The potential role of sexual conflict and sexual selection in shaping the genomic distribution of Mito-nuclear genes.
ABSTRACT: Mitochondrial interactions with the nuclear genome represent one of life's most important co-evolved mutualisms. In many organisms, mitochondria are maternally inherited, and in these cases, co-transmission between the mitochondrial and nuclear genes differs across different parts of the nuclear genome, with genes on the X chromosome having two-third probability of co-transmission, compared with one-half for genes on autosomes. These asymmetrical inheritance patterns of mitochondria and different parts of the nuclear genome have the potential to put certain gene combinations in inter-genomic co-adaptation or conflict. Previous work in mammals found strong evidence that the X chromosome has a dearth of genes that interact with the mitochondria (mito-nuclear genes), suggesting that inter-genomic conflict might drive genes off the X onto the autosomes for their male-beneficial effects. Here, we developed this idea to test coadaptation and conflict between mito-nuclear gene combinations across phylogenetically independent sex chromosomes on a far broader scale. We found that, in addition to therian mammals, only Caenorhabditis elegans showed an under-representation of mito-nuclear genes on the sex chromosomes. The remaining species studied showed no overall bias in their distribution of mito-nuclear genes. We discuss possible factors other than inter-genomic conflict that might drive the genomic distribution of mito-nuclear genes.
Project description:Mitochondria are predominantly inherited from the maternal gamete, even in unicellular organisms. Yet an extraordinary array of mechanisms enforce uniparental inheritance, which implies shifting selection pressures and multiple origins.We consider how this high turnover in mechanisms controlling uniparental inheritance arises using a novel evolutionary model in which control of mitochondrial transmission occurs either during spermatogenesis (by paternal nuclear genes) or at/after fertilization (by maternal nuclear genes). The model treats paternal leakage as an evolvable trait. Our evolutionary analysis shows that maternal control consistently favours strict uniparental inheritance with complete exclusion of sperm mitochondria, whereas some degree of paternal leakage of mitochondria is an expected outcome under paternal control. This difference arises because mito-nuclear linkage builds up with maternal control, allowing the greater variance created by asymmetric inheritance to boost the efficiency of purifying selection and bring benefits in the long term. In contrast, under paternal control, mito-nuclear linkage tends to be much weaker, giving greater advantage to the mixing of cytotypes, which improves mean fitness in the short term, even though it imposes a fitness cost to both mating types in the long term.Sexual conflict is an inevitable outcome when there is competition between maternal and paternal control of mitochondrial inheritance. If evolution has led to complete uniparental inheritance through maternal control, it creates selective pressure on the paternal nucleus in favour of subversion through paternal leakage, and vice versa. This selective divergence provides a reason for the repeated evolution of novel mechanisms that regulate the transmission of paternal mitochondria, both in the fertilized egg and spermatogenesis. Our analysis suggests that the widespread occurrence of paternal leakage and prevalence of heteroplasmy are natural outcomes of this sexual conflict.
Project description:Mitochondria are essential organelles whose replication, development, and physiology are dependent upon coordinated gene interactions with both the mitochondrial and the nuclear genomes. The evolution of coadapted (CA) nuclear-mitochondrial gene combinations would be facilitated if such nuclear genes were located on the X-chromosome instead of on the autosomes because of the increased probability of cotransmission. Here, we test the prediction of the CA hypothesis by investigating the chromosomal distribution of nuclear genes that interact with mitochondria. Using the online genome database BIOMART, we compared the density of genes that have a mitochondrion cellular component annotation across chromosomes in 16 vertebrates. We find a strong and highly significant genomic pattern against the CA hypothesis: nuclear genes interacting with the mitochondrion are significantly underrepresented on the X-chromosome in mammals but not in birds. We interpret our findings in terms of sexual conflict as a mechanism that may generate the observed pattern. Our finding extends single-gene theory for the evolution of sexually antagonistic genes to nuclear-mitochondrial gene combinations.
Project description:The coordination between nuclear and organellar genes is essential to many aspects of eukaryotic life, including basic metabolism, energy production, and ultimately, organismal fitness. Although nuclear genes are biparentally inherited, mitochondrial and chloroplast genes are almost exclusively maternally inherited, and this asymmetry may lead to a bias in the chromosomal distribution of nuclear genes whose products act in the mitochondria or chloroplasts. In particular, because X-linked genes have a higher probability of cotransmission with organellar genes (2/3) compared with autosomal genes (1/2), selection for coadaptation has been predicted to lead to an overrepresentation of nuclear-mitochondrial and nuclear-chloroplast genes on the X chromosome relative to autosomes. In contrast, the occurrence of sexually antagonistic organellar mutations might lead to selection for movement of cytonuclear genes from the X chromosome to autosomes to reduce male mutation load. Recent broad-scale comparative studies of N-mt distributions in animals have found evidence for these hypotheses in some species, but not others. Here, we use transcriptome sequences to conduct the first study of the chromosomal distribution of cytonuclear interacting genes in a plant species with sex chromosomes (Rumex hastatulus; Polygonaceae). We found no evidence of under- or overrepresentation of either N-mt or N-cp genes on the X chromosome, and thus no support for either the coadaptation or the sexual-conflict hypothesis. We discuss how our results from a species with recently evolved sex chromosomes fit into an emerging picture of the evolutionary forces governing the chromosomal distribution of nuclear-mitochondrial and nuclear-chloroplast genes.
Project description:Studies of reproductive isolation between homoploid hybrid species and their parent species have rarely been carried out. Here we investigate reproductive barriers between a recently recognized hybrid bird species, the Italian sparrow Passer italiae and its parent species, the house sparrow P. domesticus and Spanish sparrow P. hispaniolensis. Reproductive barriers can be difficult to study in hybrid species due to lack of geographical contact between taxa. However, the Italian sparrow lives parapatrically with the house sparrow and both sympatrically and parapatrically with the Spanish sparrow. Through whole-transcriptome sequencing of six individuals of each of the two parent species we identified a set of putatively parent species-diagnostic single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers. After filtering for coverage, genotyping success (>97%) and multiple SNPs per gene, we retained 86 species-informative, genic, nuclear and mitochondrial SNP markers from 84 genes for analysis of 612 male individuals. We show that a disproportionately large number of sex-linked genes, as well as the mitochondria and nuclear genes with mitochondrial function, exhibit sharp clines at the boundaries between the hybrid and the parent species, suggesting a role for mito-nuclear and sex-linked incompatibilities in forming reproductive barriers. We suggest that genomic conflict via interactions between mitochondria and sex-linked genes with mitochondrial function ("mother's curse") at one boundary and centromeric drive at the other may best explain our findings. Hybrid speciation in the Italian sparrow may therefore be influenced by mechanisms similar to those involved in non-hybrid speciation, but with the formation of two geographically separated species boundaries instead of one. Spanish sparrow alleles at some loci have spread north to form reproductive barriers with house sparrows, while house sparrow alleles at different loci, including some on the same chromosome, have spread in the opposite direction to form barriers against Spanish sparrows.
Project description:Alveolar epithelial type II (AETII) cells are important for lung epithelium maintenance and function. We demonstrate that AETII cells from mouse lungs exposed to cigarette smoke (CS) increase the levels of the mitochondria-encoded non-coding RNA, mito-RNA-805, generated by the control region of the mitochondrial genome. The protective effects of mito-ncR-805 are associated with positive regulation of mitochondrial energy metabolism, and respiration. Levels of mito-ncR-805 do not relate to steady-state transcription or replication of the mitochondrial genome. Instead, CS-exposure causes the redistribution of mito-ncR-805 from mitochondria to the nucleus, which correlated with the increased expression of nuclear-encoded genes involved in mitochondrial function. These studies reveal an unrecognized mitochondria stress associated retrograde signaling, and put forward the idea that mito-ncRNA-805 represents a subtype of small non coding RNAs that are regulated in a tissue- or cell-type specific manner to protect cells under physiological stress.
Project description:The reproductive interests of males and females are not always aligned, leading to sexual conflict over parental investment, rate of reproduction and mate choice. Traits that increase the genetic interests of one sex often occur at the expense of the other, selecting for counter-adaptations leading to antagonistic coevolution. Reproductive conflict is not limited to intraspecific interactions; interspecific hybridization can produce pronounced sexual conflict between males and females of different species, but it is unclear whether such conflict can drive sexually antagonistic coevolution between reproductively isolated genomes. We tested for hybridization-driven sexually antagonistic adaptations in queens and males of the socially hybridogenetic 'J' lineages of Pogonomyrmex harvester ants, whose mating system promotes hybridization in queens but selects against it in males. We conducted no-choice mating assays to compare patterns of mating behaviour and sperm transfer between inter- and intra-lineage pairings. There was no evidence for mate discrimination on the basis of pair type, and the total quantity of sperm transferred did not differ between intra- and inter-lineage pairs; however, further dissection of the sperm transfer process into distinct mechanistic components revealed significant, and opposing, cryptic manipulation of copulatory investment by both sexes. Males of both lineages increased their rate of sperm transfer to high-fitness intra-lineage mates, with a stronger response in the rarer lineage for whom mating mistakes are the most likely. By contrast, the total duration of copulation for intra-lineage mating pairs was significantly shorter than for inter-lineage crosses, suggesting that queens respond to prevent excessive sperm loading by prematurely terminating copulation. These findings demonstrate that sexual conflict can lead to antagonistic coevolution in both intra-genomic and inter-genomic contexts. Indeed, the resolution of sexual conflict may be a key determinant of the long-term evolutionary potential of host-dependent reproductive strategies, counteracting the inherent instabilities arising from such systems.
Project description:The satyrine butterfly Coenonympha tullia (Nymphalidae: Satyrinae) displays a deep split between two mitochondrial clades, one restricted to northern Alberta, Canada, and the other found throughout Alberta and across North America. We confirm this deep divide and test hypotheses explaining its phylogeographic structure. Neither genitalia morphology nor nuclear gene sequence supports cryptic species as an explanation, instead indicating differences between nuclear and mitochondrial genome histories. Sex-biased dispersal is unlikely to cause such mito-nuclear differences; however, selective sweeps by reproductive parasites could have led to this conflict. About half of the tested samples were infected by Wolbachia bacteria. Using multilocus strain typing for three Wolbachia genes, we show that the divergent mitochondrial clades are associated with two different Wolbachia strains, supporting the hypothesis that the mito-nuclear differences resulted from selection on the mitochondrial genome due to selective sweeps by Wolbachia strains.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The transfer of whole mitochondria that occurs during cell contact has been found to support cancer progression. However, the regulatory role of mitochondria alone is difficult to elucidate due to the complex microenvironment. Currently, mitochondrial transplantation is an available approach for restoring mitochondrial function in mitochondrial diseases but remains unclear in breast cancer. Herein, effects of mitochondrial transplantation via different approaches in breast cancer were investigated. METHODS:Whole mitochondria (approximately 10.5??g/ml) were transported into MCF-7 breast cancer cells via passive uptake or Pep-1-mediated delivery. Fresh mitochondria isolated from homeoplasmic 143B osteosarcoma cybrids containing mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) derived from health individuals (Mito) or mtDNA with the A8344G mutation (Mito8344) were conjugated with cell-penetrating peptide Pep-1 (P-Mito) or not conjugated prior to cell co-culture. Before isolation, mitochondria were stained with MitoTracker dye as the tracking label. After 3?days of treatment, cell viability, proliferation, oxidative stress, drug sensitivity to Doxorubicin/Paclitaxel and mitochondrial function were assessed. RESULTS:Compared with P-Mito, a small portion of Mito adhered to the cell membrane, and this was accompanied by a slightly lower fluorescent signal by foreign mitochondria in MCF-7 cells. Both transplantations induced cell apoptosis by increasing the nuclear translocation of apoptosis-inducing factor; inhibited cell growth and decreased oxidative stress in MCF-7 cells; and increased the cellular susceptibility of both the MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cell lines to Doxorubicin and Paclitaxel. Mitochondrial transplantation also consistently decreased Drp-1, which resulted in an enhancement of the tubular mitochondrial network, but a distinct machinery through the increase of parkin and mitochondrial fusion proteins was observed in the Mito and P-Mito groups, respectively. Furthermore, although there were no differences in energy metabolism after transplantation of normal mitochondria, metabolism was switched to the energetic and glycolytic phenotypes when the mitochondria were replaced with dysfunctional mitochondria, namely, Mito8344 and P-Mito8344, due to dramatically induced glycolysis and reduced mitochondrial respiration, respectively. Consequently, transplant-induced growth inhibition was abolished, and cell growth in the Mito8344 group was even higher than that in the control group. CONCLUSION:This study reveals the antitumour potential of mitochondrial transplantation in breast cancer via distinct regulation of mitochondrial function.
Project description:Mito-CP11, a mitochondria-targeted nitroxide formed by conjugating a triphenylphosphonium cation to a five-membered nitroxide, carboxy-proxyl (CP), has been used as a superoxide dismutase (SOD) mimetic. In this study, we investigated the antiproliferative and cytotoxic properties of submicromolar levels of Mito-CP11 alone and in combination with fluvastatin, a well known cholesterol lowering drug, in breast cancer cells. Mito-CP11, but not CP or CP plus the cationic ligand, methyl triphenylphosphonium (Me-TPP+), inhibited MCF-7 breast cancer cell proliferation. Mito-CP11 had only minimal effect on MCF-10A, non-tumorigenic mammary epithelial cells. Mito-CP11, however, significantly enhanced fluvastatin-mediated cytotoxicity in MCF-7 cells. Mito-CP11 alone and in combination with fluvastatin inhibited nuclear factor kappa-B activity mainly in MCF-7 cells. We conclude that mitochondria-targeted nitroxide antioxidant molecules (such as Mito-CP11) that are non-toxic to non-tumorigenic cells could enhance the cytostatic and cytotoxic effects of statins in breast cancer cells. This strategy of combining mitochondria-targeted non-toxic molecules with cytotoxic chemotherapeutic drugs may be successfully used to enhance the efficacy of antitumor therapies in breast cancer treatment.
Project description:Physiological functions of mitochondria in contractile arterial myocytes are poorly understood. Mitochondria can uptake calcium (Ca(2+)), but intracellular Ca(2+) signals that regulate mitochondrial Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](mito)) and physiological functions of changes in [Ca(2+)](mito) in arterial myocytes are unclear.To identify Ca(2+) signals that regulate [Ca(2+)](mito), examine the significance of changes in [Ca(2+)](mito), and test the hypothesis that [Ca(2+)](mito) controls functional ion channel transcription in myocytes of resistance-size cerebral arteries.Endothelin (ET)-1 activated Ca(2+) waves and elevated global Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) via inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP(3)R) activation. IP(3)R-mediated sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+) release increased [Ca(2+)](mito) and induced mitochondrial depolarization, which stimulated mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mitoROS) generation that elevated cytosolic ROS. In contrast, a global [Ca(2+)](i) elevation did not alter [Ca(2+)](mito), mitochondrial potential, or mitoROS generation. ET-1 stimulated nuclear translocation of nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB p50 subunit and ET-1-induced IP(3)R-mediated mitoROS elevated NF-kappaB-dependent transcriptional activity. ET-1 elevated voltage-dependent Ca(2+) (Ca(V)1.2) channel expression, leading to an increase in both pressure (myogenic tone)- and depolarization-induced vasoconstriction. Baseline Ca(V)1.2 expression and the ET-1-induced elevation in Ca(V)1.2 expression were both reduced by IP(3)R inhibition, mitochondrial electron transport chain block, antioxidant treatment, and NF-kappaB subunit knockdown, leading to vasodilation.IP(3)R-mediated SR Ca(2+) release elevates [Ca(2+)](mito), which induces mitoROS generation. MitoROS activate NF-kappaB, which stimulates Ca(V)1.2 channel transcription. Thus, mitochondria sense IP(3)R-mediated SR Ca(2+) release to control NF-kappaB-dependent Ca(V)1.2 channel expression in arterial myocytes, thereby modulating arterial contractility.