Waterlogging-induced changes in root architecture of germplasm accessions of the tropical forage grass Brachiaria humidicola.
ABSTRACT: Waterlogging is one of the major factors limiting the productivity of pastures in the humid tropics. Brachiaria humidicola is a forage grass commonly used in zones prone to temporary waterlogging. Brachiaria humidicola accessions adapt to waterlogging by increasing aerenchyma in nodal roots above constitutive levels to improve oxygenation of root tissues. In some accessions, waterlogging reduces the number of lateral roots developed from main root axes. Waterlogging-induced reduction of lateral roots could be of adaptive value as lateral roots consume oxygen supplied from above ground via their parent root. However, a reduction in lateral root development could also be detrimental by decreasing the surface area for nutrient and water absorption. To examine the impact of waterlogging on lateral root development, an outdoor study was conducted to test differences in vertical root distribution (in terms of dry mass and length) and the proportion of lateral roots to the total root system (sum of nodal and lateral roots) down the soil profile under drained or waterlogged soil conditions. Plant material consisted of 12 B. humidicola accessions from the gene bank of the International Center for Tropical Agriculture, Colombia. Rooting depth was restricted by 21 days of waterlogging and confined to the first 30 cm below the soil surface. Although waterlogging reduced the overall proportion of lateral roots, its proportion significantly increased in the top 10 cm of the soil. This suggests that soil flooding increases lateral root proliferation of B. humidicola in the upper soil layers. This may compensate for the reduction of root surface area brought about by the restriction of root growth at depths below 30 cm. Further work is needed to test the relative efficiency of nodal and lateral roots for nutrient and water uptake under waterlogged soil conditions.
Project description:Soil waterlogging reduces gas exchange between the soil and the atmosphere, leading to oxygen deprivation in the rhizosphere. spp. are the most widely sown forage grasses in tropical America. Among commercial grasses, shows superior tolerance to waterlogged soils based on maintenance of growth and reduced leaf chlorophyll loss and senescence. However, little is known about the underlying traits of waterlogging tolerance in or their intraspecific variation. For this purpose, an outdoor study was conducted using 12 germplasm accessions of that were grown in soil cylinders under drained or waterlogged soil conditions for 21 days. Dry mass production and morpho-anatomical responses (aerenchyma in shoots and roots, root diameter, proportional area of stele in roots, number of nodal and lateral roots, and length of the longest root) were determined. All accessions showed shorter roots and reduced root dry mass under waterlogged soil conditions. All accessions showed aerenchyma in shoots and roots under drained conditions but were further increased under waterlogging. All accessions showed a reduction in the proportional area of stele of roots in response to waterlogging. The accession (CIAT 26570) that showed a higher proportion of aerenchyma in shoots and roots and an increased number of nodal roots (with higher diameter and a reduction in the number of lateral roots) showed longer roots, less reduction in root dry mass and increased shoot growth under waterlogged conditions. We conclude that superior growth of one accession (CIAT 26570) under waterlogged soil conditions is probably a result of morpho-anatomical traits acting together to enhance root aeration and shoot ventilation. Further research is needed to test the ability to recover from waterlogging in accessions.
Project description:Waterlogging is an environmental challenge affecting crops worldwide. Ethylene induces the expression of genes linked to important agronomic traits under waterlogged conditions. The ability of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench.) and maize (Zea mays L.) given exogenous ethylene priming to tolerate prolonged waterlogged conditions was investigated in this study. The investigation was carried out as field experiments using 3 week-old plants grouped into four treatments; control, waterlogged plants, ethylene priming of plants before waterlogging, and ethylene priming of plants after waterlogging. Different growth parameters were recorded. Soil chemical and bacterial analyses were performed. The activity and gene expression of antioxidant enzymes were studied. The ethylene biosynthetic genes expression analysis and root anatomy of surviving okra plants were also carried out. Results revealed that okra and maize plants showed increase in their height under waterlogged conditions. Ethylene priming and waterlogged conditions induced early production of adventitious roots in okra and maize. Maize survival lasted between 5 and 9 weeks under waterlogging without reaching the flowering stage. However, okra survived up to 15 weeks under waterlogging producing flower buds and fruits in all treatments. Variable changes were also recorded for total soluble phenolics of soil. Cross sections of waterlogged okra roots showed the formation of a dark peripheral layer and numerous large aerenchyma cells which may have assisted in trapping oxygen required for survival. The activity and gene expression levels of antioxidant enzymes were studied and showed higher increases in the root and leaf tissues of okra and maize subjected to both waterlogging and ethylene priming, as compared to control or waterlogged condition. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis also showed that the ethylene biosynthetic gene expression levels in all okra and maize tissues were up-regulated and showed much higher levels under ethylene-treated waterlogged conditions than those expressed under control or waterlogged conditions at all time points. These results indicate that okra and maize tissues respond to the conditions of waterlogging and exogenous ethylene priming by inducing their ethylene biosynthetic genes expression in order to enhance ethylene production and tolerate the prolonged waterlogging stress. In conclusion, this study revealed that exogenously generated ethylene gas as a priming treatment before or after waterlogging could enhance waterlogging tolerance in maize and okra crops.
Project description:The present study evaluated waterlogging tolerance, root porosity and radial O(2) loss (ROL) from the adventitious roots, of seven upland, three paddy, and two deep-water genotypes of rice (Oryza sativa L.). Upland types, with the exception of one genotype, were as tolerant of 30 d soil waterlogging as the paddy and deep-water types. In all but one of the 12 genotypes, the number of adventitious roots per stem increased for plants grown in waterlogged, compared with drained, soil. When grown in stagnant deoxygenated nutrient solution, genotypic variation was evident for root porosity and rates of ROL, but there was no overall difference between plants from the three cultural types. Adventitious root porosity increased from 20-26 % for plants grown in aerated solution to 29-41 % for plants grown in stagnant solution. Growth in stagnant solution also induced a 'tight' barrier to ROL in the basal regions of adventitious roots of five of the seven upland types, all three paddy types, and the two deep-water types. The enhanced porosity provided a low resistance pathway for O(2) movement to the root tip, and the barrier to ROL in basal zones would have further enhanced longitudinal O(2) diffusion towards the apex, by diminishing losses to the rhizosphere. The plasticity in root physiology, as described above, presumably contributes to the ability of rice to grow in diverse environments that differ markedly in soil waterlogging, such as drained upland soils as well as waterlogged paddy fields.
Project description:Waterlogging is expected to increase as a consequence of global climate change, constraining crop production in various parts of the world. This study assessed tolerance to 14-days of early- or late-stage waterlogging of the major winter crops wheat, barley, rapeseed and field pea. Aerenchyma formation in adventitious roots, leaf physiological parameters (net photosynthesis, stomatal and mesophyll conductances, chlorophyll fluorescence), shoot and root growth during and after waterlogging, and seed production were evaluated. Wheat produced adventitious roots with 20-22% of aerenchyma, photosynthesis was maintained during waterlogging, and seed production was 86 and 71% of controls for early- and late-waterlogging events. In barley and rapeseed, plants were less affected by early- than by late-waterlogging. Barley adventitious roots contained 19% aerenchyma, whereas rapeseed did not form aerenchyma. In barley, photosynthesis was reduced during early-waterlogging mainly by stomatal limitations, and by non-stomatal constraints (lower mesophyll conductance and damage to photosynthetic apparatus as revealed by chlorophyll fluorescence) during late-waterlogging. In rapeseed, photosynthesis was mostly reduced by non-stomatal limitations during early- and late-waterlogging, which also impacted shoot and root growth. Early-waterlogged plants of both barley and rapeseed were able to recover in growth upon drainage, and seed production reached ca. 79-85% of the controls, while late-waterlogged plants only attained 26-32% in seed production. Field pea showed no ability to develop root aerenchyma when waterlogged, and its photosynthesis (and stomatal and mesophyll conductances) was rapidly decreased by the stress. Consequently, waterlogging drastically reduced field pea seed production to 6% of controls both at early- and late-stages with plants being unable to resume growth upon drainage. In conclusion, wheat generates a set of adaptive responses to withstand 14 days of waterlogging, barley and rapeseed can still produce significant yield if transiently waterlogged during early plant stages but are more adversely impacted at the late stage, and field pea is not suitable for areas prone to waterlogging events of 14 days at either growth stage.
Project description:Roughstalk bluegrass (Poa trivialis) is a weed in cool season grass seed production fields in Oregon. Populations of this weed are often greater in fields prone to waterlogging. A greenhouse study was conducted to investigate the morphological and physiological differences between recently established roughstalk bluegrass and tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) plants in response to simulated waterlogging. Differences in root morphological development and root respiration were found between waterlogged tall fescue and roughstalk bluegrass. Plants after 4 weeks of waterlogging, leaf number, plant height, and root biomass were reduced more in tall fescue than in roughstalk bluegrass plants. The root length increased 6% in waterlogged tall fescue plants, and decreased 42% in waterlogged roughstalk bluegrass plants, which lead to a shallower root system in roughstalk bluegrass. Root aerenchyma area increased more in waterlogged roughstalk bluegrass than in tall fescue. Alcohol dehydrogenase and lactate dehydrogenase activities increased in the roots of both species, but not in the leaves. The increases were greater in tall fescue than in roughstalk bluegrass. Turf quality, aboveground biomass, photosynthetic capacity, and water-soluble carbohydrate concentrations were reduced by waterlogging, but there were no differences over time or species. Thus, the shallower root system, larger aerenchyma, and reduced fermentation rates were the characteristics most likely to contribute to better waterlogging tolerance in roughstalk bluegrass compared to tall fescue and invasion of roughstalk bluegrass in waterlogged cool season grass seed fields.
Project description:Background and Aims:Soil waterlogging adversely impacts most plants. Melilotus siculus is a waterlogging-tolerant annual forage legume, but data were lacking for the effects of root-zone hypoxia on nodulated plants reliant on N2 fixation. The aim was to compare the waterlogging tolerance and physiology of M. siculus reliant on N2 fixation or with access to NO3-. Methods:A factorial experiment imposed treatments of water level (drained or waterlogged), rhizobia (nil or inoculated) and mineral N supply (nil or 11 mm NO3-) for 21 d on plants in pots of vermiculite in a glasshouse. Nodulation, shoot and root growth and tissue N were determined. Porosity (gas volume per unit tissue volume) and respiration rates of root tissues and nodules, and O2 microelectrode profiling across nodules, were measured in a second experiment. Key Results:Plants inoculated with the appropriate rhizobia, Ensifer (syn. Sinorhizobium) medicae, formed nodules. Nodulated plants grew as well as plants fed NO3-, both in drained and waterlogged conditions. The growth and total N content of nodulated plants (without any NO3- supplied) indicated N2 fixation. Respiration rates (mass basis) were highest in nodules and root tips and lowest in basal root tissues. Secondary aerenchyma (phellem) formed along basal root parts and a thin layer of this porous tissue also covered nodules, which together enhanced gas-phase diffusion of O2 to the nodules; O2 was below detection within the infected zone of the nodule interior. Conclusions:Melilotus siculus reliant on N2 fixation grew well both in drained and waterlogged conditions, and had similar tissue N concentrations. In waterlogged conditions the relatively high respiration rates of nodules must rely on O2 movement via the aerenchymatous phellem in hypocotyl, roots and the outer tissue layers of nodules.
Project description:Waterlogging is a significant environmental constraint to crop production, and a better understanding of plant responses is critical for the improvement of crop tolerance to waterlogged soils. Aquaporins (AQPs) are a class of channel-forming proteins that play an important role in water transport in plants. This study aimed to examine the regulation of AQP genes under waterlogging stress and to characterize the genetic variability of AQP genes in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor). Transcriptional profiling of AQP genes in response to waterlogging stress in nodal root tips and nodal root basal regions of two tolerant and two sensitive sorghum genotypes at 18 and 96 h after waterlogging stress imposition revealed significant gene-specific pattern with regard to genotype, root tissue sample, and time point. For some tissue sample and time point combinations, PIP2-6, PIP2-7, TIP2-2, TIP4-4, and TIP5-1 expression was differentially regulated in tolerant compared to sensitive genotypes. The differential response of these AQP genes suggests that they may play a tissue specific role in mitigating waterlogging stress. Genetic analysis of sorghum revealed that AQP genes were clustered into the same four subfamilies as in maize (Zea mays) and rice (Oryza sativa) and that residues determining the AQP channel specificity were largely conserved across species. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data from 50 sorghum accessions were used to build an AQP gene-based phylogeny of the haplotypes. Phylogenetic analysis based on single nucleotide polymorphisms of sorghum AQP genes placed the tolerant and sensitive genotypes used for the expression study in distinct groups. Expression analyses suggested that selected AQPs may play a pivotal role in sorghum tolerance to water logging stress. Further experimentation is needed to verify their role and to leverage phylogenetic analyses and AQP expression data to improve waterlogging tolerance in sorghum.
Project description:To gain insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying hormonal regulation in adventitious roots and during their emergence under waterlogged conditions in wheat, the present study investigated transcriptional regulation of genes related to hormone metabolism and transport in the root and stem node tissues. Waterlogging-induced inhibition of axile root elongation and lateral root formation, and promotion of surface adventitious and axile root emergence and aerenchyma formation are associated with enhanced expression levels of ethylene biosynthesis genes, ACS7 and ACO2, in both tissues. Inhibition of axile root elongation is also related to increased root indole acetic acid (IAA) and jasmonate (JA) levels that are associated with up-regulation of specific IAA biosynthesis/transport (TDC, YUC1, and PIN9) and JA metabolism (LOX8, AOS1, AOC1, and JAR1) genes, and transcriptional alteration of gibberellin (GA) metabolism genes (GA3ox2 and GA2ox8). Adventitious root emergence from waterlogged stem nodes is associated with increased levels of IAA and GA but decreased levels of cytokinin and abscisic acid (ABA), which are regulated through the expression of specific IAA biosynthesis/transport (TDC, YUC1, and PIN9), cytokinin metabolism (IPT5-2, LOG1, CKX5, and ZOG2), ABA biosynthesis (NCED1 and NCED2), and GA metabolism (GA3ox2 and GA2ox8) genes. These results enhance our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the adaptive response of wheat to waterlogging.
Project description:Internal aeration is crucial for root growth under waterlogged conditions. Some wetland plants have a structural barrier that impedes oxygen leakage from the basal part of roots called a radial oxygen loss (ROL) barrier. The ROL barrier reduces loss of oxygen transported via the aerenchyma to the root tips, enabling root growth into anoxic soil. The roots of some plants develop an ROL barrier under waterlogged conditions, while they remain leaky to oxygen under well-drained or aerated conditions. The main components of the inducible ROL barrier are thought to be suberin and lignin deposited at the outer cellular space (apoplast) in the outer part of roots. On the other hand, a few wetland plants including a species of Echinochloa form a constitutive ROL barrier, i.e., it is formed even in the absence of waterlogging. However, little is known about the components of constitutive ROL barriers. An ROL barrier is considered to be a characteristic of wetland species because it has not been found in any non-wetland species so far. Here, we examined whether Echinochloa species from non-waterlogged fields also form an inducible or constitutive ROL barrier. We found that three species of Echinochloa from non-waterlogged fields constitutively developed an ROL barrier under aerated conditions. Over 85% of their root exodermis cells were covered with suberin lamellae and had well-developed Casparian strips. These substances inhibited the infiltration of an apoplastic tracer (periodic acid), suggesting that the ROL barrier can also prevent the entry of phytotoxic compounds from the soil. Unlike the other Echinochloa species, E. oryzicola, which mainly inhabits rice paddies, was found to lack a constitutive ROL barrier under aerated conditions. Although close to 90% of its sclerenchyma was well lignified, it leaked oxygen from the basal part of roots. A high percentage (55%) of the root exodermis cells were not fortified with suberin lamellae. These results suggest that suberin is an important component of constitutive ROL barriers.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Taxodium is renowned for its strong tolerance to waterlogging stress, thus it has great ecological and economic potential. However, the scant genomic resources in genus Taxodium have greatly hindered further exploration of its underlying flood-tolerance mechanism. Taxodium 'Zhongshansa' is an interspecies hybrid of T. distichum and T. mucronatum, and has been widely planted in southeastern China. To understand the genetic basis of its flood tolerance, we analyzed the transcriptomes of Taxodium 'Zhongshansa' roots and shoots in response to short-term waterlogging. RESULTS: RNA-seq was used to analyze genome-wide transcriptome changes of Taxodium 'Zhongshansa 406' clone root and shoot treated with 1 h of soil-waterlogging stress. After de novo assembly, 108,692 unigenes were achieved, and 70,260 (64.64%) of them were annotated. There were 2090 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) found in roots and 394 in shoots, with 174 shared by both of them, indicating that the aerial parts were also affected. Under waterlogging stress, the primary reaction of hypoxic-treated root was to activate the antioxidative defense system to prevent cells experiencing reactive oxygen species (ROS) poisoning. As respiration was inhibited and ATP decreased, another quick coping mechanism was repressing the energy-consuming biosynthetic processes through the whole plant. The glycolysis and fermentation pathway was activated to maintain ATP production in the hypoxic root. Constantly, the demand for carbohydrates increased, and carbohydrate metabolism were accumulated in the root as well as the shoot, possibly indicating that systemic communications between waterlogged and non-waterlogged tissues facilated survival. Amino acid metabolism was also greatly influenced, with down-regulation of genes involvedin serine degradation and up-regulation of aspartic acid degradation. Additionally, a non-symbiotic hemoglobin class 1 gene was up-regulated, which may also help the ATP production. Moreover, the gene expression pattern of 5 unigenes involving in the glycolysis pathway revealed by qRT-PCR confirmed the RNA-Seq data. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that ROS detoxification and energy maintenance were the primary coping mechanisms of 'Zhongshansa' in surviving oxygen deficiency, which may be responsible for its remarkable waterlogging tolerance. Our study not only provided the first large-scale assessment of genomic resources of Taxodium but also guidelines for probing the molecular mechanism underlying 'Zhongshansa' waterlogging tolerance.