Manganese-containing Prussian blue nanoparticles for imaging of pediatric brain tumors.
ABSTRACT: Pediatric brain tumors (PBTs) are a leading cause of death in children. For an improved prognosis in patients with PBTs, there is a critical need to develop molecularly-specific imaging agents to monitor disease progression and response to treatment. In this paper, we describe manganese-containing Prussian blue nanoparticles as agents for molecular magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and fluorescence-based imaging of PBTs. Our core-shell nanoparticles consist of a core lattice structure that incorporates and retains paramagnetic Mn(2+) ions, and generates MRI contrast (both negative and positive). The biofunctionalized shell is comprised of fluorescent avidin, which serves the dual purpose of enabling fluorescence imaging and functioning as a platform for the attachment of biotinylated ligands that target PBTs. The surfaces of our nanoparticles are modified with biotinylated antibodies targeting neuron-glial antigen 2 or biotinylated transferrin. Both neuron-glial antigen 2 and the transferrin receptor are protein markers overexpressed in PBTs. We describe the synthesis, biofunctionalization, and characterization of these multimodal nanoparticles. Further, we demonstrate the MRI and fluorescence imaging capabilities of manganese-containing Prussian blue nanoparticles in vitro. Finally, we demonstrate the potential of these nanoparticles as PBT imaging agents by measuring their organ and brain biodistribution in an orthotopic mouse model of PBTs using ex vivo fluorescence imaging.
Project description:Theranostic nanoparticles offer the potential for mixing and matching disparate diagnostic and therapeutic functionalities within a single nanoparticle for the personalized treatment of diseases. In this article, we present composite iron oxide-gadolinium-containing Prussian blue nanoparticles (Fe3O4@GdPB) as a novel theranostic agent for T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and photothermal therapy (PTT) of tumors. These particles combine the well-described properties and safety profiles of the constituent Fe3O4 nanoparticles and gadolinium-containing Prussian blue nanoparticles. The Fe3O4@GdPB nanoparticles function both as effective MRI contrast agents and PTT agents as determined by characterizing studies performed in vitro and retain their properties in the presence of cells. Importantly, the Fe3O4@GdPB nanoparticles function as effective MRI contrast agents in vivo by increasing signal:noise ratios in T1-weighted scans of tumors and as effective PTT agents in vivo by decreasing tumor growth rates and increasing survival in an animal model of neuroblastoma. These findings demonstrate the potential of the Fe3O4@GdPB nanoparticles to function as effective theranostic agents.
Project description:Biomarker-targeted molecular imaging holds promise for early detection of pancreatic cancer. The aim of this study was to design and evaluate a plectin-1 targeted multi-functional nanoparticle probe for pancreatic cancer imaging.1,2-Distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine-N-amino(polyethylene glycol) (DSPE-PEG-NH2)-modified superparamagnetic iron oxide (Fe3O4) nanoparticles (SPION) were conjugated with plectin-1 antibody and/or Cy7 to create the multi-functional targeted nanoparticle targeted probe (Plectin-SPION-Cy7) or non-targeted probe (SPION-Cy7). Pancreatic carcinoma cell lines expressing plectin-1 were cultured with the targeted or control probes and then were imaged using confocal laser scanning microscopy and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Accumulations of the nanoparticles in pancreatic tumor xenografted mice were determined by MRI and fluorescence imaging.In vitro optical imaging and MRI showed that the targeted nanoparticles were highly accumulated in MIAPaCa2 and XPA-1 carcinoma cells but not in non-carcinoma MIN6 cells, which was further confirmed by Prussian blue staining. In vivo MRI showed a significant T2 signal reduction. Prussian blue staining further confirmed that the plectin-1 targeted nanoparticles were highly accumulated in the tumor mass but not in normal pancreatic tissues, or in the liver and kidney, and few nanoparticles were observed in the tumors of mice injected with SPION-Cy7.Our data demonstrate that plectin-1 targeted fluorescence and MR dual-functional nanoparticle can visualize pancreatic cancer, and it has great potential to be used with various imaging devices for pancreatic cancer detection.
Project description:Multifunctional manganese oxide nanoparticles (NPs) with impressive enhanced T? contrast ability show great promise in biomedical diagnosis. Herein, we developed a dual-modality imaging agent system based on polyethylene glycol (PEG)-coated manganese oxide NPs conjugated with organic dye (Cy7.5), which functions as a fluorescence imaging (FI) agent as well as a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) imaging agent. The formed Mn?O?@PEG-Cy7.5 NPs with the size of ~10 nm exhibit good colloidal stability in different physiological media. Serial FI and MRI studies that non-invasively assessed the bio-distribution pattern and the feasibility for in vivo dual-modality imaging-guided lymph node mapping have been investigated. In addition, histological and biochemical analyses exhibited low toxicity even at a dose of 20 mg/kg in vivo. Since Mn?O?@PEG-Cy7.5 NPs exhibited desirable properties as imaging agents and good biocompatibility, this work offers a robust, safe, and accurate diagnostic platform based on manganese oxide NPs for tumor metastasis diagnosis.
Project description:The prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is broadly overexpressed on prostate cancer (PCa) cell surfaces. In this study, we report the synthesis, characterization, in vitro binding assay, and in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) evaluation of PSMA targeting superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs). PSMA-targeting polypeptide CQKHHNYLC was conjugated to SPIONs to form PSMA-targeting molecular MRI contrast agents. In vitro studies demonstrated specific uptake of polypeptide-SPIONs by PSMA expressing cells. In vivo MRI studies found that MRI signals in PSMA-expressing tumors could be specifically enhanced with polypeptide-SPION, and further Prussian blue staining showed heterogeneous deposition of SPIONs in the tumor tissues. Taken altogether, we have developed PSMA-targeting polypeptide-SPIONs that could specifically enhance MRI signal in tumor-bearing mice, which might provide a new strategy for the molecular imaging of PCa.
Project description:Stem cell tracking in cellular therapy and regenerative medicine is an urgent need, superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) could be used as contrast agents in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) that allows visualization of the implanted cells ensuring they reach the desired sites in vivo. Herein, we report the study of the interaction of 3,4-dihydroxyhydrocinnamic acid (DHCA) functionalized IONPs that have desirable properties for T2 - weighted MRI, with bone marrow-derived primary human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). Using the multiparametric high-content imaging method, we evaluate cell viability, formation of reactive oxygen species, mitochondrial health, as well as cell morphology and determine that the hMSCs are minimally affected after labelling with IONPs. Their cellular uptake is visualized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Prussian Blue staining, and quantified using an iron specific colourimetric method. In vitro and in vivo studies demonstrate that these IONPs are biocompatible and can produce significant contrast enhancement in T2-weighted MRI. Iron oxide nanoparticles are detected in vivo as hypointense regions in the liver up to two weeks post injection using 9.4?T MRI. These DHCA functionalized IONPs are promising contrast agents for stem cell tracking by T2-weighted MRI as they are biocompatible and show no evidence of cytotoxic effects on hMSCs.
Project description:<h4>Objectives</h4>To validate the feasibility of labeling Clostridium novyi-NT (C.novyi-NT) anaerobes with iron-oxide nanoparticles for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and demonstrate the potential to use MRI to visualize intra-tumoral delivery of these iron-oxide labeled C.novyi-NT during percutaneous injection procedures.<h4>Materials and methods</h4>All studies were approved by IACUC. C.novyi-NT were labeled with hybrid iron-oxide Texas red nanoparticles. Growth of labeled and control samples were evaluated with optical density. Labeling was confirmed with confocal fluorescence and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). MRI were performed using a 7 Tesla scanner with T2*-weighted (T2*W) sequence. Contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) measurements were performed for phantoms and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) measurements performed in C57BL/6 mice (n?=?12) with Panc02 xenografts before and after percutaneous injection of iron-oxide labeled C.novyi-NT. MRI was repeated 3 and 7 days post-injection. Hematoxylin-eosin (HE), Prussian blue and Gram staining of tumor specimens were performed for confirmation of intra-tumoral delivery.<h4>Results</h4>Iron-oxide labeling had no influence upon C.novyi-NT growth. The signal intensity (SI) within T2*W images was significantly decreased for iron-oxide labeled C.novyi-NT phantoms compared to unlabeled controls. Under confocal fluorescence microscopy, the iron-oxide labeled C.novyi-NT exhibited a uniform red fluorescence consistent with observed regions of DAPI staining and overall labeling efficiency was 100% (all DAPI stained C.novyi-NT exhibited red fluorescence). Within TEM images, a large number iron granules were observed within the iron-oxide labeled C.novyi-NT; these were not observed within unlabeled controls. Intra-procedural MRI measurements permitted in vivo visualization of the intra-tumoral distribution of iron-oxide labeled C.novyi-NT following percutaneous injection (depicted as punctate regions of SI reductions within T2*-weighted images); tumor SNR decreased significantly following intra-tumoral injection of C.novyi-NT (p<0.05); these SNR reductions were maintained at 3 and 7 day follow-up intervals. Prussian blue and Gram staining confirmed presence of the iron-oxide labeled anaerobes.<h4>Conclusions</h4>C.novyi-NT can be labeled with iron-oxide nanoparticles for MRI visualization of intra-tumoral deposition following percutaneous injection during bacteriolytic therapy.
Project description:Nanoprobes with dual modal imaging of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and two-photon fluorescence (TPF) can serve as promising platforms for clinical diagnosis. A wide range of molecules and nanoparticles have been investigated as agents for contrast enhanced MRI and fluorescence imaging in cancer diagnosis. However, a single material with dual modal imaging of MRI and TPF is rarely reported. We found that Mn?[Co(CN)?]?@SiO? nanocubes can serve as agents for both T?- and T?-weighted MRI, and TPF imaging. The nanocubes coated with silica to form Mn?[Co(CN)?]?@SiO? core-shell nanocubes were readily internalized by cells without showing cytotoxicity. In vitro tests, the core-shell nanocubes display relatively high longitudinal (r?) and transverse (r?) relaxivities, they also manifest a remarkable T? and T? contrast effects at in-vivo imaging of internal organs in Mice. Moreover, the core-shell nanocubes could offer high-resolution cell fluorescence imaging by two-photon excitation (720?nm) or by conventional fluorescence with 403- or 488-nm excitation.
Project description:Nanoparticles play an important role in biomedicine. We have developed a method for size-controlled synthesis of photomagnetic Prussian blue nanocubes (PBNCs) using superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) as precursors. The developed PBNCs have magnetic and optical properties desired in many biomedical diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Specifically, the size-tunable photomagnetic PBNCs exhibit high magnetic saturation, strong optical absorption with a peak at approximately 700 nm, and superior photostability. Our studies demonstrate that PBNCs can be used as MRI and photoacoustic imaging contrast agents in vivo. We also showed the utility of PBNCs for labeling and magnetic manipulation of cells. Dual magnetic and optical properties, together with excellent biocompatibility, render PBNCs an attractive contrast agent for both diagnostic and therapeutic applications. The use SPIONs as precursors for PBNCs provides flexibility and allows researchers to design theranostic agents according to required particle size, optical, and magnetic properties.
Project description:Background:The intrinsic properties of Prussian blue (PB) nanoparticles make them an attractive tool in nanomedicine, including magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), photoacoustic imaging (PAI), and photothermal therapy (PTT) properties. However, there still remains the challenge of their poor dispersible stability in the physiological environment. In this study, we developed an efficient hydrothermal method to address the poor dispersible stability of PB nanoparticles in the physiological environment. Materials and methods:The concentration of H+, the mass of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), and iron sources (K3[Fe(CN)6]) are very vital in the preparation of PB nanoparticles. Through exploring the preparation process, optimized PB nanoparticles (OPBs) with excellent physiological stability were prepared. Hydrodynamic diameter and UV-vis absorption properties were measured to verify the stability of the prepared OPBs. Properties of dual-mode imaging, including MRI/PAI, and PTT of OPBs were investigated both in vitro and in vivo. In addition, the in vivo biosafety of OPBs was systematically assessed. Results:OPBs were stable in different environments including various media, pH, and temperatures for at least 90 days, indicating that they are suitable for biomedical application via intravenous administration and easily stored in a robust environment. Compared with other research into the synthesis of PB nanoparticles, the "in situ modification" synthesis of PB nanoparticles had advantages, including a simple process, low cost, and easy mass preparation. OPBs showed no significant signs of toxicity for 90 days. As a proof of concept, the OPBs served as dual-mode image contrast agents and photothermal conversion agents for cancer diagnosis and therapy both in vitro and in vivo. Conclusion:Our findings suggest a facile but efficient strategy with low cost to address the poor dispersible stability of PB nanoparticles in physiological environments. This will promote the development of further clinical transformations of PB nanoparticles, especially in cancer theranostics.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Atherosclerosis, a major source of cardiovascular disease, is asymptomatic for decades until the activation of thrombosis and the rupture of enlarged plaques, resulting in acute coronary syndromes and sudden cardiac arrest. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a noninvasive nuclear imaging technique to assess the degree of atherosclerotic plaque with high spatial resolution and excellent soft tissue contrast. However, MRI lacks sensitivity for preventive medicine, which limits the ability to observe the onset of vulnerable plaques. In this study, we engineered hybrid metal oxide-peptide amphiphile micelles (HMO-Ms) that combine an inorganic, magnetic iron oxide or manganese oxide inner core with organic, fibrin-targeting peptide amphiphiles, consisting of the sequence CREKA, for potential MRI imaging of thrombosis on atherosclerotic plaques. RESULTS:Hybrid metal oxide-peptide amphiphile micelles, consisting of an iron oxide (Fe-Ms) or manganese oxide (Mn-Ms) core with CREKA peptides, were self-assembled into 20-30 nm spherical nanoparticles, as confirmed by dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopy. These hybrid nanoparticles were found to be biocompatible with human aortic endothelial cells in vitro, and HMO-Ms bound to human clots three to five times more efficiently than its non-targeted counterparts. Relaxivity studies showed ultra-high r2 value of 457 mM-1 s-1 and r1 value of 0.48 mM-1 s-1 for Fe-Ms and Mn-Ms, respectively. In vitro, MR imaging studies demonstrated the targeting capability of CREKA-functionalized hybrid nanoparticles with twofold enhancement of MR signals. CONCLUSION:This novel hybrid class of MR agents has potential as a non-invasive imaging method that specifically detects thrombosis during the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis.