NeuroD1 mediates nicotine-induced migration and invasion via regulation of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunits in a subset of neural and neuroendocrine carcinomas.
ABSTRACT: Cigarette smoking is a major risk factor for acquisition of small cell lung cancer (SCLC). A role has been demonstrated for the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor NeuroD1 in the pathogenesis of neural and neuroendocrine lung cancer, including SCLC. In the present study we investigate the possible function of NeuroD1 in established tumors, as well as actions early on in pathogenesis, in response to nicotine. We demonstrate that nicotine up-regulates NeuroD1 in immortalized normal bronchial epithelial cells and a subset of undifferentiated carcinomas. Increased expression of NeuroD1 subsequently leads to regulation of expression and function of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit cluster of ?3, ?5, and ?4. In addition, we find that coordinated expression of these subunits by NeuroD1 leads to enhanced nicotine-induced migration and invasion, likely through changes in intracellular calcium. These findings suggest that aspects of the pathogenesis of neural and neuroendocrine lung cancers may be affected by a nicotine- and NeuroD1-induced positive feedback loop.
Project description:Small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) and large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) are high-grade pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors. The neural basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors ASCL1 and NEUROD1 have been shown to play crucial roles in promoting the malignant behavior and survival of human SCLC cell lines. In this study, we find ASCL1 and NEUROD1 identify distinct neuroendocrine tumors, bind distinct genomic loci, and regulate mostly distinct genes. ASCL1 and NEUROD1 are often bound in super-enhancers that are associated with highly expressed genes in their respective SCLC cell lines suggesting different cell lineage of origin for these tumors. ASCL1 targets oncogenic genes such as MYCL1, RET, and NFIB, while NEUROD1 targets the oncogenic gene MYC. Although ASCL1 and NEUROD1 regulate different genes, many of these gene targets commonly contribute to neuroendocrine and cell migration function. ASCL1 in particular also regulates genes in the NOTCH pathway and genes important in cell-cycle dynamics. Finally, we demonstrate ASCL1 but not NEUROD1 is required for SCLC and LCNEC tumor formation in current in vivo genetic mouse models of pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors RNA-seq analysis performed on two ASCL1high and two NEUROD1high human SCLC cell lines to identify gene expression patterns in these cells. Also, we performed RNA-seq in mouse neuroendocrine lung tumors obtained from Trp53;Rb1;Rbl2 triple knockout model mice treated with Adeno-CMVCRE intratracheally.
Project description:Small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) and large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) are high-grade pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors. The neural basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors ASCL1 and NEUROD1 have been shown to play crucial roles in promoting the malignant behavior and survival of human SCLC cell lines. In this study, we find ASCL1 and NEUROD1 identify distinct neuroendocrine tumors, bind distinct genomic loci, and regulate mostly distinct genes. ASCL1 and NEUROD1 are often bound in super-enhancers that are associated with highly expressed genes in their respective SCLC cell lines suggesting different cell lineage of origin for these tumors. ASCL1 targets oncogenic genes such as MYCL1, RET, and NFIB, while NEUROD1 targets the oncogenic gene MYC. Although ASCL1 and NEUROD1 regulate different genes, many of these gene targets commonly contribute to neuroendocrine and cell migration function. ASCL1 in particular also regulates genes in the NOTCH pathway and genes important in cell-cycle dynamics. Finally, we demonstrate ASCL1 but not NEUROD1 is required for SCLC and LCNEC tumor formation in current in vivo genetic mouse models of pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors ChIP-seq analysis performed on three ASCL1high and two NEUROD1high human SCLC cell lines to identify ASCL1 and/or NEUROD1 binding sites in these two types of cells. Also, we performed ChIP-seq for Ascl1 binding sites in mouse neuroendocrine lung tumors obtained from Trp53;Rb1;Rbl2 triple knockout model mice treated with Adeno-CMVCRE intratracheally.
Project description:Small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) is a high-grade pulmonary neuroendocrine tumor. The transcription factors ASCL1 and NEUROD1 play crucial roles in promoting malignant behavior and survival of human SCLC cell lines. Here, we find that ASCL1 and NEUROD1 identify heterogeneity in SCLC, bind distinct genomic loci, and regulate mostly distinct genes. ASCL1, but not NEUROD1, is present in mouse pulmonary neuroendocrine cells, and only ASCL1 is required in vivo for tumor formation in mouse models of SCLC. ASCL1 targets oncogenic genes including MYCL1, RET, SOX2, and NFIB while NEUROD1 targets MYC. ASCL1 and NEUROD1 regulate different genes that commonly contribute to neuronal function. ASCL1 also regulates multiple genes in the NOTCH pathway including DLL3. Together, ASCL1 and NEUROD1 distinguish heterogeneity in SCLC with distinct genomic landscapes and distinct gene expression programs.
Project description:The developmental transcription factor NeuroD1 is anomalously expressed in a subset of aggressive neuroendocrine tumors. Previously, we demonstrated that TrkB and neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) are downstream targets of NeuroD1 that contribute to the actions of neurogenic differentiation 1 (NeuroD1) in neuroendocrine lung. We found that several malignant melanoma and prostate cell lines express NeuroD1 and TrkB. Inhibition of TrkB activity decreased invasion in several neuroendocrine pigmented melanoma but not in prostate cell lines. We also found that loss of the tumor suppressor p53 increased NeuroD1 expression in normal human bronchial epithelial cells and cancer cells with neuroendocrine features. Although we found that a major mechanism of action of NeuroD1 is by the regulation of TrkB, effective targeting of TrkB to inhibit invasion may depend on the cell of origin. These findings suggest that NeuroD1 is a lineage-dependent oncogene acting through its downstream target, TrkB, across multiple cancer types, which may provide new insights into the pathogenesis of neuroendocrine cancers.
Project description:Small-cell lung cancer and other aggressive neuroendocrine cancers are often associated with early dissemination and frequent metastases. We demonstrate that neurogenic differentiation 1 (NeuroD1) is a regulatory hub securing cross talk among survival and migratory-inducing signaling pathways in neuroendocrine lung carcinomas. We find that NeuroD1 promotes tumor cell survival and metastasis in aggressive neuroendocrine lung tumors through regulation of the receptor tyrosine kinase tropomyosin-related kinase B (TrkB). Like TrkB, the prometastatic signaling molecule neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) is a downstream target of NeuroD1, whose impaired expression mirrors loss of NeuroD1. TrkB and NCAM may be therapeutic targets for aggressive neuroendocrine cancers that express NeuroD1.
Project description:The basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor achaete-scute complex homologue 1 (ASCL1) is essential for the development of normal lung neuroendocrine cells as well as other endocrine and neural tissues. Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) and non-SCLC with neuroendocrine features express ASCL1, where the factor may play a role in the virulence and primitive neuroendocrine phenotype of these tumors. In this study, RNA interference knockdown of ASCL1 in cultured SCLC resulted in inhibition of soft agar clonogenic capacity and induction of apoptosis. cDNA microarray analyses bolstered by expression studies, flow cytometry, and chromatin immunoprecipitation identified two candidate stem cell marker genes, CD133 and aldehyde dehydrogenase 1A1 (ALDH1A1), to be directly regulated by ASCL1 in SCLC. In SCLC direct xenograft tumors, we detected a relatively abundant CD133(high)-ASCL1(high)-ALDH1(high) subpopulation with markedly enhanced tumorigenicity compared with cells with weak CD133 expression. Tumorigenicity in the CD133(high) subpopulation depended on continued ASCL1 expression. Whereas CD133(high) cells readily reconstituted the range of CD133 expression seen in the original xenograft tumor, CD133(low) cells could not. Our findings suggest that a broad range of SCLC cells has tumorigenic capacity rather than a small discrete population. Intrinsic tumor cell heterogeneity, including variation in key regulatory factors such as ASCL1, can modulate tumorigenicity in SCLC.
Project description:Basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors of the achaete-scute family are instrumental in Drosophila neurosensory development and are candidate regulators of development in the mammalian central nervous system and neural crest. We report the isolation and initial characterization of a human achaete-scute homolog that is highly expressed in two neuroendocrine cancers, medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) and small cell lung cancer (SCLC). The human gene, which we have termed human achaete-scute homology 1 (hASH1), was cloned from a human MTC cDNA library. It encodes a predicted protein of 238 aa that is 95% homologous to mammalian achaete-scute homolog (MASH) 1, a rodent basic helix-loop-helix factor. The 57-residue basic helix-loop-helix domain is identical to that in the rodent gene, and the basic and helical regions, excluding the loop, are 72-80% identical to Drosophila achaete-scute family members. The proximal coding region of the hASH1 cDNA contains a striking 14-copy repeat of the triplet CAG that exhibits polymorphism in human genomic DNA. Thus, hASH1 is a candidate locus for disease-causing mutations via triplet repeat amplification. Analysis of rodent-human somatic cell hybrids permitted assignment of hASH1 to human chromosome 12. Northern blots revealed hASH1 transcripts in RNA from a human MTC cell line, two fresh MTC tumors, fetal brain, and three lines of human SCLC. In contrast, cultured lines of non-SCLC lung cancers and a panel of normal adult human tissues showed no detectable hASH1 transcripts. Expression of hASH1 may provide a useful marker for cancers with neuroendocrine features and may contribute to the differentiation and growth regulation of these cells.
Project description:NeuroD1 encodes a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor involved in the development of neural and endocrine structures, including the retina and pineal gland. To determine the effect of NeuroD1 knockout in these tissues, a Cre/loxP recombination strategy was used to target a NeuroD1 floxed gene and generate NeuroD1 conditional knockout (cKO) mice. Tissue specificity was conferred using Cre recombinase expressed under the control of the promoter of Crx, which is selectively expressed in the pineal gland and retina. At 2 months of age, NeuroD1 cKO retinas have a dramatic reduction in rod- and cone-driven electroretinograms and contain shortened and disorganized outer segments; by 4 months, NeuroD1 cKO retinas are devoid of photoreceptors. In contrast, the NeuroD1 cKO pineal gland appears histologically normal. Microarray analysis of 2-month-old NeuroD1 cKO retina and pineal gland identified a subset of genes that were affected 2-100-fold; in addition, a small group of genes exhibit altered differential night/day expression. Included in the down-regulated genes are Aipl1, which is necessary to prevent retinal degeneration, and Ankrd33, whose protein product is selectively expressed in the outer segments. These findings suggest that NeuroD1 may act through Aipl1 and other genes to maintain photoreceptor homeostasis.
Project description:Tumor cells are characterized by unlimited proliferation and perturbed differentiation. Using single-cell RNA sequencing, we demonstrate that tumor cells in medulloblastoma (MB) retain their capacity to differentiate in a similar way as their normal originating cells, cerebellar granule neuron precursors. Once they differentiate, MB cells permanently lose their proliferative capacity and tumorigenic potential. Differentiated MB cells highly express NeuroD1, a helix-loop-helix transcription factor, and forced expression of NeuroD1 promotes the differentiation of MB cells. The expression of NeuroD1 in bulk MB cells is repressed by trimethylation of histone 3 lysine-27 (H3K27me3). Inhibition of the histone lysine methyltransferase EZH2 prevents H3K27 trimethylation, resulting in increased NeuroD1 expression and enhanced differentiation in MB cells, which consequently reduces tumor growth. These studies reveal the mechanisms underlying MB cell differentiation and provide rationales to treat MB (potentially other malignancies) by stimulating tumor cell differentiation.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Achaete-scute homolog 1 (ASCL1) is a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor and is essential in the differentiation of neuroendocrine cells and neural tissues. ASCL1 is frequently overexpressed in small cell lung cancer (SCLC) and plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of SCLC. METHODS:This study was conducted to identify the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in ASCL1 target genes and clinical outcomes of patients with SCLC after chemotherapy. A total of 261 patients diagnosed with SCLC were enrolled in this study. The association between 103 SNPs in 58 ASCL1 target genes and the response to chemotherapy and survival of patients with SCLC were analyzed. RESULTS:Among the 103 SNPs, 10 SNPs were significantly associated with the response to chemotherapy, and 19 SNPs were associated with OS in multivariate analyses. Among these, Dopa Decarboxylase (DDC) rs12666409A>T was significantly associated with both a worse response to chemotherapy and worse OS (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 0.40, 95% CI = 0.18-0.90, P = 0.03; adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] = 1.52, 95% CI = 1.10-2.10, P = 0.01, respectively, under a dominant model). In a stage-stratified analysis, the association was significant only in the extensive disease subgroup (aOR = 0.19, 95% CI = 0.06-0.60, P = 0.01; aHR = 1.73, 95% CI = 1.16-2.56, P = 0.01, respectively, under a dominant model), but not in the limited disease subgroup. CONCLUSION:The results of our study suggest that DDC rs12666409A>T may be useful markers for predicting the clinical outcomes of patients with SCLC undergoing chemotherapy.