Osteopontin deletion prevents the development of obesity and hepatic steatosis via impaired adipose tissue matrix remodeling and reduced inflammation and fibrosis in adipose tissue and liver in mice.
ABSTRACT: Osteopontin (OPN) is a multifunctional extracellular matrix (ECM) protein involved in multiple physiological processes. OPN expression is dramatically increased in visceral adipose tissue in obesity and the lack of OPN protects against the development of insulin resistance and inflammation in mice. We sought to unravel the potential mechanisms involved in the beneficial effects of the absence of OPN. We analyzed the effect of the lack of OPN in the development of obesity and hepatic steatosis induced by a high-fat diet (HFD) using OPN-KO mice. OPN expression was upregulated in epididymal white adipose tissue (EWAT) and liver in wild type (WT) mice with HFD. OPN-KO mice had higher insulin sensitivity, lower body weight and fat mass with reduced adipose tissue ECM remodeling and reduced adipocyte size than WT mice under a HFD. Reduced MMP2 and MMP9 activity was involved in the decreased ECM remodeling. Crown-like structure number in EWAT as well as F4/80-positive cells and Emr1 expression in EWAT and liver increased with HFD, while OPN-deficiency blunted the increase. Moreover, our data show for the first time that OPN-KO under a HFD mice display reduced fibrosis in adipose tissue and liver, as well as reduced oxidative stress in adipose tissue. Gene expression of collagens Col1a1, Col6a1 and Col6a3 in EWAT and liver, as well as the profibrotic cytokine Tgfb1 in EWAT were increased with HFD, while OPN-deficiency prevented this increase. OPN deficiency prevented hepatic steatosis via reduction in the expression of molecules involved in the onset of fat accumulation such as Pparg, Srebf1, Fasn, Mogat1, Dgat2 and Cidec. Furthermore, OPN-KO mice exhibited higher body temperature and improved BAT function. The present data reveal novel mechanisms of OPN in the development of obesity, pointing out the inhibition of OPN as a promising target for the treatment of obesity and fatty liver.
Project description:Recent accumulating evidence suggests that innate immunity is associated with obesity-induced chronic inflammation and metabolic disorders. Here, we show that a Toll-like receptor (TLR) protein, radioprotective 105 (RP105)/myeloid differentiation protein (MD)-1 complex, contributes to high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity, adipose tissue inflammation, and insulin resistance. An HFD dramatically increased RP105 mRNA and protein expression in stromal vascular fraction of epididymal white adipose tissue (eWAT) in wild-type (WT) mice. RP105 mRNA expression also was significantly increased in the visceral adipose tissue of obese human subjects relative to nonobese subjects. The RP105/MD-1 complex was expressed by most adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs). An HFD increased RP105/MD-1 expression on the M1 subset of ATMs that accumulate in eWAT. Macrophages also acquired this characteristic in coculture with 3T3-L1 adipocytes. RP105 knockout (KO) and MD-1 KO mice had less HFD-induced adipose tissue inflammation, hepatic steatosis, and insulin resistance compared with wild-type (WT) and TLR4 KO mice. Finally, the saturated fatty acids, palmitic and stearic acids, are endogenous ligands for TLR4, but they did not activate RP105/MD-1. Thus, the RP105/MD-1 complex is a major mediator of adipose tissue inflammation independent of TLR4 signaling and may represent a novel therapeutic target for obesity-associated metabolic disorders.
Project description:Low-grade inflammation links obesity to insulin resistance through the activation of tissue-infiltrating immune cells. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a crucial regulator of T cells and is increased in obesity. Here we report that classical IL-6 signalling in T cells promotes inflammation and insulin resistance during the first 8 weeks on a high-fat diet (HFD), but becomes dispensable at later stages (after 16 weeks). Mice with T cell-specific deficiency of IL-6 receptor-? (IL-6R?<sup>T-KO</sup>) exposed to a HFD display improved glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity and inflammation in liver and EWAT after 8 weeks. However, after 16 weeks, insulin resistance in IL-6R?<sup>T-KO</sup> epididymal white adipose tissue (EWAT) is comparable to that of controls, whereas the inflammatory profile is significantly worse. This coincided with a shift from classical T cell IL-6 signalling at 8 weeks, to enhanced IL-6 trans-signalling at 16 weeks. Collectively, our studies reveal that IL-6 action in T cells through classical IL-6 signalling promotes inflammation and insulin resistance early during obesity development, which can be compensated for by enhanced IL-6 trans-signalling at later stages.
Project description:Inflammation and immunity are linked to the onset and development of obesity and metabolic disorders. Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) are key regulators of inflammation and immunity in response to infection and stress, and they have critical roles in metainflammation. In this study, we investigated whether RIG-I (retinoic acid-inducible gene I)-like receptors were involved in the regulation of obesity-induced metabolic stress in RIG-I knockout (KO) mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD). RIG-I KO mice fed an HFD for 12 weeks showed greater body weight gain, higher fat composition, lower lean body mass, and higher epididymal white adipose tissue (eWAT) weight than WT mice fed HFD. In contrast, body weight gain, fat, and lean mass compositions, and eWAT weight of MDA5 (melanoma differentiation-associated protein 5) KO mice fed HFD were similar to those of WT mice fed a normal diet. RIG-I KO mice fed HFD exhibited more severely impaired glucose tolerance and higher HOMA-IR values than WT mice fed HFD. IFN-β expression induced by ER stress inducers, tunicamycin and thapsigargin, was abolished in RIG-I-deficient hepatocytes and macrophages, showing that RIG-I is required for ER stress-induced IFN-β expression. Our results show that RIG-I deficiency promotes obesity and insulin resistance induced by a high-fat diet, presenting a novel role of RIG-I in the development of obesity and metabolic disorders.
Project description:Obesity is characterized by low-grade chronic inflammation, which underlies insulin resistance and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Swertiamarin is a secoiridoid glycoside that has been reported to ameliorate diabetes and NAFLD in animal models. However, the effects of swertiamarin on obesity-related inflammation and insulin resistance have not been fully elucidated. Thus, this study investigated the effects of swertiamarin on inflammation and insulin resistance in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice. C57BL/6 mice were fed a HFD or HFD containing swertiamarin for 8 weeks. Obesity-induced insulin resistance and inflammation were assessed in the epididymal white adipose tissue (eWAT) and livers of the mice. Swertiamarin attenuated HFD-induced weight gain, glucose intolerance, oxidative stress, and insulin resistance, and enhanced insulin signalling in mice. Compared to HFD-fed mice, the swertiamarin-treated mice exhibited increased lipolysis and reduced adipocyte hypertrophy and macrophage infiltration in eWAT. Moreover, swertiamarin alleviated HFD-mediated hepatic steatosis and inflammation by suppressing activation of the p38 MAPK and NF-κB pathways within the eWAT and liver of obese mice. In conclusion, supplementation with swertiamarin attenuated weight gain and hepatic steatosis, and alleviated obesity-associated inflammation and insulin resistance, in obese mice.
Project description:The present study aimed to investigate the effect of metformin on the induction of autophagy in the liver and adipose tissues of a mouse model of obesity. C57BL/6J mice were fed a high?fat diet (HFD) for 12 weeks to induce obesity?associated hepatic steatosis, and treated with metformin (150 mg/kg/d) by intraperitoneal injection for the final 4 weeks of HFD feeding. Body weight was recorded weekly, and the food intake of the mice was recorded daily during the treatment period. Liver and adipose tissues were harvested for histological and molecular analyses. The results revealed that metformin significantly reduced body weight without altering food intake in the HFD mice, particularly in the epididymal white adipose tissue (eWAT). Metformin treatment ameliorated HFD?induced hepatic steatosis and serum levels of triglycerides, which was consistent with a marked increase in the expression levels of microtubule?associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3) and AMP?activated protein kinase (AMPK) in the liver following metformin treatment. However, metformin suppressed the expression of LC3 in the eWAT without altering the expression of AMPK, compared with that in the HFD mice. In conclusion, metformin reduced the body weight and hepatic steatosis of the HFD?induced obese mice, without altering food intake. The effects of metformin treatment may be attributable to the improved induction of hepatic autophagy and the inhibited induction of adipose tissue autophagy.
Project description:Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is elevated in patients with obesity; however, its contribution to the pathophysiology related to obesity is not fully understood. We hypothesized that high ET-1 levels cause dyslipidemia, inflammation, and insulin resistance within the adipose tissue of obese mice. To test this hypothesis, male C57BL/6J mice were fed either normal diet (NMD) or high-fat diet (HFD) for 8 weeks followed by 2 weeks of treatment with either vehicle, atrasentan (ETA receptor antagonist, 10 mg/kg/day) or bosentan (ETA/ETB receptor antagonist, 100 mg/kg/day). Atrasentan and bosentan lowered circulating non-esterified free fatty acids and triglycerides seen in HFD mice, while atrasentan-treated mice had significantly lower liver triglycerides compared with non-treated HFD mice. ET-1 receptor blockade significantly improved insulin tolerance compared with insulin-resistant HFD mice and lowered expression of genes in epididymal white adipose tissue (eWAT) associated with insulin resistance and inflammation. Flow cytometric analyses of eWAT indicated that HFD mice had significantly higher percentages of both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells compared with NMD mice, which was attenuated by treatment with atrasentan or bosentan. Atrasentan treatment also abolished the decrease in eosinophils seen in HFD mice. Taken together, these data indicate that ETA and ETA/ETB receptor blockade improves peripheral glucose homeostasis, dyslipidemia and liver triglycerides, and also attenuates the pro-inflammatory immune profile in eWAT of mice fed HFD. These data suggest a potential use for ETA and ETA/ETB receptor blockers in the treatment of obesity-associated dyslipidemia and insulin resistance.
Project description:<b>Objective:</b> Long-term dysregulation of energy balance is the key component of the obesity epidemic. Given the harm of central obesity and the discovery that beige cells appear within white adipose tissue (WAT), enhancing the energy-expending or "browning" ability of visceral adipose tissue (VAT) has become of therapeutic interest. In this study, we focused on the regulating role of microRNA (miRNA)-27b-3p in mice epididymal white adipose tissue (eWAT) browning. <b>Methods:</b> High-fat diet (HFD) induced obese mice model was constructed. Expression of miR-27b-3p and Ucp1 in eWAT was measured during the course of HFD. Through tail vein injection of antimiR-27b-3p, miR-27b-3p expression was inhibited to analyze the potential role of miR-27b-3p in fat browning and metabolism. <b>Results:</b> miR-27b-3p was predominantly expressed in eWAT and browning ability of eWAT in HFD induced obese mice was impaired. Inhibition of miR-27b-3p enhanced browning capacity of eWAT in mice fed an HFD and led to weight loss and insulin sensitivity improvement. <b>Conclusions:</b> High expression of miR-27b-3p in eWAT inhibits browning ability and leads to visceral fat accumulation. It is suggested miR-27b-3p may become a potential therapeutic option for visceral obesity and its associated diseases.
Project description:This study aimed to elucidate the molecular mechanism of <i>Chrysanthemum morifolium</i> Ramat. against obesity and diabetes, by comparing the transcriptional changes in epididymal white adipose tissue (eWAT) with those of the bioactive compound in <i>C. morifolium</i>, luteolin (LU). Male C57BL/6J mice were fed a normal diet, high-fat diet (HFD), and HFD supplemented with 1.5% w/w chrysanthemum leaf ethanol extract (CLE) for 16 weeks. Supplementation with CLE and LU significantly decreased the body weight gain and eWAT weight by stimulating mRNA expressions for thermogenesis and energy expenditure in eWAT via lipid mobilization, which may be linked to the attenuation of dyslipidemia. Furthermore, CLE and LU increased uncoupling protein-1 protein expression in brown adipose tissue, leading to energy expenditure. Of note, CLE and LU supplements enhanced the balance between lipid storage and mobilization in white adipose tissue (WAT), in turn, inhibiting adipocyte inflammation and lipotoxicity of peripheral tissues. Moreover, CLE and LU attenuated hepatic steatosis by suppressing hepatic lipogenesis, thereby ameliorating insulin resistance and dyslipidemia. Our data suggest that CLE helps inhibit obesity and its comorbidities via the complex interplay between liver and WAT in diet-induced obese mice.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>MicroRNA (miR)-34a regulates inflammatory pathways, and increased transcripts have been observed in serum and subcutaneous adipose of subjects who have obesity and type 2 diabetes. Therefore, the role of miR-34a in adipose tissue inflammation and lipid metabolism in murine diet-induced obesity was investigated.<h4>Methods</h4>Wild-type (WT) and miR-34a(-/-) mice were fed chow or high-fat diet (HFD) for 24 weeks. WT and miR-34a(-/-) bone marrow-derived macrophages were cultured in vitro with macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF). Brown and white preadipocytes were cultured from the stromal vascular fraction (SVF) of intrascapular brown and epididymal white adipose tissue (eWAT), with rosiglitazone.<h4>Results</h4>HFD-fed miR-34a(-/-) mice were significantly heavier with a greater increase in eWAT weight than WT. miR-34a(-/-) eWAT had a smaller adipocyte area, which significantly increased with HFD. miR-34a(-/-) eWAT showed basal increases in Cd36, Hmgcr, Lxr?, Pgc1?, and Fasn. miR-34a(-/-) intrascapular brown adipose tissue had basal reductions in c/ebp? and c/ebp?, with in vitro miR-34a(-/-) white adipocytes showing increased lipid content. An F4/80(high) macrophage population was present in HFD miR-34a(-/-) eWAT, with increased IL-10 transcripts and serum IL-5 protein. Finally, miR-34a(-/-) bone marrow-derived macrophages showed an ablated CXCL1 response to tumor necrosis factor-?.<h4>Conclusions</h4>These findings suggest a multifactorial role of miR-34a in controlling susceptibility to obesity, by regulating inflammatory and metabolic pathways.
Project description:Here, we aimed to investigate the potential role of DUSP6, a dual specificity phosphatase, that specifically inactivates extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), for the regulation of body weight and glucose homeostasis. We further assessed whether metabolic challenges affect Dusp6 expression in selected brain areas or white adipose tissue. Hypothalamic Dusp6 mRNA levels remained unchanged in chow-fed lean vs. high fat diet (HFD) fed obese C57Bl/6J mice, and in C57Bl/6J mice undergoing prolonged fasting or refeeding with fat free diet (FFD) or HFD. Similarly, Dusp6 expression levels were unchanged in selected brain regions of Lepob mice treated with 1 mg/kg of leptin for 6 days, compared to pair-fed or saline-treated Lepob controls. Dusp6 expression levels remained unaltered in vitro in primary adipocytes undergoing differentiation, but were increased in eWAT of HFD-fed obese C57Bl/6J mice, compared to chow-fed lean controls. Global chow-fed DUSP6 KO mice displayed reduced body weight and lean mass and slightly increased fat mass at a young age, which is indicative for early-age weight retardation. Subsequent exposure to HFD led to a significant increase in lean mass and body weight in DUSP6 deficient mice, compared to WT controls. Nevertheless, after 26 weeks of high-fat diet exposure, we observed comparable body weight, fat and lean mass in DUSP6 WT and KO mice, suggesting overall normal susceptibility to develop obesity. In line with the increased weight gain to compensate for early-age weight retardation, HFD-fed DUSP6 KO displayed increased expression levels of anabolic genes involved in lipid and cholesterol metabolism in the epididymal white adipose tissue (eWAT), compared to WT controls. Glucose tolerance was perturbed in both chow-fed lean or HFD-fed obese DUSP6 KO, compared to their respective WT controls. Overall, our data indicate that DUSP6 deficiency has limited impact on the regulation of energy metabolism, but impairs systemic glucose tolerance. Our data are in conflict to earlier reports that propose protection from diet-induced obesity and glucose intolerance in DUSP6 deficient mice. Reasons for the discrepancies remain elusive, but may entail differential genetic backgrounds, environmental factors such as the type and source of HFD, or alterations in the gut microbiome between facilities.