskiren inhibited expressions of lipogenic genes, leading to decrease in fat mass, body weight, and serum levels of leptin and free fatty acid. Notably, in the gastrocnemius muscle, aliskiren increased phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate 1 and Akt. Based on these beneficial effects on liver, peripheral fat and skeletal muscle, aliskiren is a promising therapeutic agent for patients with NAFLD.
Project description:Obesity is tightly associated with an increased risk of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, the molecular mechanisms of obesity-induced fatty liver remain largely unknown.In order to identify genes that are potentially involved in dysfunctional hepatic lipid homeostasis in obesity, we performed a clustering analysis of Affymetrix arrays,which revealed that a number of mRNAs were dys-regulated in the livers of mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD), compared with mice fed a normal chow diet (ND). To identify genes that are potentially involved in dysfunctional hepatic lipid homeostasis in obesity, male C57BL/6 mice aged 8 weeks were fed a normal diet (ND) or high-fat-diet (HFD) containing 60 Kcal% of fat for 12 weeks. Then mice were sacrificed and total RNAs were isoloated from hepatic tissues. Affymetrix array hybridisation and scanning were performed using Mouse Genome 430 2.0 chips.Total RNA samples obtained from six mice per group (ND and HFD) and pooled by each of the two were used for microarray analysis.
Project description:Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with post-operative liver failure (PLF) and impaired liver regeneration. We investigated the effects of a glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist on NAFLD, PLF and liver regeneration in mice fed chow diet or methionine/choline-deficient diet (MCD) or high fat diet (HFD). Fc-GLP-1 decreased transaminases, reduced intrahepatic triglycerides (TG) and improved MCD-induced liver dysfuction. Macrophage/Kupffer cell-related markers were also reduced although Fc-GLP-1 increased expression of genes related to natural killer (NK), cytotoxic T lymphocytes and hepatic stellate cell (HSC) activation. After partial hepatectomy (PH), survival rates increased in mice receiving Fc-GLP-1 on chow or MCD diet. However, the benefit of Fc-GLP-1 on NASH-like features was attenuated 2 weeks post-PH and liver mass restoration was not improved. At this time-period, markers of NK cells and cytotoxic T lymphocytes were further elevated in Fc-GLP-1 treated mice. Increased HSC related gene expression in livers was observed together with decreased retinyl ester content and increased retinal and retinoic acid, reflecting HSC activation. Similar effects were found in mice fed HFD receiving Fc-GLP-1. Our results shed light on the differential effects of a long-acting GLP-1R agonist in improving NAFLD and PLF, but not enhancing liver regeneration in mice.