Kelch-like ECT2-interacting protein KLEIP regulates late-stage pulmonary maturation via Hif-2? in mice.
ABSTRACT: Respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) caused by preterm delivery is a major clinical problem with limited mechanistic insight. Late-stage embryonic lung development is driven by hypoxia and the hypoxia-inducible transcription factors Hif-1? and Hif-2?, which act as important regulators for lung development. Expression of the BTB-and kelch-domain-containing (BTB-kelch) protein KLEIP (Kelch-like ECT2-interacting protein; also named Klhl20) is controlled by two hypoxia response elements, and KLEIP regulates stabilization and transcriptional activation of Hif-2?. Based on the available data, we hypothesized an essential role for KLEIP in murine lung development and function. Therefore, we have performed a functional, histological, mechanistic and interventional study in embryonic and neonatal KLEIP(-/-) mice. Here, we show that about half of the KLEIP(-/-) neonates die due to respiratory failure that is caused by insufficient aeration, reduced septal thinning, reduced glycogenolysis, type II pneumocyte immaturity and reduced surfactant production. Expression analyses in embryonic day (E) 18.5 lungs identified KLEIP in lung capillaries, and showed strongly reduced mRNA and protein levels for Hif-2? and VEGF; such reduced levels are associated with embryonic endothelial cell apoptosis and lung bleedings. Betamethasone injection in pregnant females prevented respiratory failure in KLEIP(-/-) neonates, normalized lung maturation, vascularization, aeration and function, and increased neonatal Hif-2? expression. Thus, the experimental study shows that respiratory failure in KLEIP(-/-) neonates is determined by insufficient angiocrine Hif-2?-VEGF signaling and that betamethasone activates this newly identified signaling cascade in late-stage embryonic lung development.
Project description:Hypoxia is a state of decreased oxygen reaching the tissues of the body. During prenatal development, the fetus experiences localized occurrences of hypoxia that are essential for proper organogenesis and survival. The response to decreased oxygen availability is primarily regulated by hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs), a family of transcription factors that modulate the expression of key genes involved in glycolysis, angiogenesis, and erythropoiesis. HIF-1? and HIF-2?, two key isoforms, are important in embryonic development, and likely are involved in lung morphogenesis. We have recently shown that the inducible loss of Hif-1? in lung epithelium starting at E4.5 leads to death within an hour of parturition, with symptoms similar to neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (RDS). In addition to Hif-1?, Hif-2? is also expressed in the developing lung, although the overlapping roles of Hif-1? and Hif-2? in this context are not fully understood. To further investigate the independent role of Hif-2? in lung epithelium and its ability to alter Hif-1?-mediated lung maturation, we generated two additional lung-specific inducible Hif-? knockout models (Hif-2? and Hif-1?+Hif-2?). The intrauterine loss of Hif-2? in the lungs does not lead to decreased viability or observable phenotypic changes in the lung. More interestingly, survivability observed after the loss of both Hif-1? and Hif-2? suggests that the loss of Hif-2? is capable of rescuing the neonatal RDS phenotype seen in Hif-1?-deficient pups. Microarray analyses of lung tissue from these three genotypes identified several factors, such as Scd1, Retln?, and Il-1r2, which are differentially regulated by the two HIF-? isoforms. Moreover, network analysis suggests that modulation of hormone-mediated, NF-?B, C/EBP?, and c-MYC signaling are central to HIF-mediated changes in lung development.
Project description:Antenatal corticosteroids play an important role in preventing Respiratory Distress Syndrome (RDS) but benefits related to time between corticosteroid administration and delivery need to be explored.To observe the effect of betamethasone administration in pregnant women at risk of preterm delivery and on foetal parameters, in terms of development of RDS.It was a prospective observational study on pregnant women at risk of preterm delivery who were administered a single dose 24 mg injection betamethasone. Outcome of 111 newborns of enrolled mothers was observed in terms of respiratory distress, Downe's and Silverman Anderson score, need of NICU admission and ventilation. Paired t-test was used to compare means of maternal parameters before and after betamethasone. Independent sample t-test for comparison of scores for respiratory distress in neonates was used.There was a significant decrease in maternal haematological parameters like mean Red Blood Cell (RBC) and mean Platelet Count (PC) whereas increase in mean Total leucocyte Count (TC) after betamethasone administration. Out of 111 newborn babies, 71 were born within 24 hours and rest were born after 24 hours of betamethasone administration. Twelve out of 71 newborns who were born within 24 hours of betamethasone administration, developed RDS. Mean Downe's score and mean Silverman Anderson score in neonates born within 24 hours of injection administration were significantly higher than those born after 24 hours.Betamethasone administration affects the haematological parameters in mothers in antenatal period nearing term. A minimum of 24 hours have to elapse between corticosteroid administration and delivery of the preterm for benefits to occur.
Project description:Transcriptional responses to hypoxia are primarily mediated by hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF), a heterodimer of HIF-alpha and the aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator subunits. The HIF-1alpha and HIF-2alpha subunits are structurally similar in their DNA binding and dimerization domains but differ in their transactivation domains, implying they may have unique target genes. Previous studies using Hif-1alpha(-/-) embryonic stem and mouse embryonic fibroblast cells show that loss of HIF-1alpha eliminates all oxygen-regulated transcriptional responses analyzed, suggesting that HIF-2alpha is dispensable for hypoxic gene regulation. In contrast, HIF-2alpha has been shown to regulate some hypoxia-inducible genes in transient transfection assays and during embryonic development in the lung and other tissues. To address this discrepancy, and to identify specific HIF-2alpha target genes, we used DNA microarray analysis to evaluate hypoxic gene induction in cells expressing HIF-2alpha but not HIF-1alpha. In addition, we engineered HEK293 cells to express stabilized forms of HIF-1alpha or HIF-2alpha via a tetracycline-regulated promoter. In this first comparative study of HIF-1alpha and HIF-2alpha target genes, we demonstrate that HIF-2alpha does regulate a variety of broadly expressed hypoxia-inducible genes, suggesting that its function is not restricted, as initially thought, to endothelial cell-specific gene expression. Importantly, HIF-1alpha (and not HIF-2alpha) stimulates glycolytic gene expression in both types of cells, clearly showing for the first time that HIF-1alpha and HIF-2alpha have unique targets.
Project description:Hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) are crucial for oxygen homeostasis during both embryonic development and postnatal life. Here we show that a novel HIF family basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) PAS (Per-Arnt-Sim) protein, which is expressed predominantly during embryonic and neonatal stages and thereby designated NEPAS (neonatal and embryonic PAS), acts as a negative regulator of HIF-mediated gene expression. NEPAS mRNA is derived from the HIF-3alpha gene by alternative splicing, replacing the first exon of HIF-3alpha with that of inhibitory PAS. NEPAS can dimerize with Arnt and exhibits only low levels of transcriptional activity, similar to that of HIF-3alpha. NEPAS suppressed reporter gene expression driven by HIF-1alpha and HIF-2alpha. By generating mice with a targeted disruption of the NEPAS/HIF-3alpha locus, we found that homozygous mutant mice (NEPAS/HIF-3alpha(-)(/)(-)) were viable but displayed enlargement of the right ventricle and impaired lung remodeling. The expression of endothelin 1 and platelet-derived growth factor beta was increased in the lung endothelial cells of NEPAS/HIF-3alpha-null mice. These results demonstrate a novel regulatory mechanism in which the activities of HIF-1alpha and HIF-2alpha are negatively regulated by NEPAS in endothelial cells, which is pertinent to lung and heart development during the embryonic and neonatal stages.
Project description:Hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) 1a, EPAS1 and NEPAS are expressed in the embryonic mouse lung and each isoform exhibits distinct spatiotemporal expression patterns throughout morphogenesis. To further assess the role of the HIF1a isoform in lung epithelial cell differentiation and homeostasis, we created transgenic mice that express a constitutively active isoform of human HIF-1a (HIF-1a three point mutant (TPM)), in a doxycycline-dependent manner. Expression of HIF1a TPM in the developing pulmonary epithelium resulted in lung hypoplasia characterized by defective branching morphogenesis, altered cellular energetics and impaired epithelial maturation, culminating in neonatal lethality at birth from severe respiratory distress. Histological and biochemical analyses revealed expanded glycogen pools in the pulmonary epithelial cells at E18.5, concomitant with decreased pulmonary surfactant, suggesting a delay or an arrest in maturation. Importantly, these defects occurred in the absence of apoptosis or necrosis. In addition, sub-pleural hemorrhaging was evident as early as E14.5 in HIF1a TPM lungs, despite normal patterning of the blood vasculature, consistent with defects in endothelial barrier function. Epithelial expression of HIF1a TPM also resulted in increased VEGFA and VEGFC production, an increase in the number of lymphatic vessels and indirect activation of the multiple Notch pathway components in endothelial precursor cells. Collectively, these data indicate that HIF-1a protein levels in the pulmonary epithelium must be tightly controlled for proper development of the epithelial and mesenchymal compartments.
Project description:We investigated the effects of hypoxia on spontaneous (SP)- and activin A (AA)-induced definitive endoderm (DE) differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) and their subsequent differentiation into distal pulmonary epithelial cells. SP differentiation for 6 days of mESCs toward endoderm at hypoxia of 1% O2, but not at 3% or 21% (normoxia), increased the expression of Sox17 and Foxa2 by 31- and 63-fold above maintenance culture, respectively. Treatment of mESCs with 20 ng/mL AA for 6 days under hypoxia further increased the expression of DE marker genes Sox17, Foxa2, and Cxcr4 by 501-, 1,483-, and 126-fold above maintenance cultures, respectively. Transient exposure to hypoxia, as short as 24?h, was sufficient to enhance AA-induced endoderm formation. The involvement of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1? and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the AA-induced endoderm enrichment was assessed using HIF-1?(-/-) mESCs and the ROS scavenger N-acetylcysteine (NAC). Under SP conditions, HIF-1?(-/-) mESCs failed to increase the expression of endodermal marker genes but rather shifted toward ectoderm. Hypoxia induced only a marginal potentiation of AA-induced endoderm differentiation in HIF-1?(-/-) mESCs. Treatment of mESCs with AA and NAC led to a dose-dependent decrease in Sox17 and Foxa2 expression. In addition, the duration of exposure to hypoxia in the course of a recently reported lung differentiation protocol resulted in differentially enhanced expression of distal lung epithelial cell marker genes aquaporin 5 (Aqp5), surfactant protein C (Sftpc), and secretoglobin 1a1 (Scgb1a1) for alveolar epithelium type I, type II, and club cells, respectively. Our study is the first to show the effects of in vitro hypoxia on efficient formation of DE and lung lineages. We suggest that the extent of hypoxia and careful timing may be important components of in vitro differentiation bioprocesses for the differential generation of distal lung epithelial cells from pluripotent progenitors.
Project description:COVID-19, disease caused by the new coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, appeared in the end of 2019 and was rapidly spread in most countries. This respiratory virus has different symptoms from moderate to severe, and results in lung pneumonia following acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and patient's death in severe cases. ARDS is a severe form of acute lung injury that is caused by high inflammatory response of the innate immunity cells. Hypoxia is the common feature in the inflammatory sites with having various impacts on this condition by induction of some factors such as hypoxia inducible factor-1? (HIF-1?). HIF-1? regulates some important cellular processes including cell proliferation, metabolism and angiogenesis. Furthermore, this factor is activated during the immune responses and plays important roles in the inflammation site by inducing pro-inflammatory cytokines production through immune cells. So, in this study the possible effect of the HIF-1? on the COVID-19 pathogenesis with emphasizes on its role on innate immunity response has been discussed.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The kelch motif is an ancient and evolutionarily-widespread sequence motif of 44-56 amino acids in length. It occurs as five to seven repeats that form a beta-propeller tertiary structure. Over 28 kelch-repeat proteins have been sequenced and functionally characterised from diverse organisms spanning from viruses, plants and fungi to mammals and it is evident from expressed sequence tag, domain and genome databases that many additional hypothetical proteins contain kelch-repeats. In general, kelch-repeat beta-propellers are involved in protein-protein interactions, however the modest sequence identity between kelch motifs, the diversity of domain architectures, and the partial information on this protein family in any single species, all present difficulties to developing a coherent view of the kelch-repeat domain and the kelch-repeat protein superfamily. To understand the complexity of this superfamily of proteins, we have analysed by bioinformatics the complement of kelch-repeat proteins encoded in the human genome and have made comparisons to the kelch-repeat proteins encoded in other sequenced genomes. RESULTS: We identified 71 kelch-repeat proteins encoded in the human genome, whereas 5 or 8 members were identified in yeasts and around 18 in C. elegans, D. melanogaster and A. gambiae. Multiple domain architectures were identified in each organism, including previously unrecognised forms. The vast majority of kelch-repeat domains are predicted to form six-bladed beta-propellers. The most prevalent domain architecture in the metazoan animal genomes studied was the BTB/kelch domain organisation and we uncovered 3 subgroups of human BTB/kelch proteins. Sequence analysis of the kelch-repeat domains of the most robustly-related subgroups identified differences in beta-propeller organisation that could provide direction for experimental study of protein-binding characteristics. CONCLUSION: The kelch-repeat superfamily constitutes a distinct and evolutionarily-widespread family of beta-propeller domain-containing proteins. Expansion of the family during the evolution of multicellular animals is mainly accounted for by a major expansion of the BTB/kelch domain architecture. BTB/kelch proteins constitute 72 % of the kelch-repeat superfamily of H. sapiens and form three subgroups, one of which appears the most-conserved during evolution. Distinctions in propeller blade organisation between subgroups 1 and 2 were identified that could provide new direction for biochemical and functional studies of novel kelch-repeat proteins.
Project description:Histone acetyltransferase 1 is an evolutionarily conserved type B histone acetyltransferase that is thought to be responsible for the diacetylation of newly synthesized histone H4 on lysines 5 and 12 during chromatin assembly. To understand the function of this enzyme in a complex organism, we have constructed a conditional mouse knockout model of Hat1. Murine Hat1 is essential for viability, as homozygous deletion of Hat1 results in neonatal lethality. The lungs of embryos and pups genetically deficient in Hat1 were much less mature upon histological evaluation. The neonatal lethality is due to severe defects in lung development that result in less aeration and respiratory distress. Many of the Hat1(-/-) neonates also display significant craniofacial defects with abnormalities in the bones of the skull and jaw. Hat1(-/-) mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) are defective in cell proliferation and are sensitive to DNA damaging agents. In addition, the Hat1(-/-) MEFs display a marked increase in genome instability. Analysis of histone dynamics at sites of replication-coupled chromatin assembly demonstrates that Hat1 is not only responsible for the acetylation of newly synthesized histone H4 but is also required to maintain the acetylation of histone H3 on lysines 9, 18, and 27 during replication-coupled chromatin assembly.
Project description:E3 ubiquitin ligases that direct substrate proteins to the ubiquitin-proteasome system are promising, though largely unexplored drug targets both because of their function and their remarkable specificity. CRLs [Cullin-RING (really interesting new gene) ligases] are the largest group of E3 ligases and function as modular multisubunit complexes constructed around a Cullin-family scaffold protein. The Cul3-based CRLs uniquely assemble with BTB (broad complex/tramtrack/bric-à-brac) proteins that also homodimerize and perform the role of both the Cullin adapter and the substrate-recognition component of the E3. The most prominent member is the BTB-BACK (BTB and C-terminal Kelch)-Kelch protein KEAP1 (Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1), a master regulator of the oxidative stress response and a potential drug target for common conditions such as diabetes, Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. Structural characterization of BTB-Cul3 complexes has revealed a number of critical assembly mechanisms, including the binding of an N-terminal Cullin extension to a bihelical '3-box' at the C-terminus of the BTB domain. Improved understanding of the structure of these complexes should contribute significantly to the effort to develop novel therapeutics targeted to CRL3-regulated pathways.