Gardner's syndrome, a rare combination in surgical practice.
ABSTRACT: A 45-year-old man presented to the emergency ward with features of intestinal obstruction of 2?days duration. On admission, there was abdominal distension and multiple sessile polyps found on digital rectal examination. In addition, a soft tissue swelling near the elbow and a bony swelling over scalp were noted. Abdominal radiography revealed gaseous distension of the small and large bowel, and ultrasound revealed diffuse, gas-filled bowel with sluggish peristalsis. The obstruction failed to resolve with conservative measures and at emergency laparotomy an irregular hard recto-sigmoid junction mass was identified. A defunctioning transverse loop colostomy was undertaken and the abdomen closed. During recovery, a colonoscopy was performed and a malignant appearing lesion was identified 15?cm proximal to the anal verge. Further per-stomal colonoscopy revealed multiple sessile polyps from the ileo-caecal valve to the descending colon. The cutaneous and abdominal findings were consistent with a rare acute presentation of Gardner's syndrome.
Project description:Abdomen cocoon is a rare disease in which a thick peritoneal membrane wraps the intestine causing the bowel loops to adhere to each other. It may be either primary(idiopathic) or secondary to other causes like previous abdominal surgery. Most patients present with abdominal pain and intestinal obstruction. The condition is usually diagnosed intraoperatively.<h4>Case 1</h4>A 30-year-old male patient presented with abdominal pain and bilious vomiting. The patient had similar previous attacks. Examination showed distension abdominal distension with central tenderness. Plain abdominal X-ray showed multiple air fluid levels. During surgery most of ileum was enclosed by thin membrane with dilated proximal jejunum. Release of the bowel loops was done. The patient was well after surgery and was discharged with no post-operative complications.<h4>Case 2</h4>A 35-year old male presented with chronic right lower quadrant abdominal pain, the past medical and surgical histories were non-relevant. Abdominal examination showed tenderness on deep palpation at the right iliac fossa, abdominal ultrasound and abdominal X-ray were normal. During diagnostic laparoscopy the terminal ileum was enclosed with a thick whitish membrane with dilated proximal ileum. Release of the adhesions was done. The patient was well in the post-operative period and he was discharged home with no post-operative complications.In both cases the biopsy from the membranes showed features of chronic inflammatory process.Abdomen cocoon is one of the rare causes of small bowel obstruction. The bowel adhesions should be opened and nonviable segments resected. Most patients have good long term outcome.
Project description:INTRODUCTION: Peutz-Jeghers syndrome (PJS) is a rare familial disorder characterised by mucocutaneous pigmentation, gastrointestinal and extragastrointestinal hamartomatous polyps and an increased risk of malignancy. Peutz-Jeghers polyps in the bowel may result in intussusception. This complication usually manifests with abdominal pain and signs of intestinal obstruction. CASE PRESENTATION: We report the case of a 24-year-old Caucasian male who presented with melaena. Pigmentation of the buccal mucosa was noted but he was pain-free and examination of the abdomen was unremarkable. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed multiple polyps. An urgent abdominal computed tomography (CT) scan revealed multiple small bowel intussusceptions. Laparotomy was undertaken on our patient, reducing the intussusceptions and removing the polyps by enterotomies. Bowel resection was not needed. CONCLUSION: Melaena in PJS needs to be urgently investigated through a CT scan even in the absence of abdominal pain and when clinical examination of the abdomen shows normal findings. Although rare, the underlying cause could be intussusception, which if missed could result in grave consequences.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Low adenoma detection rates (ADR) are linked to increased postcolonoscopy colorectal cancer rates and reduced cancer survival. Devices to enhance mucosal visualisation such as Endocuff Vision (EV) may improve ADR. This multicentre randomised controlled trial compared ADR between EV-assisted colonoscopy (EAC) and standard colonoscopy (SC). DESIGN:Patients referred because of symptoms, surveillance or following a positive faecal occult blood test (FOBt) as part of the Bowel Cancer Screening Programme were recruited from seven hospitals. ADR, mean adenomas per procedure, size and location of adenomas, sessile serrated polyps, EV removal rate, caecal intubation rate, procedural time, patient experience, effect of EV on workload and adverse events were measured. RESULTS:1772 patients (57% male, mean age 62 years) were recruited over 16 months with 45% recruited through screening. EAC increased ADR globally from 36.2% to 40.9% (P=0.02). The increase was driven by a 10.8% increase in FOBt-positive screening patients (50.9% SC vs 61.7% EAC, P<0.001). EV patients had higher detection of mean adenomas per procedure, sessile serrated polyps, left-sided, diminutive, small adenomas and cancers (cancer 4.1% vs 2.3%, P=0.02). EV removal rate was 4.1%. Median intubation was a minute quicker with EAC (P=0.001), with no difference in caecal intubation rate or withdrawal time. EAC was well tolerated but caused a minor increase in discomfort on anal intubation in patients undergoing colonoscopy with no or minimal sedation. There were no significant EV adverse events. CONCLUSION:EV significantly improved ADR in bowel cancer screening patients and should be used to improve colonoscopic detection. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER:NCT02552017, Results; ISRCTN11821044, Results.
Project description:BACKGROUND:To improve patients' comprehension of bowel preparation instructions before colonoscopy, enhanced patient education (EPE) such as cartoon pictures or other visual aids, phone calls, mobile apps, multimedia education and social media apps have been proposed. However, it is uncertain whether EPE can increase the detection rate of colonic polyps and adenomas. OBJECTIVE:This meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the efficacy of EPE in detecting colonic polyps and adenomas. METHODS:We searched PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials from their inception to June 2019 for the identification of trials comparing the EPE with standard patient education for outpatients undergoing colonoscopy. We used a random effects model to calculate summary estimates of the polyp detection rate (defined as the number of patients with at least one polyp divided by the total number of patients undergoing selective colonoscopy), adenoma detection rate (defined as the number of patients with at least one adenoma divided by the total number of patients undergoing selective colonoscopy), advanced adenoma detection rate (defined as the number of patients with at least one advanced adenoma divided by the total number of patients undergoing selective colonoscopy), sessile serrated adenoma detection rate (defined as the number of patients with at least one sessile serrated adenoma divided by the total number of patients undergoing selective colonoscopy), cancer detection rate (defined as the number of patients with at least one cancer divided by the total number of patients undergoing selective colonoscopy), or adenoma detection rate - plus (defined as the number of additional adenomas found after the first adenoma per colonoscopy). Moreover, we conducted trial sequential analysis (TSA) to determine the robustness of summary estimates of all primary outcomes. RESULTS:We included 10 randomized controlled trials enrolling 4560 participants for analysis. The meta-analysis suggested that EPE was associated with an increased polyp detection rate (9 trials; 3781 participants; risk ratio [RR] 1.19, 95% CI 1.05-1.35; P<.05; I2=42%) and adenoma detection rate (5 trials; 2133 participants; RR 1.37, 95% CI 1.15-1.64; P<.001; I2=0%), which were established by TSA. Pooled result from the inverse-variance model illustrated an increase in the sessile serrated adenoma detection rate (3 trials; 1248 participants; odds ratio 1.76, 95% CI 1.22-2.53; P<.05; I2=0%). One trial suggested an increase in the adenoma detection rate - plus (RR 4.39, 95% CI 2.91-6.61; P<.001). Pooled estimates from 3 (1649 participants) and 2 trials (1375 participants) generated no evidence of statistical difference for the advanced adenoma detection rate and cancer detection rate, respectively. CONCLUSIONS:The current evidence indicates that EPE should be recommended to instruct bowel preparation in patients undergoing colonoscopy because it can increase the polyp detection rate, adenoma detection rate, and sessile serrated adenoma detection rate. However, further trials are warranted to determine the efficacy of EPE for advanced adenoma detection rate, adenoma detection rate - plus, and cancer detection rate because of limited data.
Project description:Background:The diagnostic yield of the faecal immunochemical test and sigmoidoscopy in detecting proximal serrated polyps in a colorectal cancer screening programme has not been fully assessed. Aim:We determined the detection rate of proximal serrated polyps by simulated sigmoidoscopy and faecal immunochemical test compared with total colonoscopy in a population-based, multicentre, nationwide, randomised controlled trial (ColonPrev study). Methods:Sigmoidoscopy yield was simulated based on the UK-Flexible Sigmoidoscopy Trial for total colonoscopy referral. Definitions were: proximal serrated polyp (proximal serrated polyp): sessile serrated polyp or hyperplastic polyp of any size and proximal at-risk serrated polyp (at-risk proximal serrated polyp): sessile serrated polyp of any size or hyperplastic polyp???10?mm, both located proximally to the splenic flexure. Results:A total of 10,611 individuals underwent faecal immunochemical test and 5059 underwent total colonoscopy and were evaluated by simulated sigmoidoscopy. Sigmoidoscopy and faecal immunochemical test were less accurate in detecting proximal serrated polyps (odds ratio: 0.13; 95% confidence interval: 0.10-0.18 and 0.13; 0.09-0.18, p?<?0.0001, respectively). Both tests were inferior to colonoscopy in detecting at-risk proximal serrated polyps, and sigmoidoscopy was inferior to faecal immunochemical test in detecting these lesions (odds ratio: 0.17; 95% confidence interval: 0.10-0.30 and 0.25; 0.17-0.37, p?<?0.0001, respectively). Conclusion:Sigmoidoscopy and faecal immunochemical test are less accurate in detecting proximal serrated polyps than colonoscopy, particularly in women.
Project description:Visualization during GI endoscopy requires distention of the bowel lumen. Carbon dioxide (CO(2)) insufflation decreases postprocedure abdominal discomfort and distension after colonoscopy, but there have been few published studies on its use in ERCP.To assess the safety and efficacy of CO(2) insufflation during ERCP.Double-blind, controlled, randomized trial.Tertiary-care referral center.This study involved consecutive patients referred for ERCP, excluding those with known CO(2) retention or with chronic use of opiate medications.Insufflation of CO(2) versus insufflation of air.Primary outcomes were abdominal pain assessed on a visual analogue scale and abdominal distension. Secondary outcomes included transcutaneous CO(2) levels (pCO(2)) and procedural complications.We analyzed 74 patients, 38 in the air group and 36 in the CO(2) group. Pain scores were similar in both groups 1-hour postprocedure (16 vs 11 mm in the CO(2) and air groups, respectively; P = .29) as well as over the subsequent 24 hours. There were also no significant differences between groups in abdominal distension or pCO(2) levels. There were 13 patients with complications in the air group and 5 in the CO(2) group (P = .04; nominal significance removed by Bonferroni correction), although most complications were minor in nature.Single-center study.The use of CO(2) for insufflation during ERCP was safe in a tertiary-care referral population. However, use of CO(2) during ERCP did not lead to decreased postprocedural pain or less abdominal distension, so its role in this procedure remains in question. NCT00685386.
Project description:Introduction:Peutz-Jeghers syndrome (PJS) is a rare hereditary disease characterized by hyperpigmentation on the lips and oral cavity and gastrointestinal hamartomatous polyps. The most common complications in PJS patients are bleeding, bowel obstruction and intussusception. Presentation of case:We hereby report a case of a 33-year-old female, without a family history of the disease, who presented to the emergency room with acute abdominal pain, bloating and not passing gas. On abdominal examination, upper abdominal and periumbilical tenderness was found. Computed tomography (CT) of the abdomen demonstrated suspected ascending colon intussusception. The patient underwent a mid-line laparotomy that showed an ileocolic intussusception. Reduction of this intussusception was successfully done with resection of the affected segment that showed presence of two pedunculated polyps. The specimen was sent thereafter to our department for histopathological evaluation, which confirmed the diagnosis of hamartomatous Peutz-Jeghers polyps with no malignancy. Afterwards, the patient was carefully reexamined and the physical examination revealed multiple pigmented spots on the face and lips. Thus, the diagnosis of Peutz-Jeghers syndrome was made. Discussion:PJS is a rare autosomal dominant disorder that often remain undiagnosed for many years. Acute complications such as intestinal obstruction secondary to intussusception is one of infrequent revealing symptoms. Conclusion:Early identification, in patients with PJS and family members, as well as close cancer surveillance can improve certainly prognosis in these individuals.
Project description:The application value of small intestine decompression combined with oral feeding in the middle and late period of malignant small bowel obstruction was examined. A total of 22 patients with advanced malignant small bowel obstruction were included in the present study. An ileus tube was inserted via the nose under fluoroscopy into the obstructed small intestine of each patient. At the same time, the insertion depth the of the catheter was adjusted. When the catheter was blocked, small bowel selective angiography was performed to determine the location and cause of the obstruction and the extent of the obstruction, and to determine the length of the small intestine in the site of obstruction, and to select the variety and tolerance of enteral nutrition. We observed the decompression tube flow and ease of intestinal obstruction. In total, 20 patients were treated with oral enteral nutrition after abdominal distension, and 22 cases were treated by the nose to observe the drainage and the relief of intestinal obstruction. The distal end of the catheter was placed in a predetermined position. The symptoms of intestinal obstruction were relieved 1-4 days after decompression. The 22 patients with selective angiography of the small intestine showed positive X-ray signs: 18 patients with oral enteral nutrition therapy had improved the nutritional situation 2 weeks later. In 12 cases, where there was anal defecation exhaust, 2 had transient removal of intestinal obstruction catheter. In conclusion, this comprehensive treatment based on small intestine decompression combined with enteral nutrition is expected to become a new therapeutic approach and method for the treatment of patients with advanced tumor small bowel obstruction.
Project description:An adequate bowel preparation for colonoscopy is best achieved by giving the cleansing regimen as a split-dose with the second dose given 4-6 hours before the procedure. This can be difficult to administer to diabetics who are preferentially scheduled for early morning procedures. We examined the impact on bowel preparation quality of scheduling diabetics for mid-morning (9:30 am or later) procedures rather than early morning procedures (7:30-9:00 AM) to facilitate a split-dose preparation.Historical cohort study of 34,415 patients (1,805 diabetics) age 18-74 years without significant comorbidities who underwent an outpatient colorectal cancer screening-related colonoscopy either before (2013) or after (2014) a unit wide change in scheduling practices for diabetics. The primary outcome was the rate of inadequate bowel preparation. Secondary outcomes include the rate of procedures complete to the cecum, procedure duration and detection rates of polyps, any colorectal cancer screening-relevant lesion (adenoma, sessile serrated adenoma, large proximal hyperplastic polyp) and advanced adenomas.From 2013 to 2014, the proportion of diabetics with an inadequate bowel preparation decreased from 7.7% to 3.2% (95% confidence interval for the difference 2.2%-6.8%, P<0.00005). There was no significant change in the proportion of non-diabetics with inadequate preparation (2% in both years). There was no change in secondary outcomes in diabetics from 2013 to 2014.Preferentially scheduling diabetic patients later in the morning that more conveniently allowed for a split dose bowel preparation resulted in decreased rates of inadequate bowel preparation without disadvantaging other patients.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Bowel symptoms are often considered an indication to perform colonoscopy to identify or rule out colorectal cancer or precancerous polyps. Investigation of bowel symptoms for this purpose is recommended by numerous clinical guidelines. However, the evidence for this practice is unclear. The objective of this study is to systematically review the evidence about the association between bowel symptoms and colorectal cancer or polyps. METHODS: We searched the literature extensively up to December 2008, using MEDLINE and EMBASE and following references. For inclusion in the review, papers from cross sectional, case control and cohort studies had to provide a 2×2 table of symptoms by diagnosis (colorectal cancer or polyps) or sufficient data from which that table could be constructed. The search procedure, quality appraisal, and data extraction was done twice, with disagreements resolved with another reviewer. Summary ROC analysis was used to assess the diagnostic performance of symptoms to detect colorectal cancer and polyps. RESULTS: Colorectal cancer was associated with rectal bleeding (AUC 0.66; LR+ 1.9; LR- 0.7) and weight loss (AUC 0.67, LR+ 2.5, LR- 0.9). Neither of these symptoms was associated with the presence of polyps. There was no significant association of colorectal cancer or polyps with change in bowel habit, constipation, diarrhoea or abdominal pain. Neither the clinical setting (primary or specialist care) nor study type was associated with accuracy.Most studies had methodological flaws. There was no consistency in the way symptoms were elicited or interpreted in the studies. CONCLUSIONS: Current evidence suggests that the common practice of performing colonoscopies to identify cancers in people with bowel symptoms is warranted only for rectal bleeding and the general symptom of weight loss. Bodies preparing guidelines for clinicians and consumers to improve early detection of colorectal cancer need to take into account the limited value of symptoms.