Effect of the strain Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 on the microbial community in the rhizosphere of lettuce under field conditions analyzed by whole metagenome sequencing.
ABSTRACT: Application of the plant associated bacterium Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 on lettuce (Lactuca sativa) confirmed its capability to promote plant growth and health by reducing disease severity (DS) caused by the phytopathogenic fungus Rhizoctonia solani. Therefore this strain is commercially applied as an eco-friendly plant protective agent. It is able to produce cyclic lipopeptides (CLP) and polyketides featuring antifungal and antibacterial properties. Production of these secondary metabolites led to the question of a possible impact of strain FZB42 on the composition of microbial rhizosphere communities after its application. Rating of DS and lettuce growth during a field trial confirmed the positive impact of strain FZB42 on the health of the host plant. To verify B. amyloliquefaciens as an environmentally compatible plant protective agent, its effect on the indigenous rhizosphere community was analyzed by metagenome sequencing. Rhizosphere microbial communities of lettuce treated with B. amyloliquefaciens FZB42 and non-treated plants were profiled by high-throughput metagenome sequencing of whole community DNA. Fragment recruitments of metagenome sequence reads on the genome sequence of B. amyloliquefaciens FZB42 proved the presence of the strain in the rhizosphere over 5 weeks of the field trial. Comparison of taxonomic community profiles only revealed marginal changes after application of strain FZB42. The orders Burkholderiales, Actinomycetales and Rhizobiales were most abundant in all samples. Depending on plant age a general shift within the composition of the microbial communities that was independent of the application of strain FZB42 was observed. In addition to the taxonomic profiling, functional analysis of annotated sequences revealed no major differences between samples regarding application of the inoculant strain.
Project description:Lettuce belongs to the most commonly raw eaten food worldwide and its microbiome plays an important role for both human and plant health. Yet, little is known about the impact of potentially occurring pathogens and beneficial inoculants of the indigenous microorganisms associated with lettuce. To address this question we studied the impact of the phytopathogenic fungus Rhizoctonia solani and the biological control agent Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 on the indigenous rhizosphere and phyllosphere community of greenhouse-grown lettuce at two plant stages. The rhizosphere and phyllosphere gammaproteobacterial microbiomes of lettuce plants showed clear differences in their overall and core microbiome composition as well as in corresponding diversity indices. The rhizosphere was dominated by Xanthomonadaceae (48%) and Pseudomonadaceae (37%) with Rhodanobacter, Pseudoxanthomonas, Dokdonella, Luteimonas, Steroidobacter, Thermomonas as core inhabitants, while the dominating taxa associated to phyllosphere were Pseudomonadaceae (54%), Moraxellaceae (16%) and Enterobacteriaceae (25%) with Alkanindiges, Pantoea and a group of Enterobacteriaceae unclassified at genus level. The preferential occurrence of enterics in the phyllosphere was the most significant difference between both habitats. Additional enhancement of enterics on the phyllosphere was observed in bottom rot diseased lettuce plants, while Acinetobacter and Alkanindiges were identified as indicators of healthy plants. Interestingly, the microbial diversity was enhanced by treatment with both the pathogen, and the co-inoculated biological control agent. The highest impact and bacterial diversity was found by Rhizoctonia inoculation, but FZB42 lowered the impact of Rhizoctonia on the microbiome. This study shows that the indigenous microbiome shifts as a consequence to pathogen attack but FZB42 can compensate these effects, which supports their role as biocontrol agent and suggests a novel mode of action.
Project description:The soil-borne pathogen Rhizoctonia solani is responsible for crop losses on a wide range of important crops worldwide. The lack of effective control strategies and the increasing demand for organically grown food has stimulated research on biological control. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the rhizosphere competence of the commercially available inoculant Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 on lettuce growth and health together with its impact on the indigenous rhizosphere bacterial community in field and pot experiments. Results of both experiments demonstrated that FZB42 is able to effectively colonize the rhizosphere (7.45 to 6.61 Log 10 CFU g(-1) root dry mass) within the growth period of lettuce in the field. The disease severity (DS) of bottom rot on lettuce was significantly reduced from severe symptoms with DS category 5 to slight symptom expression with DS category 3 on average through treatment of young plants with FZB42 before and after planting. The 16S rRNA gene based fingerprinting method terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) showed that the treatment with FZB42 did not have a major impact on the indigenous rhizosphere bacterial community. However, the bacterial community showed a clear temporal shift. The results also indicated that the pathogen R. solani AG1-IB affects the rhizosphere microbial community after inoculation. Thus, we revealed that the inoculant FZB42 could establish itself successfully in the rhizosphere without showing any durable effect on the rhizosphere bacterial community.
Project description:Root rot disease is a serious infection leading to production loss of Chinese wolfberry (<i>Lycium barbarum</i>). This study tested the potential for two bacterial biological control agents, <i>Bacillus amyloliquefaciens</i> HSB1 and FZB42, against five fungal pathogens that frequently cause root rot in Chinese wolfberry. Both HSB1 and FZB42 were found to inhibit fungal mycelial growth, <i>in vitro</i> and <i>in planta</i>, as well as to promote the growth of wolfberry seedlings. In fact, a biocontrol experiment showed efficiency of 100% with at least one treatment involving each biocontrol strain against <i>Fusarium oxysporum</i>. Metagenomic sequencing was used to assess bacterial community shifts in the wolfberry rhizosphere upon introduction of each biocontrol strain. Results showed that HSB1 and FZB42 differentially altered the abundances of different taxa present and positively influenced various functions of inherent wolfberry rhizosphere bacteria. This study highlights the application of biocontrol method in the suppression of fungal pathogens that cause root rot disease in wolfberry, which is useful for agricultural extension agents and commercial growers.
Project description:The use of auxin-producing rhizosphere bacteria as agricultural products promises increased root production and therefore greater phosphate (Pi) uptake. Whilst such bacteria promote root production in vitro, the nature of the bacteria-plant interaction in live soil, particularly concerning any effects on nutrient uptake, are not known. This study uses Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42, an auxin-producing rhizobacterium, as a dressing on Triticum aestivium seeds. It then examines the effects on root production, Pi uptake, Pi-related gene expression and organic carbon (C) exudation.Seed treatment with B. amyloliquefaciens FZB42 increased root production at low environmental Pi concentrations, but significantly repressed root Pi uptake. This coincided with an auxin-mediated reduction in expression of the Pi transporters TaPHT1.8 and TaPHT1.10. Applied exogenous auxin also triggered an increase in root C exudation. At high external Pi concentrations, root production was promoted by B. amyloliquefaciens FZB42, but Pi uptake was unaffected.We conclude that, alongside promoting root production, auxin biosynthesis by B. amyloliquefaciens FZB42 both re-models Pi transporter expression and elevates organic C exudation. This shows the potential importance of rhizobacterial-derived auxin following colonisation of root surfaces, and the nature of this bacteria-plant interaction in soil.
Project description:Bacillus amyloliquefaciens ssp. plantarum FZB42 represents the prototype of Gram-positive plant growth promoting and biocontrol bacteria. In this study, we applied transposon mutagenesis to generate a transposon library, which was screened for genes involved in multicellular behavior and biofilm formation on roots as a prerequisite of plant growth promoting activity. Transposon insertion sites were determined by rescue-cloning followed by DNA sequencing. As in B. subtilis, the global transcriptional regulator DegU was identified as an activator of genes necessary for swarming and biofilm formation, and the DegU-mutant of FZB42 was found impaired in efficient root colonization. Direct screening of 3,000 transposon insertion mutants for plant-growth-promotion revealed the gene products of nfrA and RBAM_017140 to be essential for beneficial effects exerted by FZB42 on plants. We analyzed the performance of GFP-labeled wild-type and transposon mutants in the colonization of lettuce roots using confocal laser scanning microscopy. While the wild-type strain heavily colonized root surfaces, the nfrA mutant did not colonize lettuce roots, although it was not impaired in growth in laboratory cultures, biofilm formation and swarming motility on agar plates. The RBAM17410 gene, occurring in only a few members of the B. subtilis species complex, was directly involved in plant growth promotion. None of the mutant strains were affected in producing the plant growth hormone auxin. We hypothesize that the nfrA gene product is essential for overcoming the stress caused by plant response towards bacterial root colonization.
Project description:Bacillus amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum FZB42 is a representative of Gram-positive plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) that inhabit plant root environments. In order to better understand the molecular mechanisms of bacteria-plant symbiosis, we have systematically analyzed the primary transcriptome of strain FZB42 grown under rhizosphere-mimicking conditions using differential RNA sequencing (dRNA-seq). Our analysis revealed 4,877 transcription start sites for protein-coding genes, identified genes differentially expressed under different growth conditions, and corrected many previously mis-annotated genes. We also identified a large number of riboswitches and cis-encoded antisense RNAs, as well as trans-encoded small noncoding RNAs that may play important roles in the gene regulation of Bacillus. Overall, our analyses provided a landscape of Bacillus primary transcriptome and improved the knowledge of rhizobacteria-host interactions.
Project description:Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 is a representative organism for Gram positive soil bacteria associated with plant roots and beneficial to plant growth. It is of immense importance to understand mechanisms of this class of bacteria adapting to rhizosphere. In this work employing differential RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) and Northern blot, we systematically identified transcription start sites of mRNAs as well as non-coding regulatory RNAs in FZB42. The genes regulated at different growth phases and located in polycistronic operons were also identified. A set of genes were re-annotated. In addition, a sRNA named Bas01 was identified to be involved in Bacillus sporulation and biofilm formation. The result we obtained provides valuable data for investigation of Bacillus gene expression and molecular details of rhizobacterial interaction with host plants. Examination of transcriptome profile of rhizobacterium B. amyloliquefaciens FZB42 grown under six conditions.
Project description:Environmental strain Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 differs from the domesticated model organism of the same genus, Bacillus subtilis 168, in its ability to promote plant growth and suppress plant-pathogenic organisms present in the rhizosphere. This behavior is exerted mainly through the production of several nonribosomal cyclic lipopeptides and polyketides, which exhibit a broad range of action against phytopathogenic bacteria, fungi, and nematodes. Here, we provide evidence that the synthesis of the main antifungal agent of B. amyloliquefaciens FZB42, bacillomycin D, is regulated in multiple layers. Expression of the bacillomycin D operon (bmy) is dependent on a single sigma(A)-dependent promoter, P(bmy) and is favored in its natural host by the small regulatory protein DegQ. The global regulators DegU and ComA are required for the full transcriptional activation of bmy. DegU retains a key role since it binds directly to two sites located upstream of the bacillomycin D promoter. Moreover, both DegU and a transmembrane protein of unknown function, YczE, act on a later level of gene expression, exerting their posttranscriptional effects in a hitherto-unknown manner.
Project description:Background: The soil environment is responsible for sustaining most terrestrial plant life on earth, yet we know surprisingly little about the important functions carried out by diverse microbial communities in soil. Soil microbes that inhabit the channels of decaying root systems, the detritusphere, are likely to be essential for plant growth and health, as these channels are the preferred locations of new root growth. Understanding the microbial metagenome of the detritusphere and how it responds to agricultural management such as crop rotations and soil tillage will be vital for improving global food production. Methods: The rhizosphere soils of wheat and chickpea growing under + and - decaying root were collected for metagenomics sequencing. A gene catalogue was established by de novo assembling metagenomic sequencing. Genes abundance was compared between bulk soil and rhizosphere soils under different treatments. Conclusions: The study describes the diversity and functional capacity of a high-quality soil microbial metagenome. The results demonstrate the contribution of the microbiome from decaying root in determining the metagenome of developing root systems, which is fundamental to plant growth, since roots preferentially inhabit previous root channels. Modifications in root microbial function through soil management, can ultimately govern plant health, productivity and food security. Overall design: Totally 18 samples were analysed, including the rhizosphere soils of wheat and chickpea growing under + and - decaying root, soils attached on the decaying root, and bulk soil with three replicates.
Project description:The ability to recognize and respond to environmental signals is essential for plants. In response to environmental changes, the status of a plant is transmitted to other plants in the form of signals such as volatiles. Root-associated bacteria trigger the release of plant volatile organic compounds (VOCs). However, the impact of VOCs on the rhizosphere microbial community of neighbouring plants is not well understood. Here, we investigated the effect of VOCs on the rhizosphere microbial community of tomato plants inoculated with a plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain GB03 and that of their neighbouring plants. Interestingly, high similarity (up to 69%) was detected in the rhizosphere microbial communities of the inoculated and neighbouring plants. Leaves of the tomato plant treated with strain GB03-released β-caryophyllene as a signature VOC, which elicited the release of a large amount of salicylic acid (SA) in the root exudates of a neighbouring tomato seedling. The exposure of tomato leaves to β-caryophyllene resulted in the secretion of SA from the root. Our results demonstrate for the first time that the composition of the rhizosphere microbiota in surrounding plants is synchronized through aerial signals from plants.