Top-down protein identification of proteasome proteins with nanoLC-FT-ICR-MS employing data-independent fragmentation methods.
ABSTRACT: A comparison of different data-independent fragmentation methods combined with LC coupled to high-resolution FT-ICR-MS/MS is presented for top-down MS of protein mixtures. Proteins composing the 20S and 19S proteasome complexes and their PTMs were identified using a 15 T FT-ICR mass spectrometer. The data-independent fragmentation modes with LC timescales allowed for higher duty-cycle measurements that better suit online LC-FT-ICR-MS. Protein top-down dissociation was effected by funnel-skimmer collisionally activated dissociation (FS-CAD) and CASI (continuous accumulation of selected ions)-CAD. The N-termini for 9 of the 14 20S proteasome proteins were found to be modified, and the ?3 protein was found to be phosphorylated; these results are consistent with previous reports. Mass-measurement accuracy with the LC-FT-ICR system for the 20- to 30-kDa 20S proteasome proteins was 1 ppm. The intact mass of the 100-kDa Rpn1 subunit from the 19S proteasome complex regulatory particle was measured with a deviation of 17 ppm. The CASI-CAD technique is a complementary tool for intact-protein fragmentation and is an effective addition to the growing inventory of dissociation methods that are compatible with online protein separation coupled to FT-ICR-MS.
Project description:Proteasome-mediated proteolysis is important for many basic cellular processes. In addition to their functions in the cell, proteasomes have been found in physiological fluids of both healthy and diseased humans including cancer patients. Higher levels of these proteasomes are associated with higher cancer burden and stage. The etiology and functions of these proteasomes, referred to as circulating, plasmatic, or extracellular proteasomes (ex-PSs), are unclear. Here we show that human cancer cell lines, as well as human endometrium-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hMESCs), release proteasome complexes into culture medium (CM). To define ex-PS composition, we have affinity purified them from CM conditioned by human leukemia cell line K562. Using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) mass spectrometry (MS), we have identified core 20S proteasome subunits and a set of 15 proteasome-interacting proteins (PIPs), all previously described as exosome cargo proteins. Three of them, PPIase A, aldolase A, and transferrin, have never been reported as PIPs. The study provides compelling arguments that ex-PSs do not contain 19S or PA200 regulatory particles and are represented exclusively by the 20S complex.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Plant extracts are a reservoir of pharmacologically active substances; however, conventional analytical methods can analyze only a small portion of an extract. Here, we report a high-throughput analytical method capable of determining most phytochemicals in a plant extract and of providing their molecular formulae from a single experiment using ultra-high-resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (UHR ESI MS). UHR mass profiling was used to analyze natural compounds in a 70% ethanol ginseng extract, which was directly infused into a 15 T Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) mass spectrometer for less than 10 min without a separation process.<h4>Results</h4>The UHR FT-ICR MS yielded a mass accuracy of 0.5 ppm and a mass resolving power (m/?m) of 1,000,000-270,000 for the range m/z 290-1,100. The mass resolution was sufficient to resolve the isotopic fine structure (IFS) of many compounds in the extract. After noise removal from 1,552 peaks, 405 compounds were detected. The molecular formulae of 123 compounds, including 33 ginsenosides, were determined using the observed IFS, exact monoisotopic mass, and exact mass difference. Liquid chromatography (LC)/FT-ICR MS of the extract was performed to compare the high-throughput performance of UHR ESI FT-ICR MS. The LC/FT-ICR MS detected only 129 compounds, including 19 ginsenosides. The result showed that UHR ESI FT-ICR MS identified three times more compounds than LC/FT-ICR MS and in a relatively shorter time. The molecular formula determination by UHR FT-ICR MS was validated by LC and tandem MS analyses of three known ginsenosides.<h4>Conclusions</h4>UHR mass profiling of a plant extract by 15 T FT-ICR MS showed that multiple compounds were simultaneously detected and their molecular formulae were decisively determined by a single experiment with ultra-high mass resolution and mass accuracy. Simultaneous molecular determination of multiple natural products by UHR ESI FT-ICR MS would be a powerful method to profile a wide range of natural compounds.
Project description:This study examined the hypothesis that 26S proteasome dysfunction in human end-stage heart failure is associated with decreased docking of the 19S regulatory particle to the 20S proteasome. Previous studies have demonstrated that 26S proteasome activity is diminished in human end-stage heart failure associated with oxidation of the 19S regulatory particle Rpt5 subunit. Docking of the 19S regulatory particle to the 20S proteasome requires functional Rpt subunit ATPase activity and phosphorylation of the ?-type subunits.An enriched proteasome fraction was prepared from 7 human nonfailing and 10 failing heart explants. Native gel electrophoresis assessed docking of 19S to 20S proteasome revealing 3 proteasome populations (20S, 26S, and 30S proteasomes). In failing hearts, 30S proteasomes were significantly lower (P=0.048) by 37% suggesting diminished docking. Mass spectrometry-based phosphopeptide analysis demonstrated that the relative ratio of phosphorylated:non phosphorylated ?7 subunit (serine250) of the 20S proteasome was significantly less (P=0.011) by almost 80% in failing hearts. Rpt ATPase activity was determined in the enriched fraction and after immunoprecipitation with an Rpt6 antibody. ATPase activity (?mol PO4/?g protein per hour) of the total fraction was lowered from 291±97 to 194±27 and in the immunoprecipitated fraction from 42±12 to 3±2 (P=0.005) in failing hearts.These studies suggest that diminished 26S activity in failing human hearts may be related to impaired docking of the 19S to the 20S as a result of decreased Rpt subunit ATPase activity and ?7 subunit phosphorylation.
Project description:Successful high-throughput characterization of intact proteins from complex biological samples by mass spectrometry requires instrumentation capable of high mass resolving power, mass accuracy, sensitivity, and spectral acquisition rate. These limitations often necessitate the performance of hundreds of LC-MS/MS experiments to obtain reasonable coverage of the targeted proteome, which is still typically limited to molecular weights below 30 kDa. The National High Magnetic Field Laboratory (NHMFL) recently installed a 21 T FT-ICR mass spectrometer, which is part of the NHMFL FT-ICR User Facility and available to all qualified users. Here we demonstrate top-down LC-21 T FT-ICR MS/MS of intact proteins derived from human colorectal cancer cell lysate. We identified a combined total of 684 unique protein entries observed as 3238 unique proteoforms at a 1% false discovery rate, based on rapid, data-dependent acquisition of collision-induced and electron-transfer dissociation tandem mass spectra from just 40 LC-MS/MS experiments. Our identifications included 372 proteoforms with molecular weights over 30 kDa detected at isotopic resolution, which substantially extends the accessible mass range for high-throughput top-down LC-MS/MS.
Project description:The 26S proteasome plays an essential role in regulating many cellular processes by the degradation of proteins targeted for breakdown by ubiquitin conjugation. The 26S complex is formed from the 20S core, which contains the proteolytic active sites, and 19S regulatory complexes, which bind to the 20S core to activate it and confer specificity for ubiquitinated protein substrates. We have determined the structure of the human 26S proteasome by electron microscopy and single particle analysis. In our reconstructions the crystallographic structure of each of the subunits of the 20S core can be unambiguously docked by direct recognition of each of their densities. Our results show for the first time that binding of the 19S regulatory particle results in the radial displacement of the adjacent subunits of the 20S core leading to opening of a wide channel into the proteolytic chamber. The analysis of a proteasome complex formed from one 20S core with a single 19S regulatory particle attached serve as control to our observations. We suggest locations for some of the 19S regulatory particle subunits.
Project description:The 26S proteasome, composed of the 20S core and the 19S regulatory complex, plays a central role in ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis by catalyzing degradation of polyubiquitinated proteins. In a search for proteins involved in regulation of the proteasome, we affinity purified the 19S regulatory complex from HeLa cells and identified a novel protein of 43 kDa in size as an associated protein. Immunoprecipitation analyses suggested that this protein specifically interacted with the proteasomal ATPases. Hence the protein was named proteasomal ATPase-associated factor 1 (PAAF1). Immunoaffinity purification of PAAF1 confirmed its interaction with the 19S regulatory complex and further showed that the 19S regulatory complex bound with PAAF1 was not stably associated with the 20S core. Overexpression of PAAF1 in HeLa cells decreased the level of the 20S core associated with the 19S complex in a dose-dependent fashion, suggesting that PAAF1 binding to proteasomal ATPases inhibited the assembly of the 26S proteasome. Proteasomal degradation assays using reporters based on green fluorescent protein revealed that overexpression of PAAF1 inhibited the proteasome activity in vivo. Furthermore, the suppression of PAAF1 expression that is mediated by small inhibitory RNA enhanced the proteasome activity. These results suggest that PAAF1 functions as a negative regulator of the proteasome by controlling the assembly/disassembly of the proteasome.
Project description:The 20S proteasome is the main protease that directly targets intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) for proteolytic degradation. Mutations, oxidative stress, or aging can induce the buildup of IDPs resulting in incorrect signaling or aggregation, associated with the pathogenesis of many cancers and neurodegenerative diseases. Drugs that facilitate 20S-mediated proteolysis therefore have many potential therapeutic applications. We report herein the modulation of proteasome assembly by the small molecule TCH-165, resulting in an increase in 20S levels. The increase in the level of free 20S corresponds to enhanced proteolysis of IDPs, including ?-synuclein, tau, ornithine decarboxylase, and c-Fos, but not structured proteins. Clearance of ubiquitinated protein was largely maintained by single capped proteasome complexes (19S-20S), but accumulation occurs when all 19S capped proteasome complexes are depleted. This study illustrates the first example of a small molecule capable of targeting disordered proteins for degradation by regulating the dynamic equilibrium between different proteasome complexes.
Project description:Studies on alcoholic liver injury mechanisms show a significant inhibition of the proteasome activity. To investigate this phenomenon, we isolated proteasome complexes from the liver of rats fed ethanol chronically, and from the liver of their pair-fed controls, using a non-denaturing multiple centrifugations procedure to preserve proteasome-interacting proteins (PIPs). ICAT and MS/MS spectral counting, further confirmed by Western blot, showed that the levels of several PIPs were significantly decreased in the isolated ethanol proteasome fractions. This was the case of PA28alpha/beta proteasome activator subunits, and of three proteasome-associated deubiquitinases, Rpn11, ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase 14, and ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase L5. Interestingly, Rpn13 C-terminal end was missing in the ethanol proteasome fraction, which probably altered the linking of ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase L5 to the proteasome. 20S proteasome and most 19S subunits were however not changed but Ecm29, a protein known to stabilize the interactions between the 20S and its activators, was decreased in the isolated ethanol proteasome fractions. It is proposed that ethanol metabolism causes proteasome inhibition by several mechanisms, including by altering PIPs and proteasome regulatory complexes binding to the proteasome.
Project description:Cells need to synthesize and degrade proteins consistently. Maintaining a balanced level of protein in the cell requires a carefully controlled system and significant energy. Degradation of unwanted or damaged proteins into smaller peptide units can be accomplished by the proteasome. The proteasome is composed of two main subunits. The first is the core particle (20S?CP), and within this core particle are three types of threonine proteases. The second is the regulatory complex (19S?RP), which has a myriad of activities including recognizing proteins marked for degradation and shuttling the protein into the 20S?CP to be degraded. Small-molecule inhibitors of the 20S?CP have been developed and are exceptional treatments for multiple myeloma (MM). 20S?CP inhibitors disrupt the protein balance, leading to cellular stress and eventually to cell death. Unfortunately, the 20S?CP inhibitors currently available have dose-limiting off-target effects and resistance can be acquired rapidly. Herein, we discuss small molecules that have been discovered to interact with the 19S?RP subunit or with a protein closely associated with 19S?RP activity. These molecules still elicit their toxicity by preventing the proteasome from degrading proteins, but do so through different mechanisms of action.
Project description:The proteasome is a validated target in drug discovery for diseases associated with unusual proteasomal activity. Here we report that two diphenyldihaloketones, CLEFMA and EF24, inhibit the peptidase activity of the 26S proteasome. The objective of this study was to investigate interaction of these compounds with the proteasome and identify a putative target within the protein components of the 26S proteasome. We employed standard fluorogenic peptide-based proteasome activity assay for trypsin-like, chymotrypsin-like, and caspase-like activities of human purified 26S proteasome in cell-free conditions. GFPu-1 and HUVEC cells were used as proteasome reporter cells. Direct binding studies used purified 19S, 20S, 26S, and recombinant RPN13-Pru for interaction with biotinylated analogs of CLEFMA and EF24. The reaction mixtures were subjected to horizontal gel electrophoresis, streptavidin-blotting, pull-down assays, and immunoblotting. The identity of the interacting protein was determined by 2D gel electrophoresis and LC-MS/MS. Drug affinity responsive target stability technique was utilized to examine if CLEFMA binding confers protection to RPN13 against thermolysin-catalyzed proteolysis. We found that trypsin-and chymotrypsin-like activities of the 26S proteasome were reduced significantly by both compounds. The compounds also reduced the proteolytic activity in GFPu-1 and HUVEC cells, resulting in accumulation of ubiquitinated proteins without affecting the autophagy process. From direct binding assays a 43 kDa protein in the 26S proteasome was found to be the interacting partner. This protein was identified by tandem mass spectroscopy as regulatory particle subunit 13 (RPN13), a ubiquitin receptor in the 19S regulatory particle. Furthermore, binding of CLEFMA to RPN13 did not protect latter from thermolysin-mediated proteolysis. Together, this study showed diphenyldihaloketones as potential proteasome inhibitors for treatment of diseases with perturbed proteasome function. The results also unraveled RPN13 as a unique target of CLEFMA and EF24. As a result, these compounds inhibit both trypsin-like and chymotrypsin-like proteasome activities.