Pharmacological reduction of mucosal but not neuronal serotonin opposes inflammation in mouse intestine.
ABSTRACT: Enterochromaffin cell-derived serotonin (5-HT) promotes intestinal inflammation. We tested hypotheses that peripheral tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) inhibitors, administered orally, block 5-HT biosynthesis and deplete 5-HT from enterochromaffin cells sufficiently to ameliorate intestinal inflammation; moreover, peripheral TPH inhibitors fail to enter the murine enteric nervous system (ENS) or central nervous systems and thus do not affect constitutive gastrointestinal motility.Two peripheral TPH inhibitors, LP-920540 and telotristat etiprate (LX1032; LX1606) were given orally to mice. Effects were measured on 5-HT levels in the gut, blood and brain, 5-HT immunoreactivity in the ENS, gastrointestinal motility and severity of trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis. Quantitation of clinical scores, histological damage and intestinal expression of inflammation-associated cytokines and chemokines with focused microarrays and real-time reverse transcriptase PCR were employed to evaluate the severity of intestinal inflammation.LP-920540 and LX1032 reduced 5-HT significantly in the gut and blood but not in the brain. Neither LP-920540 nor LX1032 decreased 5-HT immunoreactive neurons or fibres in the myenteric plexus and neither altered total gastrointestinal transit time, colonic motility or gastric emptying in mice. In contrast, oral LP-920540 and LX1032 reduced the severity of TNBS-induced colitis; the expression of 24% of 84 genes encoding inflammation-related cytokines and chemokines was lowered at least fourfold and the reduced expression of 17% was statistically significant.Observations suggest that that peripheral TPH inhibitors uncouple the positive linkage of enterochromaffin cell-derived 5-HT to intestinal inflammation. Because peripheral TPH inhibitors evidently do not enter the murine ENS, they lack deleterious effects on constitutive intestinal motility in mice.
Project description:Postinflammatory irritable bowel syndrome (PI-IBS) is a common functional gastrointestinal disorder, which is characterized by abdominal pain, low-grade inflammation, and visceral hypersensitivity. Shaoyao-Gancao decoction (SGD) has been used to improve the clinical symptoms of abdominal spasmodic pain accompanying acute gastroenteritis, but the underlying therapeutic mechanism has not been fully elucidated. In the present study, a rat model of PI-IBS was established via rectal administration of TNBS. Rats were scored daily for 28 days using disease activity index (DAI). Abdominal withdrawal reflex (AWR) was used to measure the pain threshold. After SGD (6.25, 12.5, and 25?g/kg/d) treatment for 14 days, rat colonic tissue was collected for histopathological grading, enterochromaffin (EC) cell count, and 5-HT content measurement. RT-qPCR and western blot analyses were employed to detect the gene and protein level of tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH), serotonin reuptake transporter (SERT), and transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1). To further validate the effect of SGD on TRPV1, another experiment was performed in cells. The results revealed that visceral hyperalgesia, reflected by increased DAI, AWR, pathological injury score, 5-HT content, and EC cell count in PI-IBS rats, was significantly ameliorated by SGD. In cells, SGD markedly inhibited the expression and function of TRPV1. Moreover, the expression levels of TPH were also repressed by SGD. The findings of the present study indicated that the therapeutic effect of SGD on visceral hyperalgesia may be closely associated with the regulatory role of TRPV1 and 5-HT signaling pathways.
Project description:Background:Tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH)1 catalyzes the biosynthesis of serotonin (5-hydroxytrptamine; 5-HT) in enterochromaffin (EC) cells, the predominant source of gut 5-HT. Secreted 5-HT regulates various gut functions through diverse 5-HT receptor (5-HTR) families, and 5-HT transporter (5-HTT) sequesters its activity via uptake into surrounding cells. In inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) mucosal 5-HT signaling is altered, including upregulated EC cell numbers and 5-HT levels. We examined key mucosal 5-HT signaling components and blood 5-HT levels and, as part of a pilot study, investigated the association between 5-HTT gene-linked polymorphic region (5HTTLPR) and Crohn's disease (CD). Methods:In the context of inflammation, colonic expressions of TPH1, 5-HTT and 5-HTRs were studied in CD patients (n=15) and healthy controls (HC; n=10) using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). We also investigated 5HTTLPR in 40 CD patients and HC utilizing PCR and measured platelet-poor plasma (PPP) and plasma 5-HT concentrations. Results:Compared with HC, inflammation in CD patients was associated with elevated TPH1, 5-HTR3, 5-HTR4, 5-HTR7 and downregulated 5-HTT expressions. In our second cohort of participants, significantly higher PPP and plasma 5-HT levels and higher S-genotype (L/S+S/S) than L/L genotype were observed in CD patients compared with HC. Conclusion:Our results suggest that augmented mucosal 5-HT signaling and specific 5-HTTLPR genotype-associated decreased efficiency in 5-HT reuptake, the latter through increased 5-HT availability, may contribute to inflammation in CD patients. These findings revealed important information on various components of 5-HT signaling in intestinal inflammation which may ultimately lead to effective strategies targeting this pathway in IBD.
Project description:The gut contains a large 5-HT pool in enterochromaffin (EC) cells and a smaller 5-HT pool in the enteric nervous system (ENS). During development, enteric neurons are generated asynchronously. We tested hypotheses that serotonergic neurons, which arise early, affect development/survival of later-born dopaminergic, GABAergic, nitrergic, and calcitonin gene-related peptide-expressing neurons and are essential for gastrointestinal motility. 5-HT biosynthesis depends on tryptophan hydroxylase 1 (TPH1) in EC cells and on TPH2 in neurons; therefore, mice lacking TPH1 and/or TPH2 distinguish EC-derived from neuronal 5-HT. Deletion of TPH2, but not TPH1, decreased myenteric neuronal density and proportions of dopaminergic and GABAergic neurons but did not affect the extrinsic sympathetic innervation of the gut; intestinal transit slowed in mice lacking TPH2 mice, but gastric emptying accelerated. Isolated enteric crest-derived cells (ENCDCs) expressed the serotonin reuptake transporter (SERT) and 15 subtypes of 5-HT receptor. Addition of 5-HT to cultures of isolated ENCDCs promoted total and dopaminergic neuronal development. Rings of SERT-immunoreactive terminal axons surrounded myenteric dopaminergic neurons and SERT knock-out increased intestinal levels of dopamine metabolites, implying that enteric dopaminergic neurons receive a serotonergic innervation. Observations suggest that constitutive gastrointestinal motility depends more on neuronal than EC cell serotonin; moreover, serotonergic neurons promote development/survival of some classes of late-born enteric neurons, including dopaminergic neurons, which appear to innervate and activate in the adult ENS.
Project description:BACKGROUND & AIMS:Mood disorders and constipation are often comorbid, yet their shared etiologies have rarely been explored. The neurotransmitter serotonin (5-HT) regulates central nervous system and enteric nervous system (ENS) development and long-term functions, including gastrointestinal (GI) motility and mood. Therefore, defects in neuron production of 5-HT might result in brain and intestinal dysfunction. Tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (TPH2) is the rate-limiting enzyme in 5-HT biosynthesis. A variant of TPH2 that encodes the R441H substitution (TPH2-R441H) was identified in individuals with severe depression. We studied mice with an analogous mutation (TPH2-R439H), which results in a 60%-80% decrease in levels of 5-HT in the central nervous system and behaviors associated with depression in humans. Feeding chow that contains 5-HTP slow release (5-HTP SR) to TPH2-R439H mice restores levels of 5-HT in the central nervous system and reduces depressive-like behaviors. METHODS:We compared the effects of feeding chow, with or without 5-HTP SR, to mice with the TPH2-R439H mutation and without this mutation (control mice). Myenteric and submucosal plexuses were isolated from all 4 groups of mice, and immunocytochemistry was used to quantify total enteric neurons, serotonergic neurons, and 5-HT-dependent subsets of neurons. We performed calcium imaging experiments to evaluate responses of enteric neurons to tryptamine-evoked release of endogenous 5-HT. In live mice, we measured total GI transit, gastric emptying, small intestinal transit, and propulsive colorectal motility. To measure colonic migrating motor complexes (CMMCs), we isolated colons and constructed spatiotemporal maps along the proximodistal length to quantify the frequency, velocity, and length of CMMCs. We measured villus height, crypt perimeter, and relative densities of enterochromaffin and enteroendocrine cells in small intestinal tissue. RESULTS:Levels of 5-HT were significantly lower in enteric neurons from TPH2-R439H mice than from control mice. TPH2-R439H mice had abnormalities in ENS development and ENS-mediated GI functions, including reduced motility and intestinal epithelial growth. Total GI transit and propulsive colorectal motility were slower in TPH2-R439H mice than controls, and CMMCs were slower and less frequent. Villus height and crypt perimeter were significantly decreased in colon tissues from TPH2-R439H mice compared with controls. Administration of 5-HTP SR to adult TPH2-R439H mice restored 5-HT to enteric neurons and reversed these abnormalities. Adult TPH2-R439H mice given oral 5-HTP SR had normalized numbers of enteric neurons, total GI transit, and colonic motility. Intestinal tissue from these mice had normal measures of CMMCs and enteric epithelial growth CONCLUSIONS: In studies of TPH2-R439H mice, we found evidence for reduced release of 5-HT from enteric neurons that results in defects in ENS development and GI motility. Our findings indicate that neuron production of 5-HT links constipation with mood dysfunction. Administration of 5-HTP SR to mice restored 5-HT to the ENS and normalized GI motility and growth of the enteric epithelium. 5-HTP SR might be used to treat patients with intestinal dysfunction associated with low levels of 5-HT.
Project description:Since its identification, 75 years ago, the monoamine serotonin (5-HT) has attracted considerable attention toward its role as a neurotransmitter in the central nervous system. Yet, increasing evidence, from a growing number of research groups, substantiates the fact that 5-HT regulates important nonneuronal functions. Peripheral 5-HT, synthesized by the enzyme tryptophan hydroxyase (Tph) in intestinal cells, was assumed to be distributed throughout the entire body by blood platelets and to behave as a pleiotropic hormone. A decade ago, generation of a mouse model devoid of peripheral 5-HT lead to the discovery of a second isoform of the enzyme Tph and also suggested that 5-HT might act as a local regulator in various organs. The objective of this review is to highlight the newly discovered functions played by the monoamine using the Tph1 KO murine model and to outline current findings that led to the discovery of complete serotonergic systems in unexpected organs. Within an organ, both the presence of local Tph enzymatic activity and serotonergic components are of particular importance as they support the view that 5-HT meets the criteria to be qualified as a monoamine with a paracrine/autocrine function.
Project description:On the basis of previous studies demonstrating that a breach of the colonic epithelial barrier is associated with a microbiota-dependent increase in lamina propria (LP) regulatory cells, we investigated if the lack of spontaneous intestinal inflammation observed in nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain 2 (Nod2)-/- mice was due to enhanced intestinal regulatory function. We found that the LP CD4+ T-cell population of Nod2-/- mice contains an increased percentage of CD4+ regulatory T cells bearing transforming growth factor -?/latency peptide (LP CD4+LAP (latency-associated peptide) + T cells) both under baseline conditions and following an intentional breach of the colonic barrier induced by ethanol administration. In addition, we found that Nod2-/- mice manifest decreased severity of 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-colitis and that TNBS-colitis in Nod2-/- or Nod2+/+ mice is ameliorated by adoptive transfer of LP cells from ethanol-treated mice before, but not after, depletion of LAP+ T cells. This increased regulatory T-cell response in Nod2-/- mice could explain why NOD2 polymorphisms in humans are not in themselves sufficient to establish inflammatory lesions.
Project description:This study focuses on characterizing the effect of a high salt diet (HSD) on intestinal immunity and the risk of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). We found that mice on a HSD had an increased frequency of IL-17A producing cells in the intestinal lamina propria (LP) compared to mice on a normal diet (ND). Furthermore, most intestinal IL-17A producing cells were CD4+TCR?+ cells. A HSD increased the LP T helper 17 (Th17) responses in both the small and large intestines but did not increase the Th17 response of other gut-associated lymphoid organ. Although, HSD did not change the percentage of regulatory T (Treg) cells, HSD significantly inhibit secretion of IL-10 and the suppressive function of Treg cells. Moreover, we found that HSD exacerbates trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS) induced colitis, and Th17 response was significantly increased in the colonic LP of HSD TNBS-treated mice compared with the ND TNBS-treated mice. This study demonstrates that HSD stimulates the intestinal Th17 response but inhibits the function of Treg cells. Moreover, HSD exacerbates TNBS induced mice colitis, suggesting that HSD disrupts the intestinal immunity and increases the risk of IBD.
Project description:Peripheral serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine: 5-HT) synthesized in the intestine by enterochromaffin cells (ECs), plays an important role in the regulation of peristaltic of the gut, epithelial secretion and promotes the development and maintenance of the enteric neurons. Recent studies showed that the indigenous gut microbiota modulates 5-HT signalling and that ECs use sensory receptors to detect dietary and microbiota-derived signals from the lumen to subsequently transduce the information to the nervous system. We hypothesized that Clostridium ramosum by increasing gut 5-HT availability consequently contributes to high-fat diet-induced obesity. Using germ-free mice and mice monoassociated with C. ramosum, intestinal cell lines and mouse organoids, we demonstrated that bacterial cell components stimulate host 5-HT secretion and program the differentiation of colonic intestinal stem progenitors toward the secretory 5-HT-producing lineage. An elevated 5-HT level regulates the expression of major proteins involved in intestinal fatty acid absorption in vitro, suggesting that the presence of C. ramosum in the gut promotes 5-HT secretion and thereby could facilitates intestinal lipid absorption and the development of obesity.
Project description:5-HT is a vasoconstrictor exhibiting enhanced effects in systemic arteries from subjects with cardiovascular disease. The effect of endogenous 5-HT on arteries is controversial, because the concentration of free circulating 5-HT is low and a 5-hydroxytryptaminergic system has not been identified in peripheral arteries. We hypothesized that a local 5-hydroxytryptaminergic system (including 5-HT synthesis, metabolism, uptake and release) with physiological function exists in peripheral arteries.The presence of key components of a 5-hydroxytryptaminergic system in rat aorta and superior mesenteric artery was examined using western blot analyses, immunohistochemistry and immunocytochemistry. The function of the rate-limiting enzyme in 5-HT biosynthesis, tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH), and 5-HT transporter was tested by measuring enzyme activity and 5-HT uptake, respectively. Isometric contraction of arterial strips was used to demonstrate the function of released endogenous 5-HT in arterial tissues.mRNA for TPH-1 was present in arteries, with low levels of TPH protein and TPH activity. Expression and function of MAO A (5-HT metabolizing enzyme) was supported by immunohistochemistry, western analyses and the elevation of concentrations of 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HT metabolite) after exposure to exogenous 5-HT. The 5-HT transporter was localized to the plasma membrane of freshly isolated aortic smooth muscle cells. Peripheral arteries actively took up 5-HT in a time-dependent and 5-HT transporter-dependent manner. The 5-HT transporter substrate, (+)-fenfluramine, released endogenous 5-HT from peripheral arteries, which potentiated noradrenaline-induced arterial contraction.This study revealed the existence of a local 5-hydroxytryptaminergic system in peripheral arteries.
Project description:The enteric nervous system (ENS) is crucial for essential gastrointestinal physiologic functions such as motility, fluid secretion, and blood flow. The gut is colonized by trillions of bacteria that regulate host production of several signaling molecules including serotonin (5-HT) and other hormones and neurotransmitters. Approximately 90% of 5-HT originates from the intestine, and activation of the 5-HT4 receptor in the ENS has been linked to adult neurogenesis and neuroprotection. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the gut microbiota could induce maturation of the adult ENS through release of 5-HT and activation of 5-HT4 receptors. Colonization of germ-free mice with a microbiota from conventionally raised mice modified the neuroanatomy of the ENS and increased intestinal transit rates, which was associated with neuronal and mucosal 5-HT production and the proliferation of enteric neuronal progenitors in the adult intestine. Pharmacological modulation of the 5-HT4 receptor, as well as depletion of endogenous 5-HT, identified a mechanistic link between the gut microbiota and maturation of the adult ENS through the release of 5-HT and activation of the 5-HT4 receptor. Taken together, these findings show that the microbiota modulates the anatomy of the adult ENS in a 5-HT-dependent fashion with concomitant changes in intestinal transit.