Depletion of RIPK3 or MLKL blocks TNF-driven necroptosis and switches towards a delayed RIPK1 kinase-dependent apoptosis.
ABSTRACT: In human cells, the RIPK1-RIPK3-MLKL-PGAM5-Drp1 axis drives tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-induced necroptosis through mitochondrial fission, but whether this pathway is conserved among mammals is not known. To answer this question, we analyzed the presence and functionality of the reported necroptotic axis in mice. As in humans, knockdown of receptor-interacting kinase-3 (RIPK3) or mixed lineage kinase domain like (MLKL) blocks TNF-induced necroptosis in L929 fibrosarcoma cells. However, repression of either of these proteins did not protect the cells from death, but instead induced a switch from TNF-induced necroptosis to receptor-interacting kinase-1 (RIPK1) kinase-dependent apoptosis. In addition, although mitochondrial fission also occurs during TNF-induced necroptosis in L929 cells, we found that knockdown of phosphoglycerate mutase 5 (PGAM5) and dynamin 1 like protein (Drp1) did not markedly protect the cells from TNF-induced necroptosis. Depletion of Pink1, a reported interactor of both PGAM5 and Drp1, did not affect TNF-induced necroptosis. These results indicate that in these murine cells mitochondrial fission and Pink1 dependent processes, including Pink-Parkin dependent mitophagy, apparently do not promote necroptosis. Our data demonstrate that the core components of the necrosome (RIPK1, RIPK3 and MLKL) are crucial to induce TNF-dependent necroptosis both in human and in mouse cells, but the associated mechanisms may differ between the two species or cell types.
Project description:As a programmed necrotic cell death, necroptosis has the intrinsic initiators, including receptor-interacting serine/threonine-protein kinase 1 (RIPK1), RIPK3 and mixed-lineage kinase domain-like protein (MLKL), which combine to form necroptotic signaling pathway and mediate necroptosis induced by various necroptotic stimuli, such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF). Although chemical inhibition of RIPK1 blocks TNF-induced necroptosis, genetic elimination of RIPK1 does not suppress but facilitate necroptosis triggered by TNF. Moreover, RIPK3 has been reported to mediate the RIPK1-independent necroptosis, but the involved mechanism is unclear. In this study, we found that TRADD was essential for TNF-induced necroptosis in RIPK1-knockdown L929 and HT-22 cells. Mechanistic study demonstrated that TRADD bound RIPK3 to form new protein complex, which then promoted RIPK3 phosphorylation via facilitating RIPK3 oligomerization, leading to RIPK3-MLKL signaling pathway activation. Therefore, TRADD acted as a partner of RIPK3 to initiate necroptosis in RIPK1-knockdown L929 and HT-22 cells in response to TNF stimulation. In addition, TRADD was critical for the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which contributed to RIPK1-independent necroptosis triggered by TNF. Collectively, our data demonstrate that TRADD acts as the new target protein for TNF-induced RIPK3 activation and the subsequent necroptosis in a RIPK1-independent manner.
Project description:Multiple Sclerosis (MS), a leading neurological disorder of young adults, is characterized by the loss of oligodendrocytes (OLs), demyelination, inflammation and neuronal degeneration. Here we show that dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1), a mitochondrial fission protein, is activated in primary OL cells exposed to TNF-? induced inflammation or oxidative stress, as well as in EAE-immunized and cuprizone toxicity-induced demyelinating mouse models. Inhibition of Drp1 hyper-activation by the selective inhibitor P110 abolishes Drp1 translocation to the mitochondria, reduces mitochondrial fragmentation and stems necrosis in primary OLs exposed to TNF-? and H2O2. Notably, in both types of mouse models, treatment with P110 significantly reduces the loss of mature OLs and demyelination, attenuates the number of active microglial cells and astrocytes, yet has no effect on the differentiation of oligodendrocyte precursor cells. Drp1 activation appears to be mediated through the RIPK1/RIPK3/MLKL/PGAM5 pathway during TNF-?-induced oligodendroglia necroptosis. Our results demonstrate a critical role of Drp1 hyper-activation in OL cell death and suggest that an inhibitor of Drp1 hyper-activation such as P110 is worth exploring for its ability to halt or slow the progression of MS.
Project description:Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-induced cellular dysfunction and death is associated with several human diseases. It has been widely reported that ER stress kills through activation of the intrinsic mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. Here we demonstrate that ER stress can also induce necroptosis, an receptor-interacting protein kinase 1 (RIPK1)/RIPK3/mixed lineage kinase domain-like protein (MLKL)-dependent form of necrosis. Remarkably, we observed that necroptosis induced by various ER stressors in L929 cells is dependent on tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNFR1), but occurs independently of autocrine TNF or lymphotoxin ? production. Moreover, we found that repression of either TNFR1, RIPK1 or MLKL did not protect the cells from death but instead allowed a switch to ER stress-induced apoptosis. Interestingly, while caspase inhibition was sufficient to protect TNFR1- or MLKL-deficient cells from death, rescue of the RIPK1-deficient cells additionally required RIPK3 depletion, indicating a switch back to RIPK3-dependent necroptosis in caspase-inhibited conditions. The finding that ER stress also induces necroptosis may open new therapeutic opportunities for the treatment of pathologies resulting from unresolved ER stress.
Project description:Necroptosis is a caspase-independent form of cell death that is triggered by activation of the receptor interacting serine/threonine kinase 3 (RIPK3) and phosphorylation of its pseudokinase substrate mixed lineage kinase-like (MLKL), which then translocates to membranes and promotes cell lysis. Activation of RIPK3 is regulated by the kinase RIPK1. Here we analyze the contribution of RIPK1, RIPK3, or MLKL to several mouse disease models. Loss of RIPK3 had no effect on lipopolysaccharide-induced sepsis, dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis, cerulein-induced pancreatitis, hypoxia-induced cerebral edema, or the major cerebral artery occlusion stroke model. However, kidney ischemia-reperfusion injury, myocardial infarction, and systemic inflammation associated with A20 deficiency or high-dose tumor necrosis factor (TNF) were ameliorated by RIPK3 deficiency. Catalytically inactive RIPK1 was also beneficial in the kidney ischemia-reperfusion injury model, the high-dose TNF model, and in A20(-/-) mice. Interestingly, MLKL deficiency offered less protection in the kidney ischemia-reperfusion injury model and no benefit in A20(-/-) mice, consistent with necroptosis-independent functions for RIPK1 and RIPK3. Combined loss of RIPK3 (or MLKL) and caspase-8 largely prevented the cytokine storm, hypothermia, and morbidity induced by TNF, suggesting that the triggering event in this model is a combination of apoptosis and necroptosis. Tissue-specific RIPK3 deletion identified intestinal epithelial cells as the major target organ. Together these data emphasize that MLKL deficiency rather than RIPK1 inactivation or RIPK3 deficiency must be examined to implicate a role for necroptosis in disease.
Project description:We previously reported that renal clear cell carcinoma cells (RCC) express both tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR)-1 and -2, but that, in organ culture, a TNF mutein that only engages TNFR1, but not TNFR2, causes extensive cell death. Some RCC died by apoptosis based on detection of cleaved caspase 3 in a minority TUNEL-positive cells but the mechanism of death in the remaining cells was unexplained. Here, we underpin the mechanism of TNFR1-induced cell death in the majority of TUNEL-positive RCC cells, and show that they die by necroptosis. Malignant cells in high-grade tumors displayed threefold to four fold higher expression of both receptor-interacting protein kinase (RIPK)1 and RIPK3 compared with non-tumor kidney tubular epithelium and low-grade tumors, but expression of both enzymes was induced in lower grade tumors in organ culture in response to TNFR1 stimulation. Furthermore, TNFR1 activation induced significant MLKL(Ser358) and Drp1(Ser616) phosphorylation, physical interactions in RCC between RIPK1-RIPK3 and RIPK3-phospho-MLKL(Ser358), and coincidence of phospho-MLKL(ser358) and phospho-Drp1(Ser616) at mitochondria in TUNEL-positive RCC. A caspase inhibitor only partially reduced the extent of cell death following TNFR1 engagement in RCC cells, whereas three inhibitors, each targeting a different step in the necroptotic pathway, were much more protective. Combined inhibition of caspases and necroptosis provided additive protection, implying that different subsets of cells respond differently to TNF-?, the majority dying by necroptosis. We conclude that most high-grade RCC cells express increased amounts of RIPK1 and RIPK3 and are poised to undergo necroptosis in response to TNFR1 signaling.
Project description:Necroptosis, a form of regulated necrotic cell death, is mediated by receptor interacting protein 1 (RIPK1), RIPK3, and mixed lineage kinase domain-like protein (MLKL). However, the mechanism by which necroptosis promotes inflammation is still unclear. Here we report that the expression of cytokines is robustly upregulated in a cell-autonomous manner during necroptosis induced by tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF?). We demonstrate that TNF?-induced necroptosis leads to two waves of cytokine production. The first wave, more transient and weaker than the second, is in response to TNF? alone; whereas the second wave depends upon the necroptotic signaling. We show that necroptosis promotes the transcription of TNF?-target genes in a cell-intrinsic manner. The activation of both NF-?B and p38 by the necroptotic machinery, RIPK1, RIPK3, and MLKL, is involved in mediating the robust induction of cytokine expression in the second wave. In contrast, necroptosis induced by direct oligomerization of MLKL promotes cytokine production at much lower levels than that of necroptosis induced with TNF?. Thus, we conclude that TNF?-induced necroptosis signaling events mediated by RIPK1 and RIPK3 activation, in addition to the MLKL oligomerization, promotes the expression of cytokines involving multiple intracellular signaling mechanisms including NF-?B pathway and p38. These findings reveal that the necroptotic cell death machinery mounts an immune response by promoting cell-autonomous production of cytokines. Our study provides insights into the mechanism by which necroptosis promotes inflammation in human diseases.
Project description:Regulated necrosis or necroptosis, mediated by receptor-interacting kinase 1 (RIPK1), RIPK3 and pseudokinase mixed lineage kinase domain-like protein (MLKL), contributes to the pathogenesis of inflammatory, infectious and degenerative diseases. Recently identified necroptosis inhibitors display moderate specificity, suboptimal pharmacokinetics, off-target effects and toxicity, preventing these molecules from reaching the clinic. Here, we developed a cell-based high-throughput screening (HTS) cascade for the identification of small-molecule inhibitors of necroptosis. From the initial library of over 250,000 compounds, the primary screening phase identified 356 compounds that strongly inhibited TNF-?-induced necroptosis, but not apoptosis, in human and murine cell systems, with EC50?<?6.7??M. From these, 251 compounds were tested for RIPK1 and/or RIPK3 kinase inhibitory activity; some were active and several have novel mechanisms of action. Based on specific chemical descriptors, 110 compounds proceeded into the secondary screening cascade, which then identified seven compounds with maximum ability to reduce MLKL activation, IC50?>100??M, EC50 2.5-11.5??M under long-term necroptosis execution in murine fibroblast L929 cells, and full protection from ATP depletion and membrane leakage in human and murine cells. As a proof of concept, compound SN-6109, with binding mode to RIPK1 similar to that of necrostatin-1, confirmed RIPK1 inhibitory activity and appropriate pharmacokinetic properties. SN-6109 was further tested in mice, showing efficacy against TNF-?-induced systemic inflammatory response syndrome. In conclusion, a phenotypic-driven HTS cascade promptly identified robust necroptosis inhibitors with in vivo activity, currently undergoing further medicinal chemistry optimization. Notably, the novel hits highlight the opportunity to identify new molecular mechanisms of action in necroptosis.
Project description:Although necrosis in the acetaminophen (APAP) model is known to be regulated by c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) through interaction with mitochondria, the role of necroptosis through receptor-interacting proteins 1 and 3 (RIPK1 and RIPK3) has also been suggested. Our aim was to determine the relationship between these two mechanisms of cell death. To verify the participation of RIPK1, we used antisense knockdown and confirmed protection comparable to the RIPK1 inhibitor, necrostatin, in vivo and in vitro. However, we found no evidence that RIPK3 is expressed in primary mouse hepatocytes under basal conditions or after APAP and RIPK3(-/-) mice were not protected. RIPK3 was exclusively expressed in nonparenchymal cells. RIPK1 knockdown protected RIPK3(-/-) mice to the same extent as wild-type mice, underscoring the independent role of RIPK1. We confirmed that necroptosis is not involved in APAP toxicity by using mixed lineage kinase domain-like protein (MLKL) knockout mice, which were not protected from APAP. Next, we addressed whether there is interplay between RIPK1 and JNK. RIPK1 knockdown decreased the level of JNK activation and translocation to mitochondria and abrogated subsequent translocation of dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1). Interestingly, APAP induced translocation of RIPK1 to mitochondria, which was unaffected by knockdown of the mitochondrial JNK docking protein, Sh3 homology 3 binding protein 5 (Sab).RIPK1 participates in APAP-induced necrosis upstream of JNK activation whereas RIPK3 and MLKL are dispensable, indicating that necroptosis does not contribute to APAP-induced necrosis and RIPK1 has a unique, independent role.
Project description:Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and Toll-like receptor (TLR)3/TLR4 activation trigger necroptotic cell death through downstream signaling complex containing receptor-interacting protein kinase 1 (RIPK1), RIPK3, and pseudokinase mixed lineage kinase-domain-like (MLKL). However, the regulation of necroptotic signaling pathway is far less investigated. Here we showed that c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK1 and JNK2) displayed kinase-dependent and -independent functions in regulating TNF- and TLRs-mediated necroptosis. We found that RIPK1 and RIPK3 promoted cell-death-independent JNK activation in macrophages, which contributed to pro-inflammatory cytokines production. Meanwhile, blocking the kinase activity of JNK dramatically reduced TNF and TLRs-induced necroptotic cell death. Consistently, inhibition of JNK activity protected mice from TNF-induced death and Staphylococcus aureus-mediated lung damage. However, depletion of JNK protein using siRNA sensitized macrophages to necroptosis that was triggered by LPS or poly I:C but still inhibited TNF-induced necroptosis. Mechanistic studies revealed that RIPK1 recruited JNK to the necrosome complex and their kinase activity was required for necrosome formation and the phosphorylation of MLKL in TNF- and TLRs-induced necroptosis. Loss of JNK protein consistently suppressed the phosphorylation of MLKL and necrosome formation in TNF-triggered necroptosis, but differentially promoted the phosphorylation of MLKL and necrosome formation in poly I:C-triggered necroptosis by promoting the oligomeration of TRIF. In conclusion, our findings define a differential role for JNK in regulating TNF- and TLRs-mediated necroptosis by their kinase or scaffolding activities.
Project description:Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA), a malignant tumor originating in the biliary tract, is well known to be associated with adverse clinical outcomes and high mortality rates due to the lack of effective therapy. Evasion of apoptosis is considered a key contributor to therapeutic success and chemotherapy resistance in CCA, highlighting the need for novel therapeutic strategies. In this study, we demonstrated that the induction of necroptosis, a novel regulated form of necrosis, could potentially serve as a novel therapeutic approach for CCA patients. The RNA sequencing data in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database were analyzed and revealed that both receptor-interacting protein kinase 3 (RIPK3) and mixed lineage kinase domain-like (MLKL), two essential mediators of necroptosis, were upregulated in CCA tissues when compared with the levels in normal bile ducts. We demonstrated in a panel of CCA cell lines that RIPK3 was differentially expressed in CCA cell lines, while MLKL was more highly expressed in CCA cell lines than in nontumor cholangiocytes. We therefore showed that treatment with both tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) and Smac mimetic, an inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAP) antagonist, induced RIPK1/RIPK3/MLKL-dependent necroptosis in CCA cells when caspases were blocked. The necroptotic induction in a panel of CCA cells was correlated with RIPK3 expression. Intriguingly, we demonstrated that Smac mimetic sensitized CCA cells to a low dose of standard chemotherapy, gemcitabine, and induced necroptosis in an RIPK1/RIPK3/MLKL-dependent manner upon caspase inhibition but not in nontumor cholangiocytes. We further demonstrated that Smac mimetic and gemcitabine synergistically induced an increase in TNF-? mRNA levels and that Smac mimetic reversed gemcitabine-induced cell cycle arrest, leading to cell killing. Collectively, our present study demonstrated that TNF-? and gemcitabine induced RIPK1/RIPK3/MLKL-dependent necroptosis upon IAP depletion and caspase inhibition; therefore, our findings have pivotal implications for designing a novel necroptosis-based therapeutic strategy for CCA patients.