Satellite cells in human skeletal muscle; from birth to old age.
ABSTRACT: Changes in satellite cell content play a key role in regulating skeletal muscle growth and atrophy. Yet, there is little information on changes in satellite cell content from birth to old age in humans. The present study defines muscle fiber type-specific satellite cell content in human skeletal muscle tissue over the entire lifespan. Muscle biopsies were collected in 165 subjects, from different muscles of children undergoing surgery (<18 years; n?=?13) and from the vastus lateralis muscle of young adult (18–49 years; n?=?50), older (50–69 years; n?=?53), and senescent subjects (70–86 years; n?=?49). In a subgroup of 51 aged subjects (71?±?6 years), additional biopsies were collected after 12 weeks of supervised resistance-type exercise training. Immunohistochemistry was applied to assess skeletal muscle fiber type-specific composition, size, and satellite cell content. From birth to adulthood, muscle fiber size increased tremendously with no major changes in muscle fiber satellite cell content, and no differences between type I and II muscle fibers. In contrast to type I muscle fibers, type II muscle fiber size was substantially smaller with increasing age in adults (r?=??0.56; P?
Project description:Optimal repair and adaptation of skeletal muscle is facilitated by resident stem cells (satellite cells). To understand how different exercise modes influence satellite cell dynamics, we measured satellite cell activity in conjunction with markers of muscle damage and inflammation in human skeletal muscle following a single work- and intensity-matched bout of eccentric (ECC) or concentric contractions (CON). Participants completed a single bout of ECC (n = 7) or CON (n = 7) of the knee extensors. A muscle biopsy was obtained before and 24 h after exercise. Functional measures and immunohistochemical analyses were used to determine the extent of muscle damage and indices of satellite cell activity. Cytokine concentrations were measured using a multiplexed magnetic bead assay. Isokinetic peak torque decreased following ECC (p < 0.05) but not CON. Greater histological staining of the damage marker Xin was observed in muscle samples of ECC vs. CON. Tenasin C immunoreactivity increased 15 fold (p < 0.01) following ECC and was unchanged following CON. The inflammatory cytokines interferon gamma-induced protein 10 (IP-10) and monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1) increased pre- to post-ECC (4.26 ± 1.4 vs. 10.49 ± 5.8 pg/ml, and 3.06 ± 0.7 vs. 6.25 ± 4.6 pg/ml, respectively; p < 0.05). There was no change in any cytokine post-CON. Satellite cell content increased 27% pre- to post-ECC (0.10 ± 0.031 vs. 0.127 ± 0.041, respectively; p < 0.05). There was no change in satellite cell number in CON (0.099 ± 0.027 vs. 0.102 ± 0.029, respectively). There was no fiber type-specific satellite cell response following either exercise mode. ECC but not CON resulted in an increase in MyoD positive nuclei per myofiber pre- to post-exercise (p < 0.05), but there was no change in MyoD DNA binding activity in either condition. In conclusion, ECC but not CON results in functional and histological evidence of muscle damage that is accompanied by increased satellite cell activity 24 h post-exercise.
Project description:Adequate muscle fibre perfusion is critical for the maintenance of muscle mass; it is essential in the rapid delivery of oxygen, nutrients and growth factors to the muscle, stimulating muscle fibre growth. Muscle fibre capillarization is known to decrease substantially with advancing age. However, whether (relative) low muscle fibre capillarization negatively impacts the muscle hypertrophic response following resistance exercise training in older adults is unknown.Twenty-two healthy older men (71?±?1?years) performed 24?weeks of progressive resistance type exercise training. To assess the change in muscle fibre characteristics, percutaneous biopsies from the vastus lateralis muscle were taken before and following 12 and 24?weeks of the intervention programme. A comparison was made between participants who had a relatively low type II muscle fibre capillary-to-fibre perimeter exchange index (CFPE; LOW group) and high type II muscle fibre CFPE (HIGH group) at baseline. Type I and type II muscle fibre size, satellite cell, capillary content and distance between satellite cells to the nearest capillary were determined by immunohistochemistry.Overall, type II muscle fibre size (from 5150?±?234 to 6719?±?446?µm2 , P?<?0.05) and satellite cell content (from 0.058?±?0.006 to 0.090?±?0.010 satellite cells per muscle fibre, P?<?0.05) had increased significantly in response to 24?weeks of resistance exercise training. However, these improvements where mainly driven by differences in baseline type II muscle fibre capillarization, whereas muscle fibre size (from 5170?±?390 to 7133?±?314?µm2 , P?<?0.05) and satellite cell content (from 0.059?±?0.009 to 0.102?±?0.017 satellite cells per muscle fibre, P?<?0.05) increased significantly in the HIGH group, no significant changes were observed in LOW group following exercise training. No significant changes in type I and type II muscle fibre capillarization were observed in response to 12 and 24?weeks of resistance exercise training in both the LOW and HIGH group.Type II muscle fibre capillarization at baseline may be a critical factor for allowing muscle fibre hypertrophy to occur during prolonged resistance exercise training in older men.
Project description:Glycerophosphodiesterase 5 (GDE5) selectively hydrolyses glycerophosphocholine to choline and is highly expressed in type II fiber-rich skeletal muscles. We have previously generated that a truncated mutant of GDE5 (GDE5dC471) that lacks phosphodiesterase activity and shown that transgenic mice overexpressing GDE5dC471 in skeletal muscles show less skeletal muscle mass than control mice. However, the molecular mechanism and pathophysiological features underlying decreased skeletal muscle mass in GDE5dC471 mice remain unclear. In this study, we characterized the skeletal muscle disorder throughout development and investigated the primary cause of muscle atrophy. While type I fiber-rich soleus muscle mass was not altered in GDE5dC471 mice, type II fiber-rich muscle mass was reduced in 8-week-old GDE5dC471 mice. Type II fiber-rich muscle mass continued to decrease irreversibly in 1-year-old transgenic mice with an increase in apoptotic cell. Adipose tissue weight and blood triglyceride levels in 8-week-old and 1-year-old transgenic mice were higher than those in control mice. This study also demonstrated compensatory mRNA expression of neuromuscular junction (NMJ) components, including nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (?1, ?, and ? subunits) and acetylcholinesterase in type II fiber-rich quadriceps muscles in GDE5dC471 mice. However, we did not observe morphological changes in NMJs associated with skeletal muscle atrophy in GDE5dC471 mice. We also found that HSP70 protein levels are significantly increased in the skeletal muscles of 2-week-old GDE5dC471 mice and in mouse myoblastic C2C12 cells overexpressing GDE5dC471. These findings suggest that GDE5dC471 mouse is a novel model of early-onset irreversible type II fiber-rich myopathy associated with cellular stress.
Project description:Purpose: High-load resistance exercise contributes to maintenance of muscle mass, muscle protein quality, and contractile function by stimulation of muscle protein synthesis (MPS), hypertrophy, and strength gains. However, high loading may not be feasible in several clinical populations. Low-load blood flow restricted resistance exercise (BFRRE) may provide an alternative approach. However, the long-term protein synthetic response to BFRRE is unknown and the myocellular adaptations to prolonged BFRRE are not well described. Methods: To investigate this, 34 healthy young subjects were randomized to 6 weeks of low-load BFRRE, HLRE, or non-exercise control (CON). Deuterium oxide (D2O) was orally administered throughout the intervention period. Muscle biopsies from m. vastus lateralis were collected before and after the 6-week intervention period to assess long-term myofibrillar MPS and RNA synthesis as well as muscle fiber-type-specific cross-sectional area (CSA), satellite cell content, and myonuclei content. Muscle biopsies were also collected in the immediate hours following single-bout exercise to assess signaling for muscle protein degradation. Isometric and dynamic quadriceps muscle strength was evaluated before and after the intervention. Results: Myofibrillar MPS was higher in BFRRE (1.34%/day, p < 0.01) and HLRE (1.12%/day, p < 0.05) compared to CON (0.96%/day) with no significant differences between exercise groups. Muscle RNA synthesis was higher in BFRRE (0.65%/day, p < 0.001) and HLRE (0.55%/day, p < 0.01) compared to CON (0.38%/day) and both training groups increased RNA content, indicating ribosomal biogenesis in response to exercise. BFRRE and HLRE both activated muscle degradation signaling. Muscle strength increased 6-10% in BFRRE (p < 0.05) and 13-23% in HLRE (p < 0.01). Dynamic muscle strength increased to a greater extent in HLRE (p < 0.05). No changes in type I and type II muscle fiber-type-specific CSA, satellite cell content, or myonuclei content were observed. Conclusions: These results demonstrate that BFRRE increases long-term muscle protein turnover, ribosomal biogenesis, and muscle strength to a similar degree as HLRE. These findings emphasize the potential application of low-load BFRRE to stimulate muscle protein turnover and increase muscle function in clinical populations where high loading is untenable.
Project description:Satellite cell proliferation is an essential step in proper skeletal muscle development and muscle regeneration. However, the mechanisms regulating satellite cell proliferation are relatively unknown compared to the knowledge associated with the differentiation of satellite cells. Moreover, it is still unclear whether overload muscle fiber hypertrophy is dependent on satellite cell proliferation. In general, cell proliferation is regulated by the activity of cell cycle regulators, such as cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs). Despite recent reports on the function of CDKs and CDK inhibitors in satellite cells, the physiological role of Cdk1 in satellite cell proliferation remains unknown. Herein, we demonstrate that Cdk1 regulates satellite cell proliferation, muscle regeneration, and muscle fiber hypertrophy. Cdk1 is highly expressed in myoblasts and is downregulated upon myoblast differentiation. Inhibition of CDK1 activity inhibits myoblast proliferation. Deletion of Cdk1 in satellite cells leads to inhibition of muscle recovery after muscle injury due to reduced satellite cell proliferation in vivo. Finally, we provide direct evidence that Cdk1 expression in satellite cells is essential for overload muscle fiber hypertrophy in vivo. Collectively, our results demonstrate that Cdk1 is essential for myoblast proliferation, muscle regeneration, and muscle fiber hypertrophy. These findings could help to develop treatments for refractory muscle injuries and muscle atrophy, such as sarcopenia.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Quadriceps muscle weakness is common in knee osteoarthritis (OA). While pain, disuse, and atrophy are commonly cited causes for muscle weakness in OA, emerging evidence suggests changes in muscle quality also occur. Alterations in muscle quality are not well understood, but likely include both cellular and morphologic adaptions. The purpose of this study was to conduct the first cellular-level analysis of the vastus lateralis in adults with moderate knee OA. METHODS:Vastus lateralis biopsies were obtained from 24 subjects with moderate knee OA and 15 healthy controls. Quadriceps strength, muscle fiber cross sectional area (CSA), fiber type distribution, extracellular matrix (ECM) content, satellite cell abundance, and profibrotic gene expression were assessed. RESULTS:Relative to controls, quadriceps strength was significantly lower in OA subjects (OA 62.23, 50.67-73.8 Nm vs 91.46, 75.91-107.0 Nm, P = 0.003) despite no difference in fiber CSA. OA subjects had significantly fewer Type I fibers (OA 41.51, 35.56-47.47% vs 53.07, 44.86-61.29%, P = 0.022) and more hybrid IIa/x fibers (OA 24.61, 20.61-28.61% vs 16.4, 11.60-21.20%, P = 0.009). Significantly greater ECM content, lower satellite cell density, and higher profibrotic gene expression was observed with OA, and muscle collagen content was inversely correlated to strength and satellite cell (SC) density. CONCLUSION:Lower quadriceps function with moderate OA may not result from fiber size impairments, but is associated with ECM expansion. Impaired satellite cell density, high profibrotic gene expression, and a slow-to-fast fiber type transition may contribute to reduced muscle quality in OA. These findings can help guide therapeutic interventions to enhance muscle function with OA.
Project description:Skeletal muscle atrophy, or sarcopenia, is commonly observed in older individuals and in those with chronic disease and is associated with decreased quality of life. There is recent medical and broad concern that sarcopenia is rapidly increasing worldwide as populations age. At present, strength training is the only effective intervention for preventing sarcopenia development, but it is not known how this exercise regimen counteracts this condition. Here, we report that expression of the inflammatory mediator angiopoietin-like protein 2 (ANGPTL2) increases in skeletal muscle of aging mice. Moreover, in addition to exhibiting increased inflammation and accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), denervated atrophic skeletal muscles in a mouse model of denervation-induced muscle atrophy had increased ANGPTL2 expression. Interestingly, mice with a skeletal myocyte-specific Angptl2 knockout had attenuated inflammation and ROS accumulation in denervated skeletal muscle, accompanied by increased satellite cell activity and inhibition of muscular atrophy compared with mice harboring wildtype Angptl2 Moreover, consistent with these phenotypes, wildtype mice undergoing exercise training displayed decreased ANGPTL2 expression in skeletal muscle. In conclusion, ANGPTL2 up-regulation in skeletal myocytes accelerates muscle atrophy, and exercise-induced attenuation of ANGPTL2 expression in those tissues may partially explain how exercise training prevents sarcopenia.
Project description:NF-kappaB is a major pleiotropic transcription factor modulating immune, inflammatory, cell survival, and proliferative responses, yet the relevance of NF-kappaB signaling in muscle physiology and disease is less well documented. Here we show that muscle-restricted NF-kappaB inhibition in mice, through targeted deletion of the activating kinase inhibitor of NF-kappaB kinase 2 (IKK2), shifted muscle fiber distribution and improved muscle force. In response to denervation, IKK2 depletion protected against atrophy, maintaining fiber type, size, and strength, increasing protein synthesis, and decreasing protein degradation. IKK2-depleted mice with a muscle-specific transgene expressing a local Igf-1 isoform (mIgf-1) showed enhanced protection against muscle atrophy. In response to muscle damage, IKK2 depletion facilitated skeletal muscle regeneration through enhanced satellite cell activation and reduced fibrosis. Our results establish IKK2/NF-kappaB signaling as an important modulator of muscle homeostasis and suggest a combined role for IKK inhibitors and growth factors in the therapy of muscle diseases.
Project description:Skeletal muscle is a complex heterogeneous tissue comprised of diverse muscle fiber and non-fiber cell types that, in addition to movement, influences other systems such as immunity, metabolism and cognition. We investigated gene expression patterns of resident human skeletal muscle cells using single-cell RNA-seq of dissections from vastus lateralis. We generate transcriptome profiles of 11 mononuclear human skeletal muscle mononuclear cell types, including immune, endothelial, pericyte and satellite cells. We delineate two fibro-adipogenic progenitor cell subtypes that may contribute to heterotopic ossification and muscular dystrophy fibrosis under pathological conditions. An important application of cell type signatures is for computational deconvolution of cell type specific changes using data from bulk transcriptome experiments. Analysis of transcriptome data from a 12 week resistance training study using the human skeletal muscle cell-type signatures revealed significant changes in specific mononuclear cell-type proportions related to age, sex, acute exercise and training. This characterization of human skeletal muscle cell subtypes will resolve cell type specific changes in large-scale physical activity muscle transcriptome studies and can further the understanding of the diverse effects of exercise and the pathophysiology of muscle disease. Overall design: Single cell RNA sequencing was conducted on four samples of mononuclear muscle cells isolated from a single vastus lateralis biopsy.
Project description:Aged skeletal muscle has an attenuated and delayed ability to proliferate satellite cells in response to resistance exercise. The mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling pathway is a focal point for cell growth, however, the effect of postexercise mTORC1 activation on human skeletal muscle satellite cell (SC) proliferation is unknown. To test the proliferative capacity of skeletal muscle SC in aging muscle to a potent mTORC1 activator (i.e., EAA; essential amino acids) we recruited older (~72y) men to conduct leg resistance exercise (8setsx10reps) without (-EAA; n = 8) and with (+EAA: n = 11) ingestion of 10 g of EAA 1 h postexercise. Muscle biopsies were taken before exercise (Pre) and 24 h postexercise (Post) for assessment of expression and fiber type-specific Pax7+ SC, Ki67+Pax7+ SC and MyoD+ SC -EAA did not show an increase in Pax7+ satellite cells at Post(P > 0.82). Although statistical significance for an increase in Pax7 + SC at 24 h post-RE was not observed in +EAA versus -EAA, we observed trends for a treatment difference (P < 0.1). When examining the change from Pre to Post trends were demonstrated (#/myofiber: P = 0.076; and %/myonuclei: P = 0.065) for a greater increase in +EAA versus -EAA Notably, we found an increase SC proliferation in +EAA, but not -EAA with increase in Ki67+ SC and MyoD+ cells (P < 0.05). Ki67+ SC also exhibited a significant group difference Post (P < 0.010). Pax7+ SC in fast twitch myofibers did not change and were not different between groups (P > 0.10). CDK2, MEF2C, RB1 mRNA only increased in +EAA (P < 0.05). Acute muscle satellite cell proliferative capacity may be partially rescued with postexercise EAA ingestion in older men.