Assessing the effectiveness of problem-based learning of preventive medicine education in China.
ABSTRACT: Problem-based learning (PBL) is defined as a student-centered pedagogy which can provide learners more opportunities for application of knowledge acquired from basic science to the working situations than traditional lecture-based learning (LBL) method. In China, PBL is increasingly popular among preventive medicine educators, and multiple studies have investigated the effectiveness of PBL pedagogy in preventive medicine education. A pooled analysis based on 15 studies was performed to obtain an overall estimate of the effectiveness of PBL on learning outcomes of preventive medicine. Overall, PBL was associated with a significant increase in students' theoretical examination scores (SMD = 0.62, 95% CI = 0.41-0.83) than LBL. For the attitude- and skill-based outcomes, the pooled PBL effects were also significant among learning attitude (OR = 3.62, 95% CI = 2.40-5.16), problem solved skill (OR = 4.80, 95% CI = 2.01-11.46), self-directed learning skill (OR = 5.81, 95% CI = 3.11-10.85), and collaborative skill (OR = 4.21, 95% CI = 0.96-18.45). Sensitivity analysis showed that the exclusion of a single study did not influence the estimation. Our results suggest that PBL of preventive medicine education in China appears to be more effective than LBL in improving knowledge, attitude and skills.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Problem-based learning (PBL) combined lecture based learning (LBL) has been a trend adopted as a new medical pedagogical approach in Chinese medical teaching. This study aims to evaluate the impacts of hybrid PBL and LBL pedagogy compared with LBL teaching method on the learning achievements of clinical curriculum for Chinese medicine students. METHODS:Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were identified through a systematic literature search of electronic databases and article references up to June 2019. PubMed, EBSCO, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, Wanfang Database, CNKI, and China Biology Medicine database (CBM) were searched. End points included knowledge scores, skill scores, medical writing scores, comprehensive ability scores and teaching satisfaction. RESULTS:Totally 20 randomized controlled studies were finally included and all Chinese literatures, involving 1817 patients. Compared with traditional LBL pedagogy, hybrid PBL and LBL pedagogy significantly increased the clinical theoretical knowledge assessment score (RR?=?4.84, 95% CI: 2.92?6.76, P?<?.00001), clinical skills assessment score (RR?=?1.60, 95% CI: 1.39?1.81, P?<?.00001), comprehensive ability score (RR?=?9.13, 95% CI: 8.42?9.84, P?<?.00001) and teaching satisfaction (RR?=?2.58, 95% CI: 1.84?3.62, P?<?.00001), The meta-regression results showed that expertise-level of students and course type were the factors that caused heterogeneity. CONCLUSIONS:Hybrid PBL and LBL pedagogy integrates the advantages of conventional teaching methods and novel teaching methods, remarkably improves the teaching efficacy, demonstrates easy acceptance by students, and meets the demand of modern medical education, so it is an effective approach to cultivate the medical talents with an ability of innovative thinking and can be advocated and popularized as a teaching means.
Project description:Team-based learning (TBL) has been adopted as a new medical pedagogical approach in China. However, there are no studies or reviews summarizing the effectiveness of TBL on medical education. This study aims to obtain an overall estimation of the effectiveness of TBL on outcomes of theoretical teaching of medical education in China.We retrieved the studies from inception through December, 2015. Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure, Chinese Biomedical Literature Database, Chinese Wanfang Database, Chinese Scientific Journal Database, PubMed, EMBASE and Cochrane Database were searched. The quality of included studies was assessed by the Newcastle-Ottawa scale. Standardized mean difference (SMD) was applied for the estimation of the pooled effects. Heterogeneity assumption was detected by I2 statistics, and was further explored by meta-regression analysis.A total of 13 articles including 1545 participants eventually entered into the meta-analysis. The quality scores of these studies ranged from 6 to 10. Altogether, TBL significantly increased students' theoretical examination scores when compared with lecture-based learning (LBL) (SMD?=?2.46, 95% CI: 1.53-3.40). Additionally, TBL significantly increased students' learning attitude (SMD?=?3.23, 95% CI: 2.27-4.20), and learning skill (SMD?=?2.70, 95% CI: 1.33-4.07). The meta-regression results showed that randomization, education classification and gender diversity were the factors that caused heterogeneity.TBL in theoretical teaching of medical education seems to be more effective than LBL in improving the knowledge, attitude and skill of students in China, providing evidence for the implement of TBL in medical education in China. The medical schools should implement TBL with the consideration on the practical teaching situations such as students' education level.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Recent years have witnessed the wide application of team-based learning(TBL) pedagogy in Chinese pharmacy education. However, the relevant systematic review evaluating the effects of such new pedagogical approach has not been established. The present study was designed to examine systematically the effect of using TBL approach in pharmacy education in China.<h4>Methods</h4>Six databases were searched from the inception to January 2019. The studies reporting the performance of pharmacy students in Chinese university or college receiving TBL pedagogy compared to those receiving traditional lecture-based learning (LBL) were enrolled to be analyzed. Scores of the objective theoretical test were considered as the primary outcome, and the results from questionnaires about the number of students who approved the effects of TBL pedagogy on improving their learning enthusiasm, self-study ability, thinking ability, and communication skills were considered as the secondary outcome. A meta-analysis was conducted following the guidelines of the Cochrane Reviewer's Handbook and the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta Analyses statement.<h4>Results</h4>A total of 1271 students in 12 studies published from 2013 to 2018 were enrolled in present analysis. Compared with traditional LBL pedagogy, TBL pedagogy exhibited more effectiveness in developing the objective tests scores of pharmacy students from both universities (SMD?=?1.69, 95% CI [1.10, 2.28], p?<?0.00001) and colleges (SMD?=?4.37, 95% CI [1.33, 7.40], p?<?0.00001), and such pedagogy applied well in experiments-oriented courses (SMD?=?2.14, 95% CI [0.86, 3.43], p?<?0.00001) and theory-oriented courses (SMD?=?2.77, 95% CI [1.41, 4.14], p?<?0.00001). In addition, it developed students' learning enthusiasm, students' self-study ability, thinking ability, and enhanced students' communication skills.<h4>Conclusions</h4>TBL pedagogy has developed rapidly and applied widely in Chinese pharmacy education during the last decade. The results indicated that such novel pedagogy is compatible with the present situation of Chinese pharmacy education. And it could be considered as an effective method to enhance both the theoretical test scores and various abilities of Chinese pharmacy students.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Medical education curricula in developing countries should emphasize training in health research. This study compares the knowledge and attitudes towards health research between undergraduate medical students undertaking Problem Based Learning (PBL) versus conventional Lecture Based Learning (LBL). METHODS: Two groups comprising 66 (LBL) and 84 (PBL) 4(th) and 5(th) year students from the medical college of Aga Khan University were administered a structured and validated questionnaire. Knowledge and attitudes of the two groups were recorded on a scale (graduated in percentages) and compared for statistical difference. RESULTS: PBL students scored 54.0% while LBL students scored 55.5% on the knowledge scale [p-value; 0.63]. On the attitudes scale, PBL students scored 75.5% against a 66.7% score of LBL students [p-value; 0.021]. A higher proportion of PBL students (89%) had participated in research activities compared to LBL students (74%) and thus felt more confident in conducting research and writing a scientific paper. CONCLUSION: The PBL students showed slightly healthier attitudes towards health research compared to LBL students. Both groups demonstrated a similar level of knowledge about health research. The positive impact of the PBL curriculum on attitudes of medical students towards health research may help in improving research output from developing countries in future.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>To study the effect of the problem-based learning (PBL) method in ultrasonography (US) resident standardization training during the COVID-19 pandemic.<h4>Methods</h4>Fifty residents were divided into two groups to participate in a 30-day US training program. The residents in the observation group underwent PBL combined with the lecture-based learning (LBL) method, while the residents in the control group experienced the LBL method alone, with 25 residents in each group. A basic theoretical test, practical examination, and questionnaire were used to evaluate the teaching effect of the PBL + LBL method and the LBL method alone.<h4>Results</h4>The basic theoretical pretest score of the observation group was not significantly different from that of the control group. However, the posttest theoretical score and practical score were significantly higher in the observation group than in the control group (P < 0.01). The results of the questionnaire showed that the resident satisfaction level in the observation group with PBL combined with the LBL method was 96%, which was significantly higher than that of the control group with the LBL method alone (80%) (P < 0.05).<h4>Conclusion</h4>The combination of PBL with the LBL method has obvious advantages over the LBL method alone in regard to the training of US residents during the COVID-19 pandemic.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The use of digital education in problem-based learning, or digital problem-based learning (DPBL), is increasingly employed in health professions education. DPBL includes purely digitally delivered as well as blended problem-based learning, wherein digital and face-to-face learning are combined. OBJECTIVE:The aim of this review is to evaluate the effectiveness of DPBL in improving health professionals' knowledge, skills, attitudes, and satisfaction. METHODS:We used the gold-standard Cochrane methods to conduct a systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs). We included studies that compared the effectiveness of DPBL with traditional learning methods or other forms of digital education in improving health professionals' knowledge, skills, attitudes, and satisfaction. Two authors independently screened studies, extracted data, and assessed the risk of bias. We contacted study authors for additional information, if necessary. We used the random-effects model in the meta-analyses. RESULTS:Nine RCTs involving 890 preregistration health professionals were included. Digital technology was mostly employed for presentation of problems. In three studies, PBL was delivered fully online. Digital technology modalities spanned online learning, offline learning, virtual reality, and virtual patients. The control groups consisted of traditional PBL and traditional learning. The pooled analysis of seven studies comparing the effect of DPBL and traditional PBL reported little or no difference in postintervention knowledge outcomes (standardized mean difference [SMD] 0.19, 95% CI 0.00-0.38). The pooled analysis of three studies comparing the effect of DPBL to traditional learning on postintervention knowledge outcomes favored DPBL (SMD 0.67, 95% CI 0.14-1.19). For skill development, the pooled analysis of two studies comparing DPBL to traditional PBL favored DPBL (SMD 0.30, 95% CI 0.07-0.54). Findings on attitudes and satisfaction outcomes were mixed. The included studies mostly had an unclear risk of bias. CONCLUSIONS:Our findings suggest that DPBL is as effective as traditional PBL and more effective than traditional learning in improving knowledge. DPBL may be more effective than traditional learning or traditional PBL in improving skills. Further studies should evaluate the use of digital technology for the delivery of other PBL components as well as PBL overall.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:At present, current didactic teaching delivery method help nursing students apply theory to clinical situations in an inefficient way. The flipped classroom (FC), a novel teaching mode emphasizing self-study and critical thinking, has generated interest in nursing education in China. However, there are a gap in the literature and no consistent outcomes of current studies which compared FC and lecture-based learning (LBL), and no systematic review has comprehensively compared theoretical scores as an affected outcome in FC versus LBL modes. METHODS:In this review, we analyze flipped-learning nursing students' scores, and aim to assess the efficacy and provide a deeper understanding of the FC in nursing education. Following the inclusion criteria, articles were obtained by searching PubMed, Embase and Chinese data, including the China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang Data, and VIP database until 3 January 2020. Data were extracted from eligible articles and quality was assessed. A meta-analysis was then performed using a random effects model with a standardized mean value (SMD) and a 95% confidence interval (CI).32 studies were included after reviewing 2,439 citations. All studies were randomized controlled trials (RCTs). The FC theoretical knowledge scores in FC were significantly positively affected compared to those of the traditional classroom (SMD = 1.33, 95% CI: 1.02-1.64; P < 0.001). In addition, 23 studies reported skill scores, indicating significant difference between the FC mode and LBL mode (SMD = 1.58, 95%CI: 1.23-1.93; P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS:The results of this meta-analysis suggest that compared to the LBL teaching method, the FC mode dose significantly improve Chinese nursing students' theoretical scores. However, the problems of heterogeneity and publication bias in this study need to be remedied high-quality future studies.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The educational efficacy in neonatal resuscitation relies on the subject and teaching strategies. Therefore, it is imperative to test diverse educational methods if they are more instructive to engage students in active learning and practicing knowledge. Hence, the present study aims to investigate the efficacy of a pedagogical framework in neonatal resuscitation skill learning among nursing students in a resource-limited setting.<h4>Methods</h4>A single-blind randomized controlled trial was conducted between October 2020 to March 2021. Sixty nursing students in the 3rd and 4th year of professional training were randomly allocated to the pedagogy and the traditional group. The pedagogy group learned via 6-step LSPPDM (Learn, See, Practice, Prove, Do, Maintain) pedagogy including lectures, video, clinical observation, skill sessions under supervision, and self-directed practice. The traditional group learned through 2-step (Learn, Practice) method that included lectures and skill sessions under supervision. The outcomes measured included technical and non-technical skills in neonatal resuscitation. The technical skill deals with steps such as stimulation, ventilation, oxygenation, intubation, chest compression, medications, and reporting. Non-technical skills refer to teamwork skills that focus on the interaction between leader and helper. Both skills were measured through previously published validated tools two times before and after the intervention by blinded assessors in a simulated delivery room.<h4>Results</h4>Overall, the skill was significantly improved in both groups after intervention. Yet, the results showed that the mean difference of technical skill score in the pedagogy group (24.3 ± 3.5) was significantly higher (p < 0.001) compared to the traditional group (16.2 ± 2.4). Likewise, the mean difference of non-technical skill score in the pedagogy (36.9 ± 1.9) was highly significant (p < 0.001) compared to the traditional group (31.2 ± 1.7).<h4>Conclusions</h4>The LSPPDM pedagogy was found more effective in enhancing technical and non-technical skills in neonatal resuscitation compared to the traditional method. The results of this study support the efficacy of the 6-step LSPPDM pedagogy in the education of nursing students regarding neonatal resuscitation in a resource-limited setting.<h4>Trial registration</h4>Prospectively registered at ClinicalTrials.gov ( NCT04748341 ).
Project description:<h4>Purpose</h4>Problem-based learning (PBL) is a well-established method for facilitating the learning of basic science concepts in the context of clinical cases. Relevant evidence is lacking regarding PBL's effectiveness and acceptability as perceived by students accustomed to classical traditional teaching in India. Hence, this study gathered students' opinions on PBL versus Traditional teaching methods to generate a foundation for institutional policymaking and ultimately, changes in the policy of regulatory bodies.<h4>Methods</h4>A total of 773 first year medical students admitted from 2007-2010 in Kasturba Medical College Manipal, Manipal University, India were asked to respond to a 15-item questionnaire evaluating their preferences for PBL or traditional methods such as lectures after undergoing a systematically conducted PBL session in physiology. Their responses were analyzed with an unpaired t-test. Their comments were also collected.<h4>Results</h4>PBL scored significantly higher for most items in the questionnaire for "learning efficiency" and "student-teacher relationship". The students' comments highlighted the importance of a trained tutor/facilitator to enhance the learning process.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Our students are willing to adapt to the PBL method, although they recognize certain benefits of traditional pedagogy. For learning efficiency and the student-teacher relationship, the students feel that neither method holds an advantage. We recommend that the future medical curriculum in India be a hybrid form of PBL and traditional methods with specific training on the unfamiliar PBL approach for both faculty and students.
Project description:This paper reports a study on teaching and learning strategies during the COVID-19 lockdown period (CLP) that were used by the secondary government school teachers and students in Eastern India. These teaching and learning strategies were analysed in relation to their engagement with an initiative called Integrated approach to Technology in Education (ITE). ITE engagement in the pre-CLP involved using project-based learning (PBL) with technology and continuous, practise-based professional development for teachers focusing on integrating constructivist use of technology in their curriculum and pedagogy. A survey and interviews of teachers revealed that teachers with higher ITE engagement in the pre-CLP were more likely to use PBL with technology during the CLP. Students' interviews indicated that this PBL involved deep research and technical skills that were also practised during the CLP using distance technologies. Thus, the study demonstrated adaptation of ITE innovation into a distance mode; the introduction of WebQuests during the CLP improved the likelihood of teachers engaging in project-based teaching and PBL during the CLP. Policymakers, practitioners and researchers are recommended to adopt and continue to study the sustainability of ITE approach in new contexts such as the CLP.