The KSR2-calcineurin complex regulates STIM1-ORAI1 dynamics and store-operated calcium entry (SOCE).
ABSTRACT: Store-operated calcium entry (SOCE) is the predominant Ca(2+) entry mechanism in nonexcitable cells and controls a variety of physiological and pathological processes. Although significant progress has been made in identifying the components required for SOCE, the molecular mechanisms underlying it are elusive. The present study provides evidence for a direct involvement of kinase suppressor of Ras 2 (KSR2) in SOCE. Using lymphocytes and fibroblasts from ksr2(-/-) mice and shKSR2-depleted cells, we find that KSR2 is critical for the elevation of cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration. Specifically, our results show that although it is dispensable for Ca(2+)-store depletion, KSR2 is required for optimal calcium entry. We observe that KSR2 deficiency affects stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1)/ORAI1 puncta formation, which is correlated with cytoskeleton disorganization. Of interest, we find that KSR2-associated calcineurin is crucial for SOCE. Blocking calcineurin activity impairs STIM1/ORAI1 puncta-like formation and cytoskeleton organization. In addition, we observe that calcineurin activity and its role in SOCE are both KSR2 dependent.
Project description:Store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE) is a ubiquitous Ca(2+) influx pathway activated in response to depletion of intracellular Ca(2+) stores. SOCE is a primary modulator of intracellular Ca(2+) dynamics, which specify cellular responses. Interestingly, SOCE inactivates during M phase but the mechanisms involved remain unclear. SOCE is mediated by clustering of the ER Ca(2+) sensor STIM1 in response to Ca(2+) store depletion, leading to gating of the plasma membrane SOCE channel Orai1. Here we show that SOCE inactivation in meiosis is the result of internalization of Orai1 into an intracellular vesicular compartment and to the inability of STIM1 to cluster in response to store depletion. At rest, Orai1 continuously recycles between the cell membrane and an endosomal compartment. We further show that STIM1-STIM1 interactions are inhibited during meiosis, which appears to mediate the inability of STIM1 to form puncta following store depletion. In contrast, STIM1-Orai1 interactions remain functional during meiosis. Combined, the removal of Orai1 from the cell membrane and STIM1 clustering inhibition effectively uncouple store depletion from SOCE activation in meiosis. Although STIM1 is phosphorylated during meiosis, phosphomimetic and alanine substitution mutations do not modulate STIM1 clustering, arguing that phosphorylation does not mediate STIM1 clustering inhibition during meiosis.
Project description:Store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE) mediates the increase in intracellular calcium (Ca2+) in endothelial cells (ECs) that regulates several EC functions including tissue-fluid homeostasis. Stromal-interaction molecule 1 (STIM1), upon sensing the depletion of (Ca2+) from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) store, organizes as puncta that trigger store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE) via plasmalemmal Ca2+-selective Orai1 channels. While the STIM1 and Orai1 binding interfaces have been mapped, signaling mechanisms activating STIM1 recruitment of Orai1 and STIM1-Orai1 interaction remains enigmatic. Here, we show that ER Ca2+-store depletion rapidly induces STIM1 phosphorylation at Y361 via proline-rich kinase 2 (Pyk2) in ECs. Surprisingly, the phospho-defective STIM1-Y361F mutant formed puncta but failed to recruit Orai1, thereby preventing. SOCE Furthermore, studies in mouse lungs, expression of phosphodefective STIM1-Y361F mutant in ECs prevented the increase in vascular permeability induced by the thrombin receptor, protease activated receptor 1 (PAR1). Hence, Pyk2-dependent phosphorylation of STIM1 at Y361 is a critical phospho-switch enabling recruitment of Orai1 into STIM1 puncta leading to SOCE. Therefore, Y361 in STIM1 represents a novel target for limiting SOCE-associated vascular leak.
Project description:Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) enhances cell migration and promotes wound healing in vivo, but the intracellular signaling pathways regulating these processes remain incompletely understood. Here we investigated the involvement of agonist-induced Ca(2+) entry and STIM1 and Orai1 proteins in regulating nuclear factor of activated T cell (NFAT) signaling and LPA-induced keratinocyte cell motility. As monitored by Fluo-4 imaging, stimulation with 10??M LPA in 60??M Ca(2+)(o) evoked Ca(2+)(i) transients owing to store release, whereas addition of LPA in physiological 1.2?mM Ca(2+)(o) triggered store release coupled to extracellular Ca(2+) entry. Store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE) was blocked by the SOCE inhibitor diethylstilbestrol (DES), STIM1 silencing using RNA interference (RNAi), and expression of dominant/negative Orai1(R91W). LPA induced significant NFAT activation as monitored by nuclear translocation of green fluorescent protein-tagged NFAT2 and a luciferase reporter assay, which was impaired by DES, expression of Orai1(R91W), and inhibition of calcineurin using cyclosporin A (CsA). By using chemotactic migration assays, LPA-induced cell motility was significantly impaired by STIM1, CsA, and NFAT2 knockdown using RNAi. These data indicate that in conditions relevant to epidermal wound healing, LPA induces SOCE and NFAT activation through Orai1 channels and promotes cell migration through a calcineurin/NFAT2-dependent pathway.
Project description:Orai1 proteins have been recently identified as subunits of SOCE (store-operated Ca²? entry) channels. In primary isolated PACs (pancreatic acinar cells), Orai1 showed remarkable co-localization and co-immunoprecipitation with all three subtypes of IP?Rs (InsP? receptors). The co-localization between Orai1 and IP?Rs was restricted to the apical part of PACs. Neither co-localization nor co-immunoprecipitation was affected by Ca²? store depletion. Importantly we also characterized Orai1 in basal and lateral membranes of PACs. The basal and lateral membranes of PACs have been shown previously to accumulate STIM1 (stromal interaction molecule 1) puncta as a result of Ca²? store depletion. We therefore conclude that these polarized secretory cells contain two pools of Orai1: an apical pool that interacts with IP?Rs and a basolateral pool that interacts with STIM1 following the Ca²? store depletion. Experiments on IP?R knockout animals demonstrated that the apical Orai1 localization does not require IP?Rs and that IP?Rs are not necessary for the activation of SOCE. However, the InsP?-releasing secretagogue ACh (acetylcholine) produced a negative modulatory effect on SOCE, suggesting that activated IP?Rs could have an inhibitory effect on this Ca²? entry mechanism.
Project description:Orai1 and TRPC1 have been proposed as core components of store-operated calcium release-activated calcium (CRAC) and store-operated calcium (SOC) channels, respectively. STIM1, a Ca(2+) sensor protein in the endoplasmic reticulum, interacts with and mediates store-dependent regulation of both channels. We have previously reported that dynamic association of Orai1, TRPC1, and STIM1 is involved in activation of store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE) in salivary gland cells. In this study, we have assessed the molecular basis of TRPC1-SOC channels in HEK293 cells. We report that TRPC1+STIM1-dependent SOCE requires functional Orai1. Thapsigargin stimulation of cells expressing Orai1+STIM1 increased Ca(2+) entry and activated typical I(CRAC) current. STIM1 alone did not affect SOCE, whereas expression of Orai1 induced a decrease. Expression of TRPC1 induced a small increase in SOCE, which was greatly enhanced by co-expression of STIM1. Thapsigargin stimulation of cells expressing TRPC1+STIM1 activated a non-selective cation current, I(SOC), that was blocked by 1 microm Gd(3+) and 2-APB. Knockdown of Orai1 decreased endogenous SOCE as well as SOCE with TRPC1 alone. siOrai1 also significantly reduced SOCE and I(SOC) in cells expressing TRPC1+STIM1. Expression of R91WOrai1 or E106QOrai1 induced similar attenuation of TRPC1+STIM1-dependent SOCE and I(SOC), whereas expression of Orai1 with TRPC1+STIM1 resulted in SOCE that was larger than that with Orai1+STIM1 or TRPC1+STIM1 but not additive. Additionally, Orai1, E106QOrai1, and R91WOrai1 co-immunoprecipitated with similar levels of TRPC1 and STIM1 from HEK293 cells, and endogenous TRPC1, STIM1, and Orai1 were co-immunoprecipitated from salivary glands. Together, these data demonstrate a functional requirement for Orai1 in TRPC1+STIM1-dependent SOCE.
Project description:Store-operated calcium entry (SOCE) modulates cytosolic calcium in multiple cells. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-localized STIM1 and plasma membrane (PM)-localized ORAI1 are two main components of SOCE. STIM1:ORAI1 association requires STIM1 oligomerization, its re-distribution to ER-PM junctions, and puncta formation. However, little is known about the negative regulation of these steps to prevent calcium overload. Here, we identified Tmem178 as a negative modulator of STIM1 puncta formation in myeloid cells. Using site-directed mutagenesis, co-immunoprecipitation assays and FRET imaging, we determined that Tmem178:STIM1 association occurs via their transmembrane motifs. Mutants that increase Tmem178:STIM1 association reduce STIM1 puncta formation, SOCE activation, impair inflammatory cytokine production in macrophages and osteoclastogenesis. Mutants that reduce Tmem178:STIM1 association reverse these effects. Furthermore, exposure to plasma from arthritic patients decreases Tmem178 expression, enhances SOCE activation and cytoplasmic calcium. In conclusion, Tmem178 modulates the rate-limiting step of STIM1 puncta formation and therefore controls SOCE in inflammatory conditions.
Project description:Store-operated Ca²+ entry (SOCE) has been associated with two types of channels: CRAC channels that require Orai1 and STIM1 and SOC channels that involve TRPC1, Orai1, and STIM1. While TRPC1 significantly contributes to SOCE and SOC channel activity, abrogation of Orai1 function eliminates SOCE and activation of TRPC1. The critical role of Orai1 in activation of TRPC1-SOC channels following Ca²+ store depletion has not yet been established. Herein we report that TRPC1 and Orai1 are components of distinct channels. We show that TRPC1/Orai1/STIM1-dependent I(SOC), activated in response to Ca²+ store depletion, is composed of TRPC1/STIM1-mediated non-selective cation current and Orai1/STIM1-mediated I(CRAC); the latter is detected when TRPC1 function is suppressed by expression of shTRPC1 or a STIM1 mutant that lacks TRPC1 gating, STIM1(???EE???). In addition to gating TRPC1 and Orai1, STIM1 mediates the recruitment and association of the channels within ER/PM junctional domains, a critical step in TRPC1 activation. Importantly, we show that Ca²+ entry via Orai1 triggers plasma membrane insertion of TRPC1, which is prevented by blocking SOCE with 1 µM Gd³+, removal of extracellular Ca²+, knockdown of Orai1, or expression of dominant negative mutant Orai1 lacking a functional pore, Orai1-E106Q. In cells expressing another pore mutant of Orai1, Orai1-E106D, TRPC1 trafficking is supported in Ca²+-containing, but not Ca²+-free, medium. Consistent with this, I(CRAC) is activated in cells pretreated with thapsigargin in Ca²+-free medium while I(SOC) is activated in cells pretreated in Ca²+-containing medium. Significantly, TRPC1 function is required for sustained K(Ca) activity and contributes to NF?B activation while Orai1 is sufficient for NFAT activation. Together, these findings reveal an as-yet unidentified function for Orai1 that explains the critical requirement of the channel in the activation of TRPC1 following Ca²+ store depletion. We suggest that coordinated regulation of the surface expression of TRPC1 by Orai1 and gating by STIM1 provides a mechanism for rapidly modulating and maintaining SOCE-generated Ca²+ signals. By recruiting ion channels and other signaling pathways, Orai1 and STIM1 concertedly impact a variety of critical cell functions that are initiated by SOCE.
Project description:Cardiac hypertrophy is an independent risk for heart failure (HF) and sudden death. Deciphering signalling pathways dependent on extracellular calcium (Ca(2+)) influx that control normal and pathological cardiac growth may enable identification of novel therapeutic targets. The objective of the present study is to determine the role of the Ca(2+) release-activated Ca(2+) (CRAC) channel Orai1 and stromal interaction molecule 1 (Stim1) in postnatal cardiomyocyte store operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE) and impact on normal and hypertrophic postnatal cardiomyocyte growth. Employing a combination of siRNA-mediated gene silencing, cultured neonatal rat ventricular cardiomyocytes together with indirect immunofluorescence, epifluorescent Ca(2+) imaging and site-specific protein phosphorylation and real-time mRNA expression analysis, we show for the first time that both Orai1 and Stim1 are present in cardiomyocytes and required for SOCE due to intracellular Ca(2+) store depletion by thapsigargin. Stim1-KD but not Orai1-KD significantly decreased diastolic Ca(2+) levels and caffeine-releasable Ca(2+) from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR). Conversely, Orai1-KD but not Stim1-KD significantly diminished basal NRCM cell size, anp and bnp mRNA levels and activity of the calcineurin (CnA) signalling pathway although diminishing both Orai1 and Stim1 proteins similarly attenuated calmodulin kinase II (CamKII) and ERK1/2 activity under basal conditions. Both Orai1- and Stim1-KD completely abrogated phenylephrine (PE) mediated hypertrophic NRCM growth and enhanced natriuretic factor expression by inhibiting G(q)-protein conveyed activation of the CamKII and ERK1/2 signalling pathway. Interestingly, only Orai1-KD but not Stim1-KD prevented Gq-mediated CaN-dependent prohypertrophic signalling. This study shows for the first time that both Orai1 and Stim1 have a key role in cardiomyocyte SOCE regulating both normal and hypertrophic postnatal cardiac growth in vitro.
Project description:The interaction between Ca(2+) sensors STIM1 and STIM2 and Ca(2+) channel-forming protein ORAI1 is a crucial element of store-operated calcium entry (SOCE) in non-excitable cells. However, the molecular mechanism of SOCE in neurons remains unclear. We addressed this issue by establishing the presence and function of STIM proteins. Real-time polymerase chain reaction from cortical neurons showed that these cells contain significant amounts of Stim1 and Stim2 mRNA. Thapsigargin (TG) treatment increased the amount of both endogenous STIM proteins in neuronal membrane fractions. The number of YFP-STIM1/ORAI1 and YFP-STIM2/ORAI1 complexes was also enhanced by such treatment. The differences observed in the number of STIM1 and STIM2 complexes under SOCE conditions and the differential sensitivity to SOCE inhibitors suggest their distinct roles. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) store depletion by TG enhanced intracellular Ca(2+) levels in loaded with Fura-2 neurons transfected with YFP-STIM1 and ORAI1, but not with YFP-STIM2 and ORAI1, which correlated well with the number of complexes formed. Moreover, the SOCE inhibitors ML-9 and 2-APB reduced Ca(2+) influx in neurons expressing YFP-STIM1/ORAI1 but produced no effect in cells transfected with YFP-STIM2/ORAI1. Moreover, in neurons transfected with YFP-STIM2/ORAI1, the increase in constitutive calcium entry was greater than with YFP-STIM1/ORAI1. Our data indicate that both STIM proteins are involved in calcium homeostasis in neurons. STIM1 mainly activates SOCE, whereas STIM2 regulates resting Ca(2+) levels in the ER and Ca(2+) leakage with the additional involvement of STIM1.
Project description:Store-operated calcium (Ca(2+)) entry (SOCE) mediated by STIM/Orai proteins is a ubiquitous pathway that controls many important cell functions including proliferation and migration. STIM proteins are Ca(2+) sensors in the endoplasmic reticulum and Orai proteins are channels expressed at the plasma membrane. The fall in endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) causes translocation of STIM1 to subplasmalemmal puncta where they activate Orai1 channels that mediate the highly Ca(2+)-selective Ca(2+) release-activated Ca(2+) current (I(CRAC)). Whereas Orai1 has been clearly shown to encode SOCE channels in many cell types, the role of Orai2 and Orai3 in native SOCE pathways remains elusive. Here we analyzed SOCE in ten breast cell lines picked in an unbiased way. We used a combination of Ca(2+) imaging, pharmacology, patch clamp electrophysiology, and molecular knockdown to show that native SOCE and I(CRAC) in estrogen receptor-positive (ER(+)) breast cancer cell lines are mediated by STIM1/2 and Orai3 while estrogen receptor-negative (ER(-)) breast cancer cells use the canonical STIM1/Orai1 pathway. The ER(+) breast cancer cells represent the first example where the native SOCE pathway and I(CRAC) are mediated by Orai3. Future studies implicating Orai3 in ER(+) breast cancer progression might establish Orai3 as a selective target in therapy of ER(+) breast tumors.