The oligonucleotide/oligosaccharide-binding fold motif is a poly(ADP-ribose)-binding domain that mediates DNA damage response.
ABSTRACT: Oligonucleotide/oligosaccharide-binding (OB) fold is a ssDNA or RNA binding motif in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Unexpectedly, we found that the OB fold of human ssDNA-binding protein 1 (hSSB1) is a poly(ADP ribose) (PAR) binding domain. hSSB1 exhibits high-affinity binding to PAR and recognizes iso-ADP ribose (ADPR), the linkage between two ADPR units. This interaction between PAR and hSSB1 mediates the early recruitment of hSSB1 to the sites of DNA damage. Mutations in the OB fold of hSSB1 that disrupt PAR binding abolish the relocation of hSSB1 to the sites of DNA damage. Moreover, PAR-mediated recruitment of hSSB1 is important for early DNA damage repair. We have screened other OB folds and found that several other OB folds also recognize PAR. Taken together, our study reveals a PAR-binding domain that mediates DNA damage repair.
Project description:Single-stranded DNA binding proteins (SSBs) play an important role in DNA processing events such as replication, recombination and repair. Human single-stranded DNA binding protein 1 (hSSB1/NABP2/OBFC2B) contains a single oligosaccharide/oligonucleotide binding (OB) domain followed by a charged C-terminus and is structurally homologous to the SSB from the hyperthermophilic crenarchaeote Sulfolobus solfataricus Recent work has revealed that hSSB1 is critical to homologous recombination and numerous other important biological processes such as the regulation of telomeres, the maintenance of DNA replication forks and oxidative damage repair. Since the ability of hSSB1 to directly interact with single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) is paramount for all of these processes, understanding the molecular details of ssDNA recognition is essential. In this study, we have used solution-state nuclear magnetic resonance in combination with biophysical and functional experiments to structurally analyse ssDNA binding by hSSB1. We reveal that ssDNA recognition in solution is modulated by base-stacking of four key aromatic residues within the OB domain. This DNA binding mode differs significantly from the recently determined crystal structure of the SOSS1 complex containing hSSB1 and ssDNA. Our findings elucidate the detailed molecular mechanism in solution of ssDNA binding by hSSB1, a major player in the maintenance of genomic stability.
Project description:Breast cancer susceptibility gene 2 (BRCA2) plays a key role in DNA damage repair for maintaining genomic stability. Previous studies have shown that BRCA2 contains three tandem oligonucleotide/oligosaccharide binding folds (OB-folds) that are involved in DNA binding during DNA double-strand break repair. However, the molecular mechanism of BRCA2 in DNA damage repair remains elusive. Unexpectedly, we found that the OB-folds of BRCA2 recognize poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) and mediate the fast recruitment of BRCA2 to DNA lesions, which is suppressed by PARP inhibitor treatment. Cancer-associated mutations in the OB-folds of BRCA2 disrupt the interaction with PAR and abolish the fast relocation of BRCA2 to DNA lesions. The quickly recruited BRCA2 is important for the early recruitment of exonuclease 1(EXO1) and is involved in DNA end resection, the first step of homologous recombination (HR). Thus, these findings uncover a molecular mechanism by which BRCA2 participates in DNA damage repair.
Project description:Single-stranded DNA binding (SSB) proteins are essential to protect singe-stranded DNA (ssDNA) that exists as a result of several important DNA repair pathways in living cells. In humans, besides the well-characterised Replication Protein A (RPA) we have described another SSB termed human SSB1 (hSSB1, OBFC2B) and have shown that this protein is an important player in the maintenance of the genome. In this review we define the structural and biophysical details of how hSSB1 interacts with both DNA and other essential proteins. While the presence of the oligonucleotide/oligosaccharide (OB) domain ensures ssDNA binding by hSSB1, it has also been shown to self-oligomerise as well as interact with and being modified by several proteins highlighting the versatility that hSSB1 displays in the context of DNA repair. A detailed structural understanding of these processes will likely lead to the designs of tailored hSSB1 inhibitors as anti-cancer drugs in the near future.
Project description:Escherichia coli single-stranded DNA binding protein (SSB) is an essential homotetramer that binds ssDNA and recruits multiple proteins to their sites of action during genomic maintenance. Each SSB subunit contains an N-terminal globular oligonucleotide/oligosaccharide binding fold (OB-fold) and an intrinsically disordered C-terminal domain. SSB binds ssDNA in multiple modes in vitro, including the fully wrapped (SSB)65 and (SSB)56 modes, in which ssDNA contacts all four OB-folds, and the highly cooperative (SSB)35 mode, in which ssDNA contacts an average of only two OB-folds. These modes can both be populated under physiological conditions. While these different modes might be used for different functions, this has been difficult to assess. Here we used a dimeric SSB construct with two covalently linked OB-folds to disable ssDNA binding in two of the four OB-folds thus preventing formation of fully wrapped DNA complexes in vitro, although they retain a wild-type-like, salt-dependent shift in cooperative binding to ssDNA. These variants complement wild-type SSB in vivo indicating that a fully wrapped mode is not essential for function. These results do not preclude a normal function for a fully wrapped mode, but do indicate that E. coli tolerates some flexibility with regards to its SSB binding modes.
Project description:Although structures of single-stranded (ss)DNA-binding proteins (SSBs) have been reported with and without ssDNA, the mechanism of ssDNA binding in eukarya remains speculative. Here we report a 2.5 Angstroms structure of the ssDNA-binding domain of human replication protein A (RPA) (eukaryotic SSB), for which we previously reported a structure in complex with ssDNA. A comparison of free and bound forms of RPA revealed that ssDNA binding is associated with a major reorientation between, and significant conformational changes within, the structural modules--OB-folds--which comprise the DNA-binding domain. Two OB-folds, whose tandem orientation was stabilized by the presence of DNA, adopted multiple orientations in its absence. Within the OB-folds, extended loops implicated in DNA binding significantly changed conformation in the absence of DNA. Analysis of intermolecular contacts suggested the possibility that other RPA molecules and/or other proteins could compete with DNA for the same binding site. Using this mechanism, protein-protein interactions can regulate, and/or be regulated by DNA binding. Combined with available biochemical data, this structure also suggested a dynamic model for the DNA-binding mechanism.
Project description:Single-stranded DNA binding protein (Ssb) of Deinococcus radiodurans comprises N- and C-terminal oligonucleotide/oligosaccharide binding (OB) folds connected by a beta hairpin connector. To assign functional roles to the individual OB folds, we generated three Ssb variants: SsbN (N-terminal without connector), SsbNC (N-terminal with connector) and SsbC (C-terminal), each harboring one OB fold. Both SsbN and SsbNC displayed weak single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) binding activity, compared to the full-length Ssb (SsbFL). The level of ssDNA binding activity displayed by SsbC was intermediate between SsbFL and SsbN. SsbC and SsbFL predominantly existed as homo-dimers while SsbNC/SsbN formed different oligomeric forms. In vitro, SsbNC or SsbN formed a binary complex with SsbC that displayed enhanced ssDNA binding activity. Unlike SsbFL, Ssb variants were able to differentially modulate topoisomerase-I activity, but failed to stimulate Deinococcal RecA-promoted DNA strand exchange. The results suggest that the C-terminal OB fold is primarily responsible for ssDNA binding. The N-terminal OB fold binds weakly to ssDNA but is involved in multimerization.
Project description:Protein poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation and ubiquitination are two key post-translational modifications regulating many biological processes. Through crystallographic and biochemical analysis, we show that the RNF146 WWE domain recognizes poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) by interacting with iso-ADP-ribose (iso-ADPR), the smallest internal PAR structural unit containing the characteristic ribose-ribose glycosidic bond formed during poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation. The key iso-ADPR-binding residues we identified are highly conserved among WWE domains. Binding assays further demonstrate that PAR binding is a common function for the WWE domain family. Since many WWE domain-containing proteins are known E3 ubiquitin ligases, our results suggest that protein poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation may be a general mechanism to target proteins for ubiquitination.
Project description:Cockayne syndrome (CS) is an accelerated aging disorder, caused by mutations in the CSA or CSB genes. In CSB-deficient cells, poly (ADP ribose) polymerase (PARP) is persistently activated by unrepaired DNA damage and PARP consumes and depletes cellular nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD), which leads to mitochondrial dysfunction. Here, the distribution of poly (ADP ribose) (PAR) was determined in CSB-deficient cells using ADPr-ChAP (ADP ribose-chromatin affinity purification), and the results show striking enrichment of PAR at transcription start sites (TSS), depletion of heterochromatin, and downregulation of H3K9me3-specific methyltransferases SUV39H1 and SETDB1. Induced-expression of SETDB1 in CSB-deficient cells downregulated PAR and normalized mitochondrial function. The results suggest that defects in CSB are strongly associated with loss of heterochromatin, downregulation of SETDB1, increased PAR in highly-transcribed regions, and mitochondrial dysfunction. Overall design: H3K9me3 ChIP or ADPr-ChAP was performed from CSB-deficient (CS1AN) /control cells (CS1AN expressing wild type CSB) or doxycyclin-induced SETDB1 expressing CSB-deficient cells.
Project description:Cockayne syndrome is an accelerated aging disorder, caused by mutations in the CSA or CSB genes. In CSB-deficient cells, poly (ADP ribose) polymerase (PARP) is persistently activated by unrepaired DNA damage and consumes and depletes cellular nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, which leads to mitochondrial dysfunction. Here, the distribution of poly (ADP ribose) (PAR) was determined in CSB-deficient cells using ADPr-ChAP (ADP ribose-chromatin affinity purification), and the results show striking enrichment of PAR at transcription start sites, depletion of heterochromatin and downregulation of H3K9me3-specific methyltransferases SUV39H1 and SETDB1. Induced-expression of SETDB1 in CSB-deficient cells downregulated PAR and normalized mitochondrial function. The results suggest that defects in CSB are strongly associated with loss of heterochromatin, downregulation of SETDB1, increased PAR in highly-transcribed regions, and mitochondrial dysfunction.
Project description:The tumor suppressor p53 is essential for several cellular processes that are involved in the response to diverse genotoxic stress, including cell cycle arrest, DNA repair, apoptosis and senescence. Studies of the regulation of p53 have mostly focused on its stability and transactivation; however, new regulatory molecules for p53 have also been frequently identified. Here, we report that human ssDNA binding protein SSB1 (hSSB1), a novel DNA damage-associated protein, can interact with p53 and protect p53 from ubiquitin-mediated degradation. Furthermore, hSSB1 also associates with the acetyltransferase p300 and is required for efficient transcriptional activation of the p53 target gene p21 by affecting the acetylation of p53 at lysine382. Functionally, the hSSB1 knockdown-induced abrogation of the G2/M checkpoint is partially dependent on p53 or p300. Collectively, our results indicate that hSSB1 may regulate DNA damage checkpoints by positively modulating p53 and its downstream target p21.