Peripheral blood lymphocyte/monocyte ratio at the time of first relapse predicts outcome for patients with relapsed or primary refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Despite the use of modern immunochemotherapy regimens, a significant proportion of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) patients will relapse. We proposed absolute lymphocyte count/absolute monocyte count ratio (ALC/AMC ratio) as a new prognostic factor in relapsed or primary refractory DLBCL. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 163 patients who have been diagnosed with relapsed or primary refractory DLBCL. The overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were measured from the time of first relapse. The Cox proportional hazards model was used to evaluate ALC/AMC ratio as prognostic factors for OS and PFS. RESULTS: On univariate and multivariate analysis performed with factors included in the saaIPI, early relapse, prior exposure to rituximab and autologous stem-cell transplantation (ASCT), the ALC/AMC ratio at the time of first relapse remained an independent predictor of PFS and OS (PFS: P?
Project description:The neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (NLR), lymphocyte/monocyte ratio (LMR), and absolute lymphocyte count/absolute monocyte count prognostic score (ALC/AMC PS) have been described as the most useful prognostic tools for patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). We retrospectively analyzed 148 Taiwanese patients with newly diagnosed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma under rituximab (R)-CHOP-like regimens from January 2001 to December 2010 at the Tri-Service General Hospital and investigated the utility of these inexpensive tools in our patients. In a univariate analysis, the NLR, LMR, and ALC/AMC PS had significant prognostic value in our DLBCL patients (NLR: 5-year progression-free survival [PFS], P = 0.001; 5-year overall survival [OS], P = 0.007. LMR: PFS, P = 0.003; OS, P = 0.05.PFS, P < 0.001; OS, P < 0.001). In a separate multivariate analysis, the ALC/AMC PS appeared to interact less with the other clinical factors but retained statistical significance in the survival analysis (PFS, P = 0.023; OS, P = 0.017). The akaike information criterion (AIC) analysis produced scores of 388.773 in the NLR, 387.625 in the LMR, and 372.574 in the ALC/AMC PS. The results suggested that the ALC/AMC PS appears to be more reliable than the NLR and LMR and may provide additional prognostic information when used in conjunction with the International Prognostic Index.
Project description:Low absolute lymphocyte counts (ALC) and high absolute monocyte counts (AMC) are associated with poor survival in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). We studied the prognostic impact of the ALC and AMC in patients with testicular DLBCL (T-DLBCL). T-DLBCL patients were searched using Southern Finland University Hospital databases and the Danish lymphoma registry. The progression free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were assessed using Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazards methods. We identified 178 T-DLBCL patients, of whom 78 (44%) had a low ALC at diagnosis. The ALC did not correlate with survival in the whole cohort. However, among the patients treated with rituximab (R) containing regimen, a pre-therapeutic low ALC was associated with an increased risk of progression (HR 1.976, 95% CI 1.267-3.086, p = 0.003). Conversely, intravenous (iv) CNS directed chemotherapy translated to favorable outcome. In multivariate analyses, the advantage of an iv CNS directed chemotherapy was sustained (PFS, HR 0.364, 95% CI 0.175-0.757, p = 0.007). The benefit of R and intravenous CNS directed chemotherapy was observed only in non-lymphopenic patients. The AMC did not correlate with survival. A low ALC is an adverse prognostic factor in patients with T-DLBCL. Alternative treatment options for lymphopenic patients are needed.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is characterized by its clinical and biological heterogeneity. The clinical prognostic implications of tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) in DLBCL remain controversial and the correlation between TAMs and peripheral absolute monocyte count (AMC) has not yet been elucidated. METHODS:In 221 untreated, newly diagnosed patients with DLBCL, we evaluated the prognostic value of TAMs using immunohistochemical analysis, as well as the association of TAMs and AMC. RESULTS:We found that high CD68 or high CD163 expression was correlated with clinicopathological characteristics, high CD163 expression was an adverse predictor for both overall survival (OS) [hazard ratio (HR)?=?2.265, P?=?0.005] and progression- free survival (PFS) (HR?=?1.925, P?=?0.017) in patients with DLBCL. Patients with high CD68 or high CD163 expression had significantly poorer OS and PFS than those with low CD68 or low CD163 expression, respectively (CD68: OS: P<0.001, PFS: P<0.001; CD163: OS: P<0.001, PFS: P<0.001), even in the rituximab era. Moreover, high-risk patients could be further identified by the expression of CD68 or CD163, especially in those classified as low/intermediate risk by International Prognostic Index (IPI). Furthermore, the significant positive correlation was also detected between CD68 expression or CD163 expression and AMC (r?=?0.256, P<0.001; r?=?0.303, P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS:Patients with high expression of TAMs tend to have poorer OS and PFS, even in the rituximab era, and have positive correlation with AMC. Therefore, the peripheral AMC is a useful prognostic marker reflecting the status of the tumor microenvironment (TME) in DLBCL.
Project description:The peripheral blood absolute lymphocyte/monocyte count ratio at diagnosis (ALC/AMC-DX) predicts survival in classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL). However, a limitation of the ALC/AMC-DX is the inability to assess sequentially the host/tumor interaction during treatment. Therefore, we retrospectively examined the ALC/AMC ratio, as a surrogate marker of host immunity (ALC) and tumor microenvironment (AMC), at each adriamycin, bleomycin, vinblastine and dacarbazine treatment cycle as a predictor for clinical outcomes. From 1990 until 2008, 190 cHL patients were diagnosed, treated and followed at Mayo Clinic Rochester and qualified for the study. The ALC/AMC ratio at each treatment cycle was a predictor for overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS). An ALC/AMC ratio ?1.1 versus ALC/AMC <1.1 during treatment cycles was an independent predictor for OS (hazard ratio (HR)=0.14; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.04-0.40; P<0.0002) and for PFS (HR=0.19; 95% CI: 0.05-0.82; P<0.03). The ALC/AMC ratio during treatment cycles is a predictor for survival and provides a platform to develop therapeutic modalities to manipulate the ALC/AMC ratio during chemotherapy to improve clinical outcomes in cHL.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Although most patients with classical Hodgkin's lymphoma (cHL) have a long survival duration, the current risk stratification is imperfect. A recent study suggested a prognostic role for the peripheral blood absolute lymphocyte count/absolute monocyte count (ALC/AMC) ratio at diagnosis in cHL. It is intriguing to investigate the significance of the ALC/AMC ratio in relation to tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs), yet another prognostic factor for cHL. METHODS: We examined the prognostic impact of the ALC, AMC, and ALC/AMC ratio in 312 cHL patients (median age, 37 years) using receiver operating characteristic curve analysis for optimal cutoff values, and compared these with TAM content. RESULTS: The median follow-up was 65 months (range, 0.1-245 months). On univariate analysis, a low ALC/AMC ratio (<2.9) was correlated with a poorer overall survival (OS) outcome. A subgroup analysis of patients with limited-stage disease showed that the ALC/AMC ratio was significantly correlated with the OS time. Multivariate analysis showed the ALC/AMC ratio to be an independent prognostic factor for OS outcome. A Spearman correlation test of TAM content showed a negative correlation with the ALC/AMC ratio and a positive correlation with the peripheral blood macrophage percentage. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that the ALC/AMC ratio may be a simple, inexpensive, and independent prognostic factor for OS outcome in patients with cHL and may have a role in the stratification of cHL patients in addition to the International Prognostic Score and TAM content.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The absolute neutrophil count (ANC), absolute lymphocyte count (ALC), absolute monocyte count (AMC) and neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) are known markers of inflammation. We evaluated whether ANC, ALC, AMC and NLR, both before and after treatment with nivolumab, are indicative markers of overall survival (OS) and evaluated change in NLR as a predictive marker of response in non -small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients treated with nivolumab. METHODS:A total of 109 patients with advanced NSCLC treated with nivolumab were included. ANC, ALC, AMC and NLR were examined at initiation of nivolumab therapy and after two cycles. The prognostic role of ANC, ALC, AMC and NLR with OS and changes in NLR ratio were examined with Kaplan-Meier curves and proportional hazard model. RESULT:Post-treatment NLR ?5 after two cycles of nivolumab was associated with poor OS (median OS in NLR = <5 vs NLR = ?5 was 29.1 (16.2-40.9) vs 24.2(16.1-36.2) months respectively, p<0.001). In addition NLR increased in non-responders after two cycles of nivolumab by 6.6±21.8 as compared to responders (p = 0.027). CONCLUSIONS:Post-treatment ANC, ALC and NLR are independent prognostic factors in NSCLC patients treated with nivolumab. Changes in NLR can be an early biomarker for response in NSCLC patients treated with nivolumab.
Project description:Approximately 5-10% of diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCL) harbor a 8q24/MYC rearrangement (MYC(+)). We determined the prognostic significance of MYC rearrangement in patients with relapsed/refractory DLBCL prospectively treated by R-ICE or R-DHAP followed by high-dose therapy and autologous stem cell transplantation. Twenty-eight (17%) of the 161 patients analyzed presented a MYC(+) rearrangement, targeted as either simple hit (25%) or complex hits (n=75%) including MYC/BCL2, MYC/BCL6, and MYC/BCL2/BCL6. Results were statistically highly concordant in matched primary and relapsed biopsies (n = 45). Compared to the MYC(-) DLBCL patients, the MYC(+) DLBCL patients presented with a more elevated lactico-deshydrogenase level (P = .0006) and a more advanced age adjusted international prognostic index (P = .0039). The 4-year PFS and OS were significantly lower in the MYC(+) DLBCL patients than those in the MYC(-) DLBCL patients, with rates of 18% vs 42% (P = .0322), and of 29% vs 62% (P = .0113), respectively. Type of treatment, R-DHAP or R-ICE, had no impact on survivals, with 4-year PFS rates of 17% vs 19% and 4-year OS rates of 26% vs 31%. In conclusion, MYC rearrangement is an early event in DLBCL. MYC(+) DLBCL patients have a significant inferior prognosis than MYC(-) DLBCL patients. Their outcome was not influenced by the proposed salvage therapy.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Anti-programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) antibodies have demonstrated improved overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) in a subset of patients with metastatic or locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). To date, no blood biomarkers have been identified in NSCLC to predict clinical outcomes of treatment with anti-PD-1 antibodies. PATIENT AND METHODS:We performed an analysis of retrospectively registered data of 157 patients with advanced NSCLC treated with anti-PD-1 antibodies at Mayo Clinic in Florida and Rochester. White blood cell count, absolute neutrophil count (ANC), absolute lymphocyte count (ALC), ANC to ALC (ANC: ALC) ratio, absolute eosinophil count, absolute monocyte count (AMC), platelet counts, and myeloid to lymphoid (M:L) ratio at baseline and throughout treatment were assessed. Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional hazards model were performed. RESULTS:We treated 146 patients with nivolumab and 11 with pembrolizumab between January 1, 2015 and April 15, 2017. At median follow-up of 20?months, median OS and PFS were 6.0 and 2.6?months, respectively. Higher baseline ANC, AMC, ANC: ALC ratio and M: L ratio correlated with worse clinical outcomes in patients who underwent anti-PD-1 treatment. A baseline ANC: ALC ratio of 5.9 or higher had a significantly increased risk of death (hazard ratio [HR] =1.94; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.24-3.03; P?=?0.004) and disease progression (HR, 1.65; 95% CI, 1.17-2.34; P?=?0.005) compared with patients with lower ratio. Similarly, a baseline M: L ratio of 11.3 or higher had significantly increased risk of death (HR, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.54-4.05; P?<?0.001), even after a multivariate analysis (HR, 2.31; P?=?0.002), compared to those with lower ratio. CONCLUSIONS:Increased baseline ANC: ALC ratio and M: L ratio before initiation of anti-PD1 antibodies were associated with poor PFS and OS in advanced NSCLC patients. The potential predictive value of these readily available biomarkers might help with risk stratification and treatment strategies. These findings warrant further investigation in a larger, prospective study.
Project description:Low absolute lymphocyte count (ALC) to absolute monocyte count (AMC) ratio (ALC/AMC) is an independent prognostic factor in Hodgkin lymphoma (HL), but different cutoffs (1.1, 1.5, and 2.9) have been applied. We aimed to validate the prognostic significance of ALC/AMC in 537 homogenously treated (doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine, and dacarbazine or equivalents ± radiotherapy) classical HL patients at various cutoffs. The median ALC/AMC was 2.24 (0.44-20.50). The median AMC was 0.653 × 10(9)/L (0.050-2.070). Lower ALC/AMC was associated with established markers of adverse prognosis. In total, 477 (89%), 418 (78%), and 189 (35%) patients had an ALC/AMC ratio of ?1.1, ?1.5, and ?2.9; respectively; 20% had monocytosis (?0.9 × 10(9)/L). Ten-year time to progression (TTP) was 77% versus 55% for patients with ALC/AMC ?1.1 and <1.1 (p = .0002), 76% versus 68% for ALC/AMC ?1.5 and <1.5 (p = .049), 77% versus 73% for ALC/AMC ?2.9 and <2.9 (p = .35), and 79% versus 70% for ALC/AMC ?2.24 and <2.24 (p = .08), respectively. In stages ??/??? and in patients ?60 years old, ALC/AMC had no significant effect on TTP. In advanced stages, ALC/AMC was significant only at the cutoff of 1.1 (10-year TTP 67% vs. 48%; p = .016). In younger, advanced-stage patients, the differences were more pronounced. In multivariate analysis of TTP, ALC/AMC < 1.1 (p = .007) and stage IV (p < .001) were independent prognostic factors; ALC/AMC was independent of International Prognostic Score in another model. ALC/AMC was more predictive of overall survival than TTP. At the cutoff of 1.1, ALC/AMC had independent prognostic value in multivariate analysis. However, the prognostically inferior group comprised only 11% of patients. Further research is needed prior to the widespread use of this promising marker.
Project description:This study was conducted to evaluate the prognostic value of treatment-related lymphopenia in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC).A total of 413 consecutive stage II-IVb NPC patients treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) were enrolled. The overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), and distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS) were calculated with the Kaplan-Meier method, and differences were compared using the log-rank test.A minimum (mini)-absolute lymphocyte counts (ALC) of < 390 cells/?L or ALC after 3 months of CCRT (post3m-ALC) < 705 cells/?L was significantly associated with worse outcome than mini-ALC ? 390 cells/?L (OS, p=0.002; PFS, p=0.005; DMFS, p=0.004) or post3m-ALC ? 705 cells/?L (OS, p < 0.001; PFS, p < 0.001; DMFS, p=0.001). Patients with lymphopenia (mini-ALC < 390 cells/?L and post3m-ALC < 705 cells/?L) had a worse prognosis than those without lymphopenia (mini-ALC ? 390 cells/?L and post3m-ALC ? 705 cells/?L) (OS, p < 0.001; PFS, p < 0.001; DMFS, p < 0.001). Multivariate analysis revealed that post3m-ALC was an independent prognostic factor for OS (hazard ratio [HR], 1.76; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.12 to 2.78; p=0.015), PFS (HR, 1.86; 95% CI, 1.23 to 2.82; p=0.003), and DMFS (HR, 1.87; 95% CI, 1.13 to 3.08; p=0.014). Multivariate analysis also revealed that patients with lymphopenia had a high risk of death (HR, 3.79; 95% CI, 1.75 to 8.19; p=0.001), disease progression (HR, 2.93; 95% CI, 1.59 to 5.41; p=0.001), and distant metastasis (HR, 3.89; 95% CI, 1.67 to 9.10; p=0.002). Multivariate analysis performed with time dependent Cox regression demonstrated ALC was an independent prognostic factor for OS (HR, 0.995; 95% CI, 0.991 to 0.999; p=0.025) and PFS (HR, 0.993; 95% CI, 0.988 to 0.998; p=0.006).Treatment-related lymphopenia was a poor prognostic factor in NPC patients.