Patterns of gene expression associated with Pten deficiency in the developing inner ear.
ABSTRACT: In inner ear development, phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) is necessary for neuronal maintenance, such as neuronal survival and accurate nerve innervations of hair cells. We previously reported that Pten conditional knockout (cKO) mice exhibited disorganized fasciculus with neuronal apoptosis in spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs). To better understand the genes and signaling networks related to auditory neuron maintenance, we compared the profiles of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) using microarray analysis of the inner ear in E14.5 Pten cKO and wild-type mice. We identified 46 statistically significant transcripts using significance analysis of microarrays, with the false-discovery rate set at 0%. Among the DEGs, expression levels of candidate genes and expression domains were validated by quantitative real-time RT-PCR and in situ hybridization, respectively. Ingenuity pathway analysis using DEGs identified significant signaling networks associated with apoptosis, cellular movement, and axon guidance (i.e., secreted phosphoprotein 1 (Spp1)-mediated cellular movement and regulator of G-protein signaling 4 (Rgs4)-mediated axon guidance). This result was consistent with the phenotypic defects of SGNs in Pten cKO mice (e.g., neuronal apoptosis, abnormal migration, and irregular nerve fiber patterns of SGNs). From this study, we suggest two key regulatory signaling networks mediated by Spp1 and Rgs4, which may play potential roles in neuronal differentiation of developing auditory neurons.
Project description:In our recent study, we reported the function of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) during inner ear development. PTEN is necessary for neuronal maintenance, such as neuronal survival and accurate nerve innervations of hair cells. To better understand the genes and signaling networks related to auditory neuron maintenance, we examined the profiles of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) using microarray analysis in Pten-deficient mice at E14.5. We identified 46 statistically significant DEGs using Significant Analysis of Microarrays (SAM) analysis with a false discovery rate (FDR) equal to zero. Among the DEGs, expression levels of candidate genes and expression domains were validated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and in situ hybridization, respectively. Ingenuity pathway analysis (IPA) with DEGs identified significant signaling networks associated with cellular movement and axon guidance. Significant networks revealed that Spp1-mediated cellular movement and G-protein signaling 4 (RGS4)-Akt are related with axon guidance. This result was consistent with the phenotypic defects of spiral ganglion in Pten conditional knockout (cKO) mice (e.g., abnormal migration of spiral ganglion and irregular formation of neuritis). From this study, we suggest two key regulatory signaling networks mediated by Spp1 and RGS4, which may play potential roles in neuronal differentiation of developing auditory neurons. Overall design: Embryonic day 14.5 inner ear tissues from Pten conditional knockout (cKO: Pax2Cre/+;PtenloxP/loxP) and littermate wild type (PtenloxP/+ and PtenloxP/loxP) were used (60 embryos of each group). Total RNA from three independent pools of inner ears from each group was extracted with TRIZOL, amplified using Ambion amplification kit, and cRNA (750 ng) was hybridized to Illumina MouseRef-8 v 2.0 Expression Bead Chips. Three biological replicates (three chips for wild-type samples and three chips for Pten cKO samples) were performed for microarray hybridization experiments.
Project description:All cellular phenomena and developmental events, including inner ear development, are modulated through harmonized signaling networks. Phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN), a tumor suppressor, is a major signaling component involved in cross talk with key regulators of development; i.e., Wnt, Notch, and bone morphogenetic proteins. Although Pten function has been studied in various systems, its role in inner ear development is poorly understood. Here, we used inner ear-specific Pten conditional knockout mice and examined the characteristics of the inner ear. In a detailed analysis of the phenotype, reduced cochlear turning and widened epithelia were observed. Phalloidin staining of sensory epithelium revealed that hair cell patterns were disturbed; i.e., additional rows of hair cells were discovered. The neural abnormality revealed a reduction in and disorganization of nerve fibers, including apoptosis at the neural precursor stage. Pten deficiency induced increased phosphorylation of Akt at Ser473. The elevation of inhibitory glycogen synthase kinase 3? Ser9 phosphorylation (pGSK3?) was sustained until the neuronal differentiation stage at embryonic day 14.5, instead of pGSK3? downregulation. This is the first report on the influence of Pten/Akt/GSK3? signaling on the development of spiral ganglia. These results suggest that Pten is required for the maintenance of neuroblast number, neural precursors, and differentiation in the inner ear.
Project description:Regulator of G protein signaling 4 (RGS4) is one of the smaller members of the RGS family of proteins, which are known to control signaling amplitude and duration via interactions with G protein alpha subunits or other signaling molecules. Earlier evidence suggests dynamic regulation of RGS4 levels in neuronal networks mediating actions of opiates and other drugs of abuse, but the consequences of RGS4 actions in vivo are largely unknown.In this study, we use constitutive and nucleus accumbens-inducible RGS4 knockout mice as well as mice overexpressing RGS4 in the nucleus accumbens via viral mediated gene transfer, to examine the influence of RGS4 on behavioral responses to opiates. We also use electrophysiology and immunoprecipitation assays to further understand the mechanisms underlying the tissue-specific actions of RGS4.Inducible knockout or selective overexpression of RGS4 in the nucleus accumbens reveals that, in this brain region, RGS4 acts as a negative regulator of morphine reward, whereas in the locus coeruleus RGS4 opposes morphine physical dependence. In contrast, we show that RGS4 does not affect morphine analgesia or tolerance but is a positive modulator of certain opiate analgesics, such as methadone and fentanyl.These findings provide fundamentally novel information concerning the role of RGS4 in the cellular mechanisms underlying the diverse actions of opiate drugs in the nervous system.
Project description:Spontaneous bursts of activity in developing sensory pathways promote maturation of neurons, refinement of neuronal connections, and assembly of appropriate functional networks. In the developing auditory system, inner hair cells (IHCs) spontaneously fire Ca(2+) spikes, each of which is transformed into a mini-burst of action potentials in spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs). Here we show that NMDARs are expressed in SGN dendritic terminals and play a critical role during transmission of activity from IHCs to SGNs before hearing onset. NMDAR activation enhances glutamate-mediated Ca(2+) influx at dendritic terminals, promotes repetitive firing of individual SGNs in response to each synaptic event, and enhances coincident activity of neighboring SGNs that will eventually encode similar frequencies of sound. Loss of NMDAR signaling from SGNs reduced their survival both in vivo and in vitro, revealing that spontaneous activity in the prehearing cochlea promotes maturation of auditory circuitry through periodic activation of NMDARs in SGNs.
Project description:Neuropilin-1 (Nrp1) encodes the transmembrane cellular receptor neuropilin-1, which is associated with cardiovascular and neuronal development and was within the peak SNP interval on chromosome 8 in our prior GWAS study on age-related hearing loss (ARHL) in mice. In this study, we generated and characterized an inner ear-specific Nrp1 conditional knockout (CKO) mouse line because Nrp1 constitutive knockouts are embryonic lethal. In situ hybridization demonstrated weak Nrp1 mRNA expression late in embryonic cochlear development, but increased expression in early postnatal stages when cochlear hair cell innervation patterns have been shown to mature. At postnatal day 5, Nrp1 CKO mice showed disorganized outer spiral bundles and enlarged microvessels of the stria vascularis (SV) but normal spiral ganglion cell (SGN) density and presynaptic ribbon body counts; however, we observed enlarged SV microvessels, reduced SGN density, and a reduction of presynaptic ribbons in the outer hair cell region of 4-month-old Nrp1 CKO mice. In addition, we demonstrated elevated hearing thresholds of the 2-month-old and 4-month-old Nrp1 CKO mice at frequencies ranging from 4 to 32kHz when compared to 2-month-old mice. These data suggest that conditional loss of Nrp1 in the inner ear leads to progressive hearing loss in mice. We also demonstrated that mice with a truncated variant of Nrp1 show cochlear axon guidance defects and that exogenous semaphorin-3A, a known neuropilin-1 receptor agonist, repels SGN axons in vitro. These data suggest that Neuropilin-1/Semaphorin-3A signaling may also serve a role in neuronal pathfinding in the developing cochlea. In summary, our results here support a model whereby Neuropilin-1/Semaphorin-3A signaling is critical for the functional and morphological integrity of the cochlea and that Nrp1 may play a role in ARHL.
Project description:The Delta/Notch?like epidermal growth factor?related receptor (DNER) serves an important role in the developing central nervous system. However, the actions of DNER in the development of the spiral ganglion in the inner ear have yet to be elucidated. Wild?type C57BL/6 mice were housed and time?mated for use in the present study. Primary neuronal cultures were prepared using spiral ganglion progenitors isolated from the modiolus of postnatal day 1 (P1) mice. DNER recombinant lentiviral vectors were constructed and transfected into the cultured primary neurons. The relative proportion of differentiated neurons and the length of their neurites were evaluated using microscopy. The results of the present study demonstrated that DNER was expressed in spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) that exhibited significant polarity in the early differentiation stages; DNER expression gradually decreased until the polarity was lost on week 35. The in vitro expression of DNER was revealed to be similar to that in vivo. When DNER expression was silenced using RNA interference, the polarity of the differentiated neurons was altered and they exhibited significantly reduced dendritic length. In addition, the proportion of bipolar neurons was decreased compared with the control group. Furthermore, the expression of ??synuclein and the GluR2/3 subunits of the ??amin?o?3?hydroxy?5?methyl?4-isoxazolepropionic acid glutamate receptor were also reduced in cultured neurons in which DNER was silenced. Notch1 was co?expressed with DNER in SGNs isolated from P1 mice. The indirect Notch inhibitor N-[N-(3,5-Difluorophenacetyl)-L-alanyl]?S?phenylglycine t?butyl ester also affected the polarity and the formation of protrusions, and reduced the expression of DNER and glial fibrillary acidic protein in SGNs. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that DNER was expressed in SGNs and appeared to be involved in the mechanisms underlying neuronal polarity and neuritogenesis, via a Notch?dependent signaling pathway.
Project description:Previous studies have shown that members of the family of regulators of G-protein signaling (RGS), including RGS4, have a discrete expression pattern in the adult brain (Gold et al., 1997). Here, we describe for RGS4 a distinct, mostly transient phase of neuronal expression, during embryonic development: transcription of RGS4 occurs in a highly dynamic manner in a small set of peripheral and central neuronal precursors. This expression pattern overlaps extensively with that of the paired-like homeodomain protein Phox2b, a determinant of neuronal identity. In embryos deficient for Phox2b, RGS4 expression is downregulated in the locus coeruleus, sympathetic ganglia, and cranial motor and sensory neurons. Moreover, Phox2b cooperates with the basic helix-loop-helix protein Mash1 to transiently switch on RGS4 after ectopic expression in the chicken spinal cord. Intriguingly, we also identify a heterotrimeric G-protein alpha-subunit, gustducin, as coexpressed with RGS4 in developing facial motor neurons, also under the control of Phox2b. Altogether, these data identify components of the heterotrimeric G-protein signaling pathway as part of the type-specific program of neuronal differentiation.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to identify key genes and novel potential therapeutic targets related to gastric cancer (GC) by comparing cancer tissue samples and healthy control samples using DNA microarray analysis. METHODS: Microarray data set GSE19804 was downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus. Preprocessing and differential analysis were conducted with of R statistical software packages, and a number of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were obtained. Cluster analysis was also done with gene expression values. Functional enrichment analysis was performed for all the DEGs with DAVID tools. The significantly up- and downregulated genes were selected out and their interactors were retrieved with STRING and HitPredict, followed by construction of networks. For all the genes in the two networks, GeneCodis was chosen for gene function annotation. RESULTS: A total of 638 DEGs were identified, and we found that SPP1 and FABP4 were the markedly up- and downregulated genes, respectively. Cell cycle and regulation of proliferation were the most significantly overrepresented functional terms in up- and downregulated genes. In addition, extracellular matrix-receptor interaction was found to be significant in the SPP1-included interaction network. CONCLUSIONS: A range of DEGs were obtained for GC. These genes not only provided insights into the pathogenesis of GC but also could develop into biomarkers for diagnosis or treatment.
Project description:Mammalian Sperm Associated Antigen 6 (SPAG6) is the orthologue of Chlamydomonas PF16, a protein localized in the axoneme central apparatus. Recent studies showed that Spag6 has a role in brain neuronal proliferation and differentiation. The mammalian spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) are specialzed bipolar neurons in the inner ear. However, the role of SPAG6 in SGN has not been elucidated. Therefore, We hypothesized that a Spag6 knockout would affect the development and function of SGNs. We utilized Spag6-deficient mice and SGN explants to define the role of SPAG6. On postnatal day 30 (P30) mutant mice had lower SGN density compared to their wild-type littermates, and more apoptosis was evident in the mutants. Increased Bax expression, a disturbed distribution of cytochrome c, and cleaved caspase-3 positive staining indicated that increased apoptosis involved a mitochondrial pathway. Transmission electron microscopy revealed abnormalities in the ultrastructure of mutant SGNs as early as P7. In vitro, lack of SPAG6 affected the growth of neurites and growth cones. Additionally, SPAG6 deficiency decreased synapse density in SGN explants. Finally, Spag6 mutant SGNs were more sensitive to the microtubule stabilizing agent, paclitaxel. These findings suggest that Spag6 plays a crucial role in SGN development and function.