AKT facilitates EGFR trafficking and degradation by phosphorylating and activating PIKfyve.
ABSTRACT: Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) that controls cell proliferation, growth, survival, metabolism, and migration by activating the PI3K (phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase)-AKT and ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase)-RSK (ribosomal S6 kinase) pathways. EGFR signaling to these pathways is temporally and spatially regulated. Endocytic trafficking controls the access of EGFR to these downstream effectors and also its degradation, which terminates EGFR signaling. We showed that AKT facilitated the endocytic trafficking of EGFR to promote its degradation. Interfering with AKT signaling reduced both EGFR recycling and the rate of EGFR degradation. In AKT-impaired cells, EGFRs were unable to reach the cell surface or the lysosomal compartment and accumulated in the early endosomes, resulting in prolonged signaling and increased activation of ERK and RSK. Upon EGF stimulation, AKT phosphorylated and activated the kinase PIKfyve [FYVE-containing phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate 5-kinase], which promoted vesicle trafficking to lysosomes. PIKfyve activation promoted EGFR degradation. Similar regulation occurred with platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR), suggesting that AKT phosphorylation and activation of PIKfyve is likely to be a common feedback mechanism for terminating RTK signaling and reducing receptor abundance.
Project description:Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) activate pathways mediated by serine-threonine kinases, such as the PI3K (phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase)-Akt pathway, the Ras-MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase)-RSK (ribosomal S6 kinase) pathway, and the mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin)-p70 S6 pathway, that control important aspects of cell growth, proliferation, and survival. The Akt, RSK, and p70 S6 family of protein kinases transmits signals by phosphorylating substrates on an RxRxxS/T motif (R, arginine; S, serine; T, threonine; and x, any amino acid). We developed a large-scale proteomic approach to identify more than 300 substrates of this kinase family in cancer cell lines driven by the c-Met, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), or platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFRalpha) RTKs. We identified a subset of proteins with RxRxxS/T sites for which phosphorylation was decreased by RTK inhibitors (RTKIs), as well as by inhibitors of the PI3K, mTOR, and MAPK pathways, and we determined the effects of small interfering RNA directed against these substrates on cell viability. Phosphorylation of the protein chaperone SGTA (small glutamine-rich tetratricopeptide repeat-containing protein alpha) at serine-305 was essential for PDGFRalpha stabilization and cell survival in PDGFRalpha-dependent cancer cells. Our approach provides a new view of RTK and Akt-RSK-S6 kinase signaling, revealing previously unidentified Akt-RSK-S6 kinase substrates that merit further consideration as targets for combination therapy with RTKIs.
Project description:CD44 has been postulated as a cell surface coreceptor for augmenting receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) signaling. However, how exactly CD44 triggers RTK-dependent signaling remained largely unclear. Here we report an unexpected mechanism by which the CD44s splice isoform is internalized into endosomes to attenuate EGFR degradation. We identify a CD44s-interacting small GTPase, Rab7A, and show that CD44s inhibits Rab7A-mediated EGFR trafficking to lysosomes and subsequent degradation. Importantly, CD44s levels correlate with EGFR signature and predict poor prognosis in glioblastomas. Because Rab7A facilitates trafficking of many RTKs to lysosomes, our findings identify CD44s as a Rab7A regulator to attenuate RTK degradation.
Project description:AXL receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) inhibition presents a promising therapeutic strategy for aggressive tumor subtypes, as AXL signaling is upregulated in many cancers resistant to first-line treatments. Furthermore, the AXL ligand growth arrest-specific gene 6 (GAS6) has recently been linked to cancer drug resistance. Here, we established that challenging conditions, such as serum deprivation, divide AXL-overexpressing tumor cell lines into non-self-sustaining and self-sustaining subtypes in 3D spheroid culture. Self-sustaining cells are characterized by excessive GAS6 secretion and TAM-PDK-RSK-mTOR pathway activation. In 3D spheroid culture, the activation of the TAM-PDK-RSK-mTOR pathway proves crucial following treatment with AXL/MET inhibitor BMS777607, when the self-sustaining tumor cells react with TAM-RSK hyperactivation and enhanced SRC-AKT-mTOR signaling. Thus, bidirectional activated mTOR leads to enhanced proliferation and counteracts the drug effect. mTOR activation is accompanied by an enhanced AXL expression and hyperphosphorylation following 24 h of treatment with BMS777607. Therefore, we elucidate a double role of AXL that can be assigned to RSK-mTOR as well as SRC-AKT-mTOR pathway activation, specifically through AXL Y779 phosphorylation. This phosphosite fuels the resistance mechanism in 3D spheroids, alongside further SRC-dependent EGFR Y1173 and/or MET Y1349 phosphorylation which is defined by the cell-specific addiction. In conclusion, self-sustenance in cancer cells is based on a signaling synergy, individually balanced between GAS6 TAM-dependent PDK-RSK-mTOR survival pathway and the AXLY779/EGFR/MET-driven SRC-mTOR pathway.
Project description:The epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor EGFR is a major receptor tyrosine kinase whose role in gliomagenesis is well established. We have recently identified EHD3 [Eps15 homology (EH) domain-containing protein 3], an endocytic trafficking regulatory protein, as a putative brain tumor suppressor. Here, we investigate the underlying mechanisms, by establishing a novel mechanistic and functional connection between EHD3 and the EGFR signaling pathway. We show that, in response to stimulation with the EGF ligand, EHD3 accelerates the rate of EGFR degradation by dramatically increasing its ubiquitination. As part of this process, EHD3 also regulates EGFR endosomal trafficking by diverting it away from the recycling route into the degradative pathway. Moreover, we found that upon EGF activation, rather than affecting the total MAPK and AKT downstream signaling, EHD3 decreases endosome-based signaling of these two pathways, thus suggesting the contribution of EHD3 in the spatial regulation of EGFR signaling. This function explains the higher sensitivity of EHD3-expressing cells to the growth-inhibitory effects of EGF. In summary, this is the first report supporting a mechanism of EHD3-mediated tumor suppression that involves the attenuation of endosomal signaling of the EGFR oncogene.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Celiac Disease (CD) is both a frequent disease (1:100) and an interesting model of a disease induced by food. It consists in an immunogenic reaction to wheat gluten and glutenins that has been found to arise in a specific genetic background; however, this reaction is still only partially understood. Activation of innate immunity by gliadin peptides is an important component of the early events of the disease. In particular the so-called "toxic" A-gliadin peptide P31-43 induces several pleiotropic effects including Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR)-dependent actin remodelling and proliferation in cultured cell lines and in enterocytes from CD patients. These effects are mediated by delayed EGFR degradation and prolonged EGFR activation in endocytic vesicles. In the present study we investigated the effects of gliadin peptides on the trafficking and maturation of endocytic vesicles. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Both P31-43 and the control P57-68 peptide labelled with fluorochromes were found to enter CaCo-2 cells and interact with the endocytic compartment in pulse and chase, time-lapse, experiments. P31-43 was localised to vesicles carrying early endocytic markers at time points when P57-68-carrying vesicles mature into late endosomes. In time-lapse experiments the trafficking of P31-43-labelled vesicles was delayed, regardless of the cargo they were carrying. Furthermore in celiac enterocytes, from cultured duodenal biopsies, P31-43 trafficking is delayed in early endocytic vesicles. A sequence similarity search revealed that P31-43 is strikingly similar to Hrs, a key molecule regulating endocytic maturation. A-gliadin peptide P31-43 interfered with Hrs correct localisation to early endosomes as revealed by western blot and immunofluorescence microscopy. CONCLUSIONS: P31-43 and P57-68 enter cells by endocytosis. Only P31-43 localises at the endocytic membranes and delays vesicle trafficking by interfering with Hrs-mediated maturation to late endosomes in cells and intestinal biopsies. Consequently, in P31-43-treated cells, Receptor Tyrosine Kinase (RTK) activation is extended. This finding may explain the role played by gliadin peptides in inducing proliferation and other effects in enterocytes from CD biopsies.
Project description:Dephosphorylation and endocytic down-regulation are distinct processes that together control the signaling output of a variety of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs). PTP1B can directly dephosphorylate several RTKs, but it can also promote activation of downstream pathways through largely unknown mechanisms. These positive signaling functions likely contribute to the tumor-promoting effect of PTP1B in mouse cancer models. Here, we have identified STAM2, an endosomal protein involved in sorting activated RTKs for lysosomal degradation, as a substrate of PTP1B. PTP1B interacts with STAM2 at defined phosphotyrosine sites, and knockdown of PTP1B expression augments STAM2 phosphorylation. Intriguingly, manipulating the expression and phosphorylation state of STAM2 did not have a general effect on epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced EGF receptor trafficking, degradation, or signaling. Instead, phosphorylated STAM2 specifically suppressed Akt activation, and a phosphorylation-deficient STAM2 mutant displayed prolonged localization on endosomes following EGF stimulation. These results reveal a novel link between the dephosphorylation and endocytic machinery and suggest that PTP1B can affect RTK signaling in a previously unrecognized manner.
Project description:The canonical description of transmembrane receptor function is initial binding of ligand, followed by initiation of intracellular signaling and then internalization en route to degradation or recycling to the cell surface. It is known that low concentrations of extracellular ligand lead to a higher proportion of receptor that is recycled and that non-canonical mechanisms of receptor activation, including phosphorylation by the kinase p38, can induce internalization and recycling. However, no connections have been made between these pathways; i.e. it has yet to be established what happens to unbound receptors following stimulation with ligand. Here we demonstrate that a minimal level of activation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase by low levels of ligand is sufficient to fully activate downstream mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways, with most of the remaining unbound EGFR molecules being efficiently phosphorylated at intracellular serine/threonine residues by activated mitogen-activated protein kinase. This non-canonical, p38-mediated phosphorylation of the C-tail of EGFR, near Ser-1015, induces the clathrin-mediated endocytosis of the unliganded EGFR monomers, which occurs slightly later than the canonical endocytosis of ligand-bound EGFR dimers via tyrosine autophosphorylation. EGFR endocytosed via the non-canonical pathway is largely recycled back to the plasma membrane as functional receptors, whereas p38-independent populations are mainly sorted for lysosomal degradation. Moreover, ligand concentrations balance these endocytic trafficking pathways. These results demonstrate that ligand-activated EGFR signaling controls unliganded receptors through feedback phosphorylation, identifying a dual-mode regulation of the endocytic trafficking dynamics of EGFR.
Project description:Down-regulation of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTK) through receptor internalization and degradation is critical for appropriate biological responses. The hepatocyte growth factor RTK (also known as Met) regulates epithelial remodeling, dispersal, and invasion and is deregulated in human cancers. Impaired down-regulation of the Met RTK leads to sustained signaling, cell transformation, and tumorigenesis, hence understanding mechanisms that regulate this process is crucial. Here we report that, following Met activation, the endocytic adaptor protein, Eps15, is recruited to the plasma membrane and becomes both tyrosine-phosphorylated and ubiquitinated. Recruitment of Eps15 requires Met receptor kinase activity and involves two distinct Eps15 domains. Unlike previous reports for the EGF RTK, which requires the Eps15 ubiquitin interacting motif, recruitment of Eps15 to Met involves the coiled-coil domain of Eps15 and the signaling adaptor molecule, Grb2, which binds through a proline-rich motif in the third domain of Eps15. Expression of the coiled-coil domain is sufficient to displace the wild-type Eps15 protein complex from Met, resulting in loss of tyrosine phosphorylation of Eps15. Knockdown of Eps15 results in delayed Met degradation, which can be rescued by expression of Eps15 WT but not an Eps15 mutant lacking the coiled-coil domain, identifying a role for this domain in Eps15-mediated Met down-modulation. This study demonstrates a new mechanism of recruitment for Eps15 downstream of the Met receptor, involving the coiled-coil domain of Eps15 as well as interaction of Eps15 with Grb2. This highlights distinct regulation of Eps15 recruitment and the diversity and adaptability of endocytic molecules in promoting RTK trafficking.
Project description:Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) controls a wide range of cellular processes, and altered EGFR signaling contributes to human cancer. EGFR kinase domain mutants found in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) are constitutively active, a trait critical for cell transformation through activation of downstream pathways. Endocytic trafficking of EGFR is a major regulatory mechanism as ligand-induced lysosomal degradation results in termination of signaling. While numerous studies have examined mutant EGFR signaling, the endocytic traffic of mutant EGFR within the NSCLC milieu remains less clear.This study shows that mutant EGFRs in NSCLC cell lines are constitutively endocytosed as shown by their colocalization with the early/recycling endosomal marker transferrin and the late endosomal/lysosomal marker LAMP1. Notably, mutant EGFRs, but not the wild-type EGFR, show a perinuclear accumulation and colocalization with recycling endosomal markers such as Rab11 and EHD1 upon treatment of cells with endocytic recycling inhibitor monensin, suggesting that mutant EGFRs preferentially traffic through the endocytic recycling compartments. Importantly, monensin treatment enhanced the mutant EGFR association and colocalization with Src, indicating that aberrant transit through the endocytic recycling compartment promotes mutant EGFR-Src association.The findings presented in this study show that mutant EGFRs undergo aberrant traffic into the endocytic recycling compartment which allows mutant EGFRs to engage in a preferential interaction with Src, a critical partner for EGFR-mediated oncogenesis.
Project description:Mutations in the gene encoding for leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) are a common cause of hereditary Parkinson's disease. LRRK2 regulates various intracellular vesicular trafficking pathways, including endolysosomal degradative events such as epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) degradation. Recent studies have revealed that a subset of RAB proteins involved in secretory and endocytic recycling are LRRK2 kinase substrates in vivo However, the effects of LRRK2-mediated phosphorylation of these substrates on membrane trafficking remain unknown. Here, using an array of immunofluorescence and pulldown assays, we report that expression of active or phosphodeficient RAB8A variants rescues the G2019S LRRK2-mediated effects on endolysosomal membrane trafficking. Similarly, up-regulation of the RAB11-Rabin8-RAB8A cascade, which activates RAB8A, also reverted these trafficking deficits. Loss of RAB8A mimicked the effects of G2019S LRRK2 on endolysosomal trafficking and decreased RAB7A activity. Expression of pathogenic G2019S LRRK2 or loss of RAB8A interfered with EGFR degradation by causing its accumulation in a RAB4-positive endocytic compartment, which was accompanied by a deficit in EGFR recycling and was rescued upon expression of active RAB7A. Dominant-negative RAB7A expression resulted in similar deficits in EGF degradation, accumulation in a RAB4 compartment, and deficits in EGFR recycling, which were all rescued upon expression of active RAB8A. Taken together, these findings suggest that, by impairing RAB8A function, pathogenic G2019S LRRK2 deregulates endolysosomal transport and endocytic recycling events.