Regulation of neurotropic signaling by the inducible, NF-kB-sensitive miRNA-125b in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and in primary human neuronal-glial (HNG) cells.
ABSTRACT: Inducible microRNAs (miRNAs) perform critical regulatory roles in central nervous system (CNS) development, aging, health, and disease. Using miRNA arrays, RNA sequencing, enhanced Northern dot blot hybridization technologies, Western immunoblot, and bioinformatics analysis, we have studied miRNA abundance and complexity in Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain tissues compared to age-matched controls. In both short post-mortem AD and in stressed primary human neuronal-glial (HNG) cells, we observe a consistent up-regulation of several brain-enriched miRNAs that are under transcriptional control by the pro-inflammatory transcription factor NF-kB. These include miRNA-9, miRNA-34a, miRNA-125b, miRNA-146a, and miRNA-155. Of the inducible miRNAs in this subfamily, miRNA-125b is among the most abundant and significantly induced miRNA species in human brain cells and tissues. Bioinformatics analysis indicated that an up-regulated miRNA-125b could potentially target the 3'untranslated region (3'-UTR) of the messenger RNA (mRNA) encoding (a) a 15-lipoxygenase (15-LOX; ALOX15; chr 17p13.3), utilized in the conversion of docosahexaneoic acid into neuroprotectin D1 (NPD1), and (b) the vitamin D3 receptor (VDR; VD3R; chr12q13.11) of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily. 15-LOX and VDR are key neuromolecular factors essential in lipid-mediated signaling, neurotrophic support, defense against reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (reactive oxygen and nitrogen species), and neuroprotection in the CNS. Pathogenic effects appear to be mediated via specific interaction of miRNA-125b with the 3'-UTR region of the 15-LOX and VDR messenger RNAs (mRNAs). In AD hippocampal CA1 and in stressed HNG cells, 15-LOX and VDR down-regulation and a deficiency in neurotrophic support may therefore be explained by the actions of a single inducible, pro-inflammatory miRNA-125b. We will review the recent data on the pathogenic actions of this up-regulated miRNA-125b in AD and discuss potential therapeutic approaches using either anti-NF-kB or anti-miRNA-125b strategies. These may be of clinical relevance in the restoration of 15-LOX and VDR expression back to control levels and the re-establishment of homeostatic neurotrophic signaling in the CNS.
Project description:Micro RNAs (miRNAs), small and labile ~22 nucleotide-sized fragments of single stranded RNA, are important regulators of messenger (mRNA) complexity and in shaping the transcriptome of a cell. In this communication, we utilized amyloid beta 42 (A?42) peptides and interleukin-1beta (IL-1?) as a combinatorial, physiologically-relevant stress to induce miRNAs in human primary neural (HNG) cells (a co-culture of neurons and astroglia). Specific miRNA up-regulation was monitored using miRNA arrays, Northern micro-dot blots and RT-PCR. Selective NF-?B translocation and DNA binding inhibitors, including the chelator and anti-oxidant pyrollidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) and the polyphenolic resveratrol analog CAY10512 (trans-3,5,4'-trihydroxystilbene), indicated the NF-?B sensitivity of several brain miRNAs, including miRNA-9, miRNA-125b and miRNA-146a. The inducible miRNA-125b and miRNA-146a, and their verified mRNA targets, including 15-lipoxygenase (15-LOX), synapsin-2 (SYN-2), complement factor H (CFH) and tetraspanin-12 (TSPAN12), suggests complex and highly interactive roles for NF-?B, miRNA-125b and miRNA-146a. These data further indicate that just two NF-?B-mediated miRNAs have tremendous potential to contribute to the regulation of neurotrophic support, synaptogenesis, neuroinflammation, innate immune signaling and amyloidogenesis in stressed primary neural cells of the human brain.
Project description:Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a tragic, progressive, age-related neurological dysfunction, representing one of the most prevalent neurodegenerative disorders in industrialized societies. Globally, 5 million new cases of AD are diagnosed annually, with one new AD case being reported every 7?s. Most recently there has been a surge in the study of the regulatory mechanisms of the AD process, and the particular significance of small non-coding ?22 ribonucleotide RNAs called micro RNAs (miRNAs). Abundant data have profiled miRNA patterns in healthy, aging brain, in mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and in the moderate- and late-stages of AD. The major mode of action of miRNA is to interact, via base-pair complementarity, with ribonucleotides located within the 3' untranslated region (3'-UTR) of multiple target messenger RNAs (mRNAs), and in doing so decrease the capability of that specific mRNA to be expressed. Many miRNAs are highly cell- and tissue-specific. The human brain appears to use only a highly specific fraction of all known human miRNAs, whose speciation and complexity are defined as a discrete subset of all known small non-coding RNAs (sncRNAs) in the brain. In general, in contrast to normally, aging human brain, in AD a family of pathogenically up-regulated miRNAs appear to be down-regulating the expression certain brain-essential mRNA targets, including key regulatory genes involved interactively in neuroinflammation, synaptogenesis, neurotrophic functions, and amyloidogenesis. These up-regulated, NF-kB-sensitive miRNAs, involved in the innate immune and inflammatory response and synaptic, neurotrophic, and amyloidogenic functions include miRNA-9, miRNA-125b, miRNA-146a, and miRNA-155. Other miRNAs of the miRNA-15/107 family, miRNA-153 and miRNA-190, and others, will be discussed. Overall, this manuscript will review the known contribution of miRNAs to aging brain function and the role they appear to play in the incidence and progression of AD.
Project description:Integrating a combination of bioinformatics, microRNA microfluidic arrays, ELISA analysis, LED Northern, and transfection-luciferase reporter assay data using human neuronal-glial (HNG) cells in primary culture we have discovered a set of up-regulated microRNAs (miRNAs) linked to a small family of down-regulated messenger RNAs (mRNAs) within the superior temporal lobe neocortex (Brodmann A22) of sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain. At the level of mRNA abundance, the expression of a significant number of human brain genes found to be down-regulated in sporadic AD neocortex appears to be due to the increased abundance of a several brain-abundant inducible miRNAs. These up-regulated miRNAs-including, prominently, miRNA-34a-have complimentary RNA sequences in the 3' untranslated-region (3'-UTR) of their target-mRNAs that results in the pathological down-regulation in the expression of important brain genes. An up-regulated microRNA-34a, already implicated in age-related inflammatory-neurodegeneration-appears to down-regulate key mRNA targets involved in synaptogenesis and synaptic-structure, distinguishing neuronal deficits associated with AD neuropathology. One significantly down-regulated post-synaptic element in AD is the proline-rich SH3 and multiple-ankyrin-repeat domain SHANK3 protein. Bioinformatics, microRNA array analysis and SHANK3-mRNA-3'UTR luciferase-reporter assay confirmed the importance of miRNA-34a in the regulation of SHANK3 expression in HNG cells. This paper reports on recent studies of a miRNA-34a-up-regulation coupled to SHANK3 mRNA down-regulation in sporadic AD superior-temporal lobe compared to age-matched controls. These findings further support our hypothesis of an altered miRNA-mRNA coupled signaling network in AD, much of which is supported, and here reviewed, by recently reported experimental-findings in the scientific literature.
Project description:MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small noncoding RNAs that regulate gene expression at the posttranscriptional level. Research on miRNAs has highlighted their importance in neural development, but the specific functions of neurally enriched miRNAs remain poorly understood. We report here the expression profile of miRNAs during neuronal differentiation in the human neuroblastoma cell line SH-SY5Y. Six miRNAs were significantly upregulated during differentiation induced by all-trans-retinoic acid and brain-derived neurotrophic factor. We demonstrated that the ectopic expression of either miR-124a or miR-125b increases the percentage of differentiated SH-SY5Y cells with neurite outgrowth. Subsequently, we focused our functional analysis on miR-125b and demonstrated the important role of this miRNA in both the spontaneous and induced differentiations of SH-SH5Y cells. miR-125b is also upregulated during the differentiation of human neural progenitor ReNcell VM cells, and miR-125b ectopic expression significantly promotes the neurite outgrowth of these cells. To identify the targets of miR-125b regulation, we profiled the global changes in gene expression following miR-125b ectopic expression in SH-SY5Y cells. miR-125b represses 164 genes that contain the seed match sequence of the miRNA and/or that are predicted to be direct targets of miR-125b by conventional methods. Pathway analysis suggests that a subset of miR-125b-repressed targets antagonizes neuronal genes in several neurogenic pathways, thereby mediating the positive effect of miR-125b on neuronal differentiation. We have further validated the binding of miR-125b to the miRNA response elements of 10 selected mRNA targets. Together, we report here for the first time the important role of miR-125b in human neuronal differentiation.
Project description:Alzheimer's disease (AD) and age-related macular degeneration (AMD) are complex and progressive inflammatory degenerations of the human neocortex and retina. Recent molecular, genetic and epigenetic evidence indicate that at least 4 micro RNAs (miRNAs) - including the NF-?B-regulated miRNA-9, miRNA-125b, miRNA-146a and miRNA-155 - are progressively up-regulated in both AD and AMD. This quartet of up-regulated miRNAs in turn down-regulate a small brain- and retinal-cell-relevant family of target mRNAs, including that encoding complement factor H (CFH), a major negative regulator of the innate immune and inflammatory response. Together miRNA-146a and miRNA-155 recognize an overlapping miRNA regulatory control (MiRC) region in the CFH 3'-untranslated region (3'- UTR; 5'-TTTAGTATTAA-3') to which either of these miRNAs may interact. Progressive, pathogenic increases in specific miRNA binding to the entire 232 nucleotide CFH 3'-UTR appears to be a major regulator of CFH expression down-regulation, and the inflammatory pathology that characterizes both AMD and AD. The data presented in this report provides evidence that up-regulation of brain- and retinal- abundant miRNAs, including miRNA-9, miRNA-125b, miRNA-146a and miRNA-155, are common to the pathogenetic mechanism of CFH deficiency that drives inflammatory neurodegeneration, and for the first time indicates multiple, independent miRNA-mediated regulation of the CFH mRNA 3'-UTR.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Recent reports have indicated that microRNAs (miRNAs) play a critical role in malignancies, and regulations in the progress of adult leukemia. The role of miRNAs in pediatric leukemia still needs to be established. The purpose of this study was to investigate the aberrantly expressed miRNAs in pediatric acute leukemia and demonstrate miRNA patterns that are pediatric-specific and prognostic parameter-associated. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A total of 111 pediatric bone marrow samples, including 99 patients and 12 normal donors, were enrolled in this study. Of those samples, 36 patients and 7 normal samples were used as a test cohort for the evaluation of miRNA profiling; 63 pediatric patients and 5 normal donors were used as a validation cohort to confirm the miRNA differential expression. Pediatric ALL- and AML-specific microRNA expression patterns were identified in this study. The most highly expressed miRNAs in pediatric ALL were miR-34a, miR-128a, miR-128b, and miR-146a, while the highly expressed miRNAs in pediatric AML were miR-100, miR-125b, miR-335, miR-146a, and miR-99a, which are significantly different from those reported for adult CLL and AML. miR-125b and miR-126 may serve as favorable prognosticators for M3 and M2 patients, respectively. Importantly, we identified a "miRNA cascade" associated with central nervous system (CNS) relapse in ALL. Additionally, miRNA patterns associated with prednisone response, specific risk group, and relapse of ALL were also identified. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: There are existing pediatric-associated and prognostic parameter-associated miRNAs that are independent of cell lineage and could provide therapeutic direction for individual risk-adapted therapy for pediatric leukemia patients.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Alzheimer disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia but the identification of reliable, early and non-invasive biomarkers remains a major challenge. We present a novel miRNA-based signature for detecting AD from blood samples. RESULTS: We apply next-generation sequencing to miRNAs from blood samples of 48 AD patients and 22 unaffected controls, yielding a total of 140 unique mature miRNAs with significantly changed expression levels. Of these, 82 have higher and 58 have lower abundance in AD patient samples. We selected a panel of 12 miRNAs for an RT-qPCR analysis on a larger cohort of 202 samples, comprising not only AD patients and healthy controls but also patients with other CNS illnesses. These included mild cognitive impairment, which is assumed to represent a transitional period before the development of AD, as well as multiple sclerosis, Parkinson disease, major depression, bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. miRNA target enrichment analysis of the selected 12 miRNAs indicates an involvement of miRNAs in nervous system development, neuron projection, neuron projection development and neuron projection morphogenesis. Using this 12-miRNA signature, we differentiate between AD and controls with an accuracy of 93%, a specificity of 95% and a sensitivity of 92%. The differentiation of AD from other neurological diseases is possible with accuracies between 74% and 78%. The differentiation of the other CNS disorders from controls yields even higher accuracies. CONCLUSIONS: The data indicate that deregulated miRNAs in blood might be used as biomarkers in the diagnosis of AD or other neurological diseases.
Project description:MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are potential biomarkers of neoplastic lesions, but additional information on dysregulated miRNA expression during progression of the adenoma-adenocarcinoma sequence may be helpful to identify the role of miRNAs in this sequence. We examined the expression levels of 13 miRNAs (hsa-miRNA-19a-3p, hsa-miRNA-21-5p, hsa-miRNA-27a-3p, hsa-miRNA-27b-3p, hsa-miRNA-31-5p, hsa-miRNA-34b-3p, hsa-miRNA-125b-5p, hsa-miRNA-143-3p, miRNA-191-5p, hsa-miRNA-193b-3p, hsa-miRNA-195-5p, hsa-miRNA-206 and hsa-let-7a-5p) that are closely associated with colorectal carcinogenesis in 40 conventional adenomas (tubular and tubulovillous adenomas), 20 intramucosal carcinomas (IMCs) and 60 invasive colorectal cancers (iCRCs) using reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. These 120 tumors were divided into two cohorts, that is, cohort 1 (60 cases) and cohort 2 (for validation; 60 cases). We analyzed the expression levels of these miRNAs in the first step (adenoma?IMC) and second step IMC?iCRC) of the adenoma-carcinoma sequence in both cohorts. Although no significant differences in the expression of any of the 13 miRNAs were found between adenomas and IMCs consistently in both cohorts, the expression levels of hsa-miRNA-125b-5p, hsa-miRNA-143-3p, and hsa-miRNA-206 were significantly upregulated in iCRC in both cohorts compared with those in IMC. The current results suggest that certain miRNAs, including hsa-miRNA-125b-5p, hsa-miRNA-143-3p and hsa-miRNA-206, are candidate markers that play critical roles in the progression of IMC to iCRC.
Project description:The Vitamin D Receptor (VDR) is a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily and is of therapeutic interest in cancer and other settings. Regulation of microRNA (miRNA) by the VDR appears to be important to mediate its actions, for example, to control cell growth. To identify if and to what extent VDR-regulated miRNA patterns change in prostate cancer progression, we undertook miRNA microarray analyses in 7 cell models representing non-malignant and malignant prostate cells (RWPE-1, RWPE-2, HPr1, HPr1AR, LNCaP, LNCaP-C4-2, and PC-3). To focus on primary VDR regulatory events, we undertook expression analyses after 30 minutes treatment with 1?,25(OH)2D3. Across all models, 111 miRNAs were significantly modulated by 1?,25(OH)2D3 treatment. Of these, only 5 miRNAs were modulated in more than one cell model, and of these, only 3 miRNAs were modulated in the same direction. The patterns of miRNA regulation, and the networks they targeted, significantly distinguished the different cell types. Integration of 1?,25(OH)2D3-regulated miRNAs with published VDR ChIP-seq data showed significant enrichment of VDR peaks in flanking regions of miRNAs. Furthermore, mRNA and miRNA expression analyses in non-malignant RWPE-1 cells revealed patterns of miRNA and mRNA co-regulation; specifically, 13 significant reciprocal patterns were identified and these patterns were also observed in TCGA prostate cancer data. Lastly, motif search analysis revealed differential motif enrichment within VDR peaks flanking mRNA compared to miRNA genes. Together, this study revealed that miRNAs are rapidly regulated in a highly cell-type specific manner, and are significantly co-integrated with mRNA regulation.
Project description:Several microRNAs (miRNAs) that are either specifically enriched or highly expressed in neurons and glia have been described, but the identification of miRNAs modulating neural stem cell (NSC) biology remains elusive. In this study, we exploited high throughput miRNA expression profiling to identify candidate miRNAs enriched in NSC/early progenitors derived from the murine subventricular zone (SVZ). Then, we used lentiviral miRNA sensor vectors (LV.miRT) to monitor the activity of shortlisted miRNAs with cellular and temporal resolution during NSC differentiation, taking advantage of in vitro and in vivo models that recapitulate physiological neurogenesis and gliogenesis and using known neuronal- and glial-specific miRNAs as reference. The LV.miRT platform allowed us monitoring endogenous miRNA activity in low represented cell populations within a bulk culture or within the complexity of CNS tissue, with high sensitivity and specificity. In this way we validated and extended previous results on the neuronal-specific miR-124 and the astroglial-specific miR-23a. Importantly, we describe for the first time a cell type- and differentiation stage-specific modulation of miR-93 and miR-125b in SVZ-derived NSC cultures and in the SVZ neurogenic niche in vivo, suggesting key roles of these miRNAs in regulating NSC function.