OCT4 as a target of miR-34a stimulates p63 but inhibits p53 to promote human cell transformation.
ABSTRACT: Human cell transformation is a key step for oncogenic development, which involves multiple pathways; however, the mechanism remains unclear. To test our hypothesis whether cell oncogenic transformation shares some mechanisms with the process of reprogramming non-stem cells to induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC), we studied the relationship among the key factors for promoting or inhibiting iPSC in radiation-transformed human epithelial cell lines derived from different tissues (lung, breast and colon). We unexpectedly found that p63 and OCT4 were highly expressed (accompanied by low expressed p53 and miR-34a) in all transformed cell lines examined when compared with their non-transformed counterparts. We further elucidated the relationship of these factors: the 3p strand of miR-34a directly targeted OCT4 by binding to the 3' untranslated region (3'-UTR) of OCT4 and, OCT4, in turn, stimulated p63 but inhibited p53 expression by binding to a specific region of the p63 or p53 promoter. Moreover, we revealed that the effects of OCT4 on promoting cell oncogenic transformation were by affecting p63 and p53. These results support that a positive loop exists in human cells: OCT4 upregulation as a consequence of inhibition of miR-34a, promotes p63 but suppresses p53 expression, which further stimulates OCT4 upregulation by downregulating miR-34a. This functional loop contributes significantly to cell transformation and, most likely, also to the iPSC process.
Project description:Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection of primary human B cells drives their indefinite proliferation into lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs). B cell immortalization depends on expression of viral latency genes, as well as the regulation of host genes. Given the important role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in regulating fundamental cellular processes, in this study, we assayed changes in host miRNA expression during primary B cell infection by EBV. We observed and validated dynamic changes in several miRNAs from early proliferation through immortalization; oncogenic miRNAs were induced, and tumor suppressor miRNAs were largely repressed. However, one miRNA described as a p53-targeted tumor suppressor, miR-34a, was strongly induced by EBV infection and expressed in many EBV and Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV)-infected lymphoma cell lines. EBV latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) was sufficient to induce miR-34a requiring downstream NF-?B activation but independent of functional p53. Furthermore, overexpression of miR-34a was not toxic in several B lymphoma cell lines, and inhibition of miR-34a impaired the growth of EBV-transformed cells. This study identifies a progrowth role for a tumor-suppressive miRNA in oncogenic-virus-mediated transformation, highlighting the importance of studying miRNA function in different cellular contexts.
Project description:Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection of primary human B cells drives their indefinite proliferation into lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs). B cell immortalization depends on expression of viral latency genes as well as the regulation of host genes. Given the important role of miRNAs in regulating fundamental cellular processes, in this study we assayed changes in host miRNA expression during primary B cell infection by EBV. We observed and validated dynamic changes in several miRNAs from early proliferation through immortalization; oncogenic miRNAs were induced and tumor suppressor miRNAs were largely repressed. However, one miRNA described as a p53-targeted tumor suppressor, miR-34a, was strongly induced by EBV infection and expressed in many EBV and KSHV-infected lymphoma cell lines. The EBV latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) was sufficient to induce miR-34a requiring downstream NFM-NM-:B activation, but independent of functional p53. Furthermore, over-expression of miR-34a was not toxic in several B lymphoma cell lines and inhibition of miR-34a impaired the growth of EBV transformed cells. This study identifies a pro-growth role for a tumor suppressive miRNA in oncogenic virus-mediated transformation highlighting the importance of studying miRNA function in different cellular contexts. miRNA expression profiling of human B-cells, EBV-infected, proliferating B cells and Monoclonal LCLs from 3 different donors was conducted with the use of up to 2 M-NM-<g total RNA for sample
Project description:Somatic reprogramming induced by defined transcription factors is a low-efficiency process that is enhanced by p53 deficiency. So far, p21 is the only p53 target shown to contribute to p53 repression of iPSC (induced pluripotent stem cell) generation, indicating that additional p53 targets may regulate this process. Here, we demonstrate that miR-34 microRNAs (miRNAs), particularly miR-34a, exhibit p53-dependent induction during reprogramming. Mir34a deficiency in mice significantly increased reprogramming efficiency and kinetics, with miR-34a and p21 cooperatively regulating somatic reprogramming downstream of p53. Unlike p53 deficiency, which enhances reprogramming at the expense of iPSC pluripotency, genetic ablation of Mir34a promoted iPSC generation without compromising self-renewal or differentiation. Suppression of reprogramming by miR-34a was due, at least in part, to repression of pluripotency genes, including Nanog, Sox2 and Mycn (also known as N-Myc). This post-transcriptional gene repression by miR-34a also regulated iPSC differentiation kinetics. miR-34b and c similarly repressed reprogramming; and all three miR-34 miRNAs acted cooperatively in this process. Taken together, our findings identified miR-34 miRNAs as p53 targets that play an essential role in restraining somatic reprogramming.
Project description:Somatic cells can be converted into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) by forced expression of various combinations of transcription factors, but the molecular mechanisms of reprogramming are poorly understood. Specifically, evidence that the reprogramming process can take many distinct routes only begins to emerge. It is definitively established that p53 deficiency greatly enhances reprogramming, revealing p53's barrier function for induced pluripotency, but the role of its homologs p63 and p73 are unknown. Here we report that in stark contrast to p53, p73 has no role in reprogramming. However, p63 is an enabling (rather than a barrier) factor for Oct4, Sox2 and Klf4 (OSK) and Oct4 and Sox2 (OS), but not for Oct4 and Klf4 (OK) reprogramming of mouse embryonic fibroblasts. Specifically, p63 is essential during reprogramming for maximum efficiency, albeit not for the ability to reprogram per se, and is dispensable for maintaining stability and pluripotency of established iPSC colonies. ?Np63, but not TAp63, is the principal isoform involved. Loss of p63 can affect reprogramming via several mechanisms such as reduced expression of mesenchymal-epithelial transition and pluripotency genes, hypoproliferation and loss of the most reprogrammable cell populations. During OSK and OS reprogramming, different mechanisms seem to be critical, such as regulation of epithelial and pluripotency genes in OSK reprogramming versus regulation of proliferation in OS reprogramming. Finally, our data reveal three different routes of reprogramming by OSK, OS or OK, based on their differential p63 requirements for iPSC efficiency and pluripotency marker expression. This supports the concept that many distinct routes of reprogramming exist.
Project description:p53 functions to induce cellular senescence, which is incompatible with self-renewal of pluripotent stem cells such as induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) and embryonic stem cells (ESC). However, p53 also has essential roles in these cells through DNA damage repair for maintaining genomic integrity and high sensitivity to apoptosis for eliminating severely damaged cells. We hypothesized that ?133p53, a physiological inhibitory p53 isoform, is involved in the balanced regulation of self-renewing capacity, DNA damage repair and apoptosis. We examined 12 lines of human iPSC and their original fibroblasts, as well as three ESC lines, for endogenous protein levels of ?133p53 and full-length p53 (FL-p53), and mRNA levels of various p53 target genes. While FL-p53 levels in iPSC and ESC widely ranged from below to above those in the fibroblasts, all iPSC and ESC lines expressed elevated levels of ?133p53. The p53-inducible genes that mediate cellular senescence (p21<sup>WAF1</sup>, miR-34a, PAI-1 and IGFBP7), but not those for apoptosis (BAX and PUMA) and DNA damage repair (p53R2), were downregulated in iPSC and ESC. Consistent with these endogenous expression profiles, overexpression of ?133p53 in human fibroblasts preferentially repressed the p53-inducible senescence mediators and significantly enhanced their reprogramming to iPSC. The iPSC lines derived from ?133p53-overexpressing fibroblasts formed well-differentiated, benign teratomas in immunodeficient mice and had fewer numbers of somatic mutations than an iPSC derived from p53-knocked-down fibroblasts, suggesting that ?133p53 overexpression is non- or less oncogenic and mutagenic than total inhibition of p53 activities. Overexpressed ?133p53 prevented FL-p53 from binding to the regulatory regions of p21<sup>WAF1</sup> and miR-34a promoters, providing a mechanistic basis for its dominant-negative inhibition of a subset of p53 target genes. This study supports the hypothesis that upregulation of ?133p53 is an endogenous mechanism that facilitates human somatic cells to become self-renewing pluripotent stem cells with maintained apoptotic and DNA repair activities.
Project description:microRNA-34A is a critical component of the p53 network and expression of miR- 34A is down-regulated by promoter hypermethylation or focal deletions in numerous human cancers. Although miR-34A deregulation may be an important driver in cancer, the endogenous role of this microRNA in cellular homeostasis is not well characterized. To address this knowledge gap, we aimed to determine the transcriptional landscape of the miR-34A-p53 axis in non-transformed cells. Using primary skin-derived fibroblast cell lines from patients who developed childhood cancers, and who harbor either germline TP53 mutations or are TP53 wild type, we sought to characterize the transcriptional response to miR-34A modulation. Through transcriptome-wide RNA-Sequencing, we show for the first time that in human non- transformed cells harboring TP53 mutations, miR-34A functions in a noncanonical manner to influence noncoding RNA networks, including RNA components of the minor (U12) spliceosome, as well as TP53-dependent and independent epigenetic pathways. miR- 34A-regulated transcripts include known cell cycle mediators and abrogation of miR-34A leads to a TP53-dependent increase in the fraction of cells in G2/M. Collectively, these results provide a framework for understanding the endogenous role of the miR-34A signaling axis and identify novel transcripts and pathways regulated by the essential miR-34A-p53 tumor suppressor network.
Project description:Binding of p53 to miR-34a promoter activates the expression of tumor-suppressive miR-34a. Oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) infection downregulates miR-34a expression through viral E6 degradation of p53. In our report, we found that miR-34a specifically targets p18Ink4c, a CDK4 and CDK6 inhibitor induced by E2F transactivation. HPV18(+) HeLa cells with ectopic miR-34a expression or by E6 siRNA knockdown-induced expression of endogenous miR-34a exhibited a substantial reduction of p18Ink4c in a dose-dependent manner, but had no effect on p16Ink4a, another member of CDK4/6 inhibitor family. In contrast, de novo infection by oncogenic HPVs of human keratinocyte-derived raft tissues increased p18Ink4c expression. Suppression of endogenous miR-34a in cell lines with a miR-34a inhibitor also increased p18Ink4c. We found that miR-34a suppresses the expression of p18Ink4c by binding to a specific seed match in the 5' UTR of p18Ink4c. Further investigation found remarkable increase of p18Ink4c in cervical precancer lesions and cervical cancer. Immunohistochemical staining of cervical tissue arrays showed increased expression of p18Ink4c in 68% of cervical cancer, 8.3% of chronic cervical inflammation and 4.8% of normal cervix. Although p18Ink4c inhibits cell proliferation in general and regulates E2F1 expression in HCT116 cells, it appears not to function as a tumor suppressor in cervical cancer cells lacking an intact G1 checkpoint because of viral E7 degradation of pRB. In summary, our study demonstrates an intimate connection among oncogenic HPV E6, p53, miR-34a and p18Ink4c and identifies p18Ink4c as a possible biomarker for cervical cancer.
Project description:Arsenic is a well-recognized human carcinogen, yet the mechanism by which it causes human cancer has not been elucidated. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a big family of small noncoding RNAs and negatively regulate the expression of a large number of protein-coding genes. We investigated the role of miRNAs in arsenic-induced human bronchial epithelial cell malignant transformation and tumor formation. We found that prolonged exposure of immortalized p53-knocked down human bronchial epithelial cells (p53(low)HBECs) to low levels of arsenite (NaAsO?, 2.5 ?M) caused malignant transformation that was accompanied by epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) and reduction in the levels of miR-200 family members. Stably reexpressing miR-200b in arsenite-transformed cells (As-p53(low)HBECs) completely reversed their transformed phenotypes, as evidenced by inhibition of colony formation in soft agar and prevention of xenograft tumor formation in nude mice. Moreover, stably expressing miR-200b alone in parental nontransformed p53(low)HBECs was sufficient to completely prevent arsenite exposure from inducing EMT and malignant transformation. Further mechanistic studies showed that depletion of miR-200 in arsenite-transformed cells involved induction of the EMT-inducing transcription factors zinc-finger E-box-binding homeobox factor 1 (ZEB1) and ZEB2 and increased methylation of miR-200 promoters. Stably expressing ZEB1 alone in parental nontransformed p53(low)HBECs was sufficient to deplete miR-200, induce EMT and cause cell transformation, phenocopying the oncogenic effect of 16-week arsenite exposure. These findings establish for the first time a causal role for depletion of miR-200b expression in human cell malignant transformation and tumor formation resulting from arsenic exposure.
Project description:Human T-lymphotropic virus 1 (HTLV-1) immortalizes T-cells and is the causative agent of adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL). HTLV-1 replication and transformation are governed by multiple interactions between viral regulatory proteins and host cell factors that remain to be fully elucidated. The present study investigated the impact of HTLV-1 infection on the expression of miR-34a, a microRNA whose expression is downregulated in many types of cancer. Results of RT-PCR assays showed that five out of six HTLV-1-positive cell lines expressed higher levels of miR-34a compared to normal PBMC or purified CD4+ T-cells. ATLL cell line ED, which did not express miR-34a, showed methylation of the miR-34a promoter. Newly infected PBMC and samples from 10 ATLL patients also showed a prominent increase in miR-34a expression compared to PBMC controls. The primary miR-34a transcript expressed in infected cell line C91PL contained binding motifs for NF-?B and p53. Pharmacological inhibition of NF-?B with Bay 11-7082 indicated that this pathway contributes to sustain miR-34a levels in infected cells. Treatment of infected cell lines with the p53 activator nutlin-3a resulted in a further increase in miR-34a levels, thus confirming it as a transcriptional target of p53. Nutlin-3a-treated cells showed downregulation of known miR-34a targets including the deacetylase SIRT1, which was accompanied by increased acetylation of p53, a substrate of SIRT1. Transfection of C91PL cells with a miR-34a mimic also led to downregulation of mRNA targets including SIRT1 as well as the pro-apoptotic factor BAX. Unlike nutlin-3a, the miR-34a mimic did not cause cell cycle arrest or reduce cell viability. On the other hand, sequestration of miR-34a with a sponge construct resulted in an increase in death of C91PL cells. These findings provide evidence for a functional role for miR-34a in fine-tuning the expression of target genes that influence the turnover of HTLV-1-infected cells.
Project description:Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumours (MPNSTs) are aggressive soft tissue tumours that occur either sporadically or in patients with neurofibromatosis type 1. The malignant transformation of the benign neurofibroma to MPNST is incompletely understood at the molecular level. We have determined the gene expression signature for benign and malignant PNSTs and found that the major trend in malignant transformation from neurofibroma to MPNST consists of the loss of expression of a large number of genes, rather than widespread increase in gene expression. Relatively few genes are expressed at higher levels in MPNSTs and these include genes involved in cell proliferation and genes implicated in tumour metastasis. In addition, a gene expression signature indicating p53 inactivation is seen in the majority of MPNSTs. Subsequent microRNA profiling of benign and malignant PNSTs indicated a relative down-regulation of miR-34a in most MPNSTs compared to neurofibromas. In vitro studies using the cell lines MPNST-14 (NF1 mutant) and MPNST-724 (from a non-NF1 individual) show that exogenous expression of p53 or miR-34a promotes apoptotic cell death. In addition, exogenous expression of p53 in MPNST cells induces miR-34a and other miRNAs. Our data show that p53 inactivation and subsequent loss of expression of miR-34a may significantly contribute to the MPNST development. Collectively, our findings suggest that deregulation of miRNAs has a potential role in the malignant transformation process in peripheral nerve sheath tumours.