Deep sequencing of cancer-related genes revealed GNAS mutations to be associated with intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms and its main pancreatic duct dilation.
ABSTRACT: To clarify the genetic mutations associated with intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMN) and IPMN-related pancreatic tumours, we conducted cancer-related gene profiling analyses using pure pancreatic juice and resected pancreatic tissues.Pure pancreatic juice was collected from 152 patients [nine with a normal pancreas, 22 with chronic pancreatitis (CP), 39 with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), and 82 with IPMN], and resected tissues from the pancreas were collected from 48 patients (six IPMNs and 42 PDACs). The extracted DNA was amplified by multiplexed polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting 46 cancer-related genes containing 739 mutational hotspots. The mutations were analysed using a semiconductor-based DNA sequencer.Among the 46 cancer-related genes, KRAS and GNAS mutations were most frequently detected in both PDAC and IPMN cases. In pure pancreatic juice, GNAS mutations were detected in 7.7% of PDAC cases and 41.5% of IPMN cases (p<0.001 vs. others). All PDAC cases with GNAS mutations (n = 3) were accompanied by IPMN. Multivariate analysis revealed that GNAS mutations in IPMN cases were associated with dilated main pancreatic ducts (MPD, p = 0.016), while no statistically independent associations with clinical variables were observed for KRAS mutations. In the resected pancreatic tissues, GNAS mutations were detected in 50% of PDAC cases concomitant with IPMN, 33.3% of PDAC cases derived from IPMN, and 66.7% of IPMN cases, while no GNAS mutations were detected in cases of PDAC without IPMN.The GNAS mutation was specifically found in the cases with IPMN and it was speculated that some PDACs might be influenced by the concomitant but separately-located IPMN in their pathogenic mechanism. Furthermore, the GNAS mutation was significantly associated with MPD dilatation in IPMN cases, suggesting its role in mucus hypersecretion.
Project description:BACKGROUND & AIMS:Mutations at hotspots in GNAS, which encodes stimulatory G-protein, ? subunits, are detected in approximately 60% of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs) of the pancreas. We generated mice with KRAS-induced IPMNs that also express a constitutively active form of GNAS in pancreas and studied tumor development. METHODS:We generated p48-Cre; LSL-KrasG12D; Rosa26R-LSL-rtTA-TetO-GnasR201C mice (Kras;Gnas mice); pancreatic tissues of these mice express activated KRAS and also express a mutant form of GNAS (GNASR201C) upon doxycycline administration. Mice that were not given doxycycline were used as controls, and survival times were compared by Kaplan-Meier analysis. Pancreata were collected at different time points after doxycycline administration and analyzed by histology. Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas (PDACs) were isolated from mice and used to generate cell lines, which were analyzed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, immunoblotting, immunohistochemistry, and colony formation and invasion assays. Full-length and mutant forms of yes-associated protein (YAP) were expressed in PDAC cells. IPMN specimens were obtained from 13 patients with IPMN undergoing surgery and analyzed by immunohistochemistry. RESULTS:All Kras;Gnas mice developed pancreatic cystic lesions that resemble human IPMNs; the grade of epithelial dysplasia increased with time. None of the control mice developed cystic lesions. Approximately one third of Kras;Gnas mice developed PDACs at a median of 30 weeks after doxycycline administration, whereas 33% of control mice developed PDACs. Expression of GNASR201C did not accelerate the development of PDACs compared with control mice. However, the neoplasms observed in Kras;Gnas mice were more differentiated, and expressed more genes associated with ductal phenotypes, than in control mice. PDACs isolated from Kras;Gnas mice had activation of the Hippo pathway; in cells from these tumors, phosphorylated YAP1 was sequestered in the cytoplasm, and this was also observed in human IPMNs with GNAS mutations. Sequestration of YAP1 was not observed in PDAC cells from control mice. CONCLUSIONS:In mice that express activated KRAS in the pancreas, we found expression of GNASR201C to cause development of more differentiated tumors, with gene expression pattern associated with the ductal phenotype. Expression of mutant GNAS caused phosphorylated YAP1 to be sequestered in the cytoplasm, altering tumor progression.
Project description:Pancreatic cysts are commonly detected in patients undergoing pancreatic imaging. Better approaches are needed to characterise these lesions. In this study we evaluated the utility of detecting mutant DNA in secretin-stimulated pancreatic juice.Secretin-stimulated pancreatic juice was collected from the duodenum of 291 subjects enrolled in Cancer of the Pancreas Screening trials at five US academic medical centres. The study population included subjects with a familial predisposition to pancreatic cancer who underwent pancreatic screening, and disease controls with normal pancreata, chronic pancreatitis, sporadic intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) or other neoplasms. Somatic GNAS mutations (reported prevalence ? 66% of IPMNs) were measured using digital high-resolution melt-curve analysis and pyrosequencing.GNAS mutations were detected in secretin-stimulated pancreatic juice samples of 50 of 78 familial and sporadic cases of IPMN(s) (64.1%), 15 of 33 (45.5%) with only diminutive cysts (<5 mm), but none of 57 disease controls. GNAS mutations were also detected in five of 123 screened subjects without a pancreatic cyst. Among 97 subjects who had serial pancreatic evaluations, GNAS mutations detected in baseline juice samples predicted subsequent emergence or increasing size of pancreatic cysts.Duodenal collections of secretin-stimulated pancreatic juice from patients with IPMNs have a similar prevalence of mutant GNAS to primary IPMNs, indicating that these samples are an excellent source of mutant DNA from the pancreas. The detection of GNAS mutations before an IPMN is visible suggests that analysis of pancreatic juice has the potential to help in the risk stratification and surveillance of patients undergoing pancreatic screening.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Secretin-stimulated pancreatic juice contains DNA shed from cells lining the pancreatic ducts. Genetic analysis of this fluid may form a test to detect pancreatic ductal neoplasia. DESIGN:We employed digital next-generation sequencing ('digital NGS') to detect low-abundance mutations in secretin-stimulated juice samples collected from the duodenum of subjects enrolled in Cancer of the Pancreas Screening studies at Johns Hopkins Hospital. For each juice sample, digital NGS necessitated 96 NGS reactions sequencing nine genes. The study population included 115 subjects (53 discovery, 62 validation) (1) with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), (2) intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN), (3) controls with non-suspicious pancreata. RESULTS:Cases with PDAC and IPMN were more likely to have mutant DNA detected in pancreatic juice than controls (both p<0.0001); mutant DNA concentrations were higher in patients with PDAC than IPMN (p=0.003) or controls (p<0.001). TP53 and/or SMAD4 mutations were commonly detected in juice samples from patients with PDAC and were not detected in controls (p<0.0001); mutant TP53/SMAD4 concentrations could distinguish PDAC from IPMN cases with 32.4% sensitivity, 100% specificity (area under the curve, AUC 0.73, p=0.0002) and controls (AUC 0.82, p<0.0001). Two of four patients who developed pancreatic cancer despite close surveillance had SMAD4/TP53 mutations from their cancer detected in juice samples collected over 1?year prior to their pancreatic cancer diagnosis when no suspicious pancreatic lesions were detected by imaging. CONCLUSIONS:The detection in pancreatic juice of mutations important for the progression of low-grade dysplasia to high-grade dysplasia and invasive pancreatic cancer may improve the management of patients undergoing pancreatic screening and surveillance.
Project description:RATIONALE:Intraductal papillary and mucinous neoplasms of the pancreas (IPMN) are preneoplastic lesions diagnosed with an increasing incidence. Recently, several groups have described, in up to 70% of IPMN, activating mutations of the G-protein alpha stimulatory sub-unit (Gs? subunit) gene (GNAS). GNAS-activating somatic, post-zygotic, mutations are also associated with McCune-Albright syndrome (MCAS) characterized by fibrous dysplasia, precocious puberty, and café-au-lait spots. PATIENT CONCERNS:We herein report a patient with McCune Albright Syndrome that presented with malignant IPMN and underwent pancreatic resection. DIAGNOSES AND INTERVENTIONS:Leucocyte and duodenum juice DNA analysis, endoscopically collected from secretin-stimulated pancreatic juice revealed the same (GNAS) activating mutation also found in the invasive pancreatic colloid adenocarcinoma arising from intestinal subtype IPMN. OUTCOMES:Thirty months after surgery, the patient was alive with recurrence (bone only metastasis). LESSONS:In this observation, we show that MCAS should be view as a new genetic predisposition to IPMN associated pancreatic cancer, and consequently a targeted screening in this high-risk population might be proposed.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMN) are being increasingly recognized as important precursors to pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Elucidation of the genetic changes underlying IPMN carcinogenesis may improve the diagnosis and management of IPMN. We sought to determine whether different histologic subtypes of IPMN would exhibit different frequencies of specific genetic mutations. STUDY DESIGN:Patients with resected IPMN-associated invasive carcinoma (IPMN-INV) between 1997 and 2012 were reviewed. Areas of carcinoma, high-grade dysplasia, and low-grade dysplasia were micro-dissected from each pathologic specimen. Targeted, massively parallel sequencing was then performed on a panel of 275 genes (including KRAS, GNAS, and RNF43). RESULTS:Thirty-eight patients with resected IPMN-INV and sufficient tissue for micro-dissection were identified. Median follow-up was 2.6 years. Mutations in GNAS were more prevalent in colloid-type IPMN-INV than tubular-type IPMN-INV (89% vs 32% respectively; p = 0.0003). Conversely, KRAS mutations were more prevalent in tubular-type than colloid-type IPMN-INV (89% vs 52%, respectively; p = 0.01). For noninvasive IPMN subtypes, GNAS mutations were more prevalent in intestinal (74%) compared with pancreatobiliary (31%) and gastric (50%) subtypes (p = 0.02). The presence of these mutations did not vary according to the degree of dysplasia (GNAS: invasive 61%, high-grade 59%, low-grade 53%; KRAS: invasive 71%, high-grade 62%, low-grade 74%), suggesting that mutations in these genes occur early in IPMN carcinogenesis. CONCLUSIONS:Colloid carcinoma associated with IPMN and its intestinal-type preinvasive precursor are associated with high frequencies of GNAS mutations. The mutation profile of tubular carcinoma resembles that of conventional pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Preoperative determination of mutational status may assist with clinical treatment decisions.
Project description:Pancreatic cystic neoplasms (PCNs) are a heterogeneous group with varying risks of malignancy. To explore the clinical utility of liquid biopsy in cyst type classification, we analyzed the GNAS/KRAS mutations in circulating cell-free DNA (cfDNA) obtained from 57 patients with histologically diagnosed PCNs, including 34 with intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs) and compared the mutant allele prevalence and variant patterns with the paired resected specimens using next-generation sequencing. The positive prevalence of GNAS mutations in cfDNA of patients with IPMN (n?=?11, 32%) was significantly higher than that in those with other PCNs (0%, P?=?0.002). Conversely, KRAS mutations were detected in cfDNA of only 2 (6%) IPMN patients. The paired-sample comparison revealed highly concordance between the GNAS mutation status of cfDNA and resected IPMN specimens. Similar distributions of GNAS mutation positivity in cfDNA were observed across the different histological grades, whereas IPMNs with intestinal subtype showed a significantly higher prevalence of GNAS mutations than other subtypes (P?=?0.030). GNAS mutation positivity in cfDNA was significantly associated with the acellular mucin pool of histological findings in primary IPMN lesions (P?=?0.017). Detection of GNAS mutation in cfDNA can serve as a novel biomarker for cyst type classification and differentiation of intestinal subtype IPMN from the other PCNs.
Project description:Mucins (MUC) play crucial roles in carcinogenesis and tumor invasion in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) and intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs). Our immunohistochemistry (IHC) studies have shown a consensus position on mucin expression profiles in pancreatic neoplasms as follows: MUC1-positive but MUC2-negative expression in PDACs; MUC1-negative but MUC2-positive expression in intestinal-type IPMNs (dangerous type); MUC1-negative and MUC2-negative expression in gastric-type IPMNs (safe type); High MUC4 expression in PDAC patients with a poor outcome; and MUC4-positive expression in intestinal-type IPMNs. We also showed that three mucin genes (MUC1, MUC2 and MUC4) expression in cancer cell line was regulated by DNA methylation. We have developed a novel 'methylation-specific electrophoresis (MSE)' method to analyze the DNA methylation status of mucin genes by high sensitivity and resolution. By using the MSE method, we evaluated pancreatic juice samples from 45 patients with various pancreatic lesions. The results were compared with final diagnosis of the pancreatic lesions including IHC of mucin expression in the paired pancreatic tissues. The results indicated that the DNA methylation status of MUC1, MUC2 and MUC4 in pancreatic juice matched with the mucin expression in tissue. Analyses of the DNA methylation status of MUC1, MUC2 and MUC4 were useful for differential diagnosis of human pancreatic neoplasms, with specificity and sensitivity of 87% and 80% for PDAC; 100% and 88% for intestinal-type IPMN; and 88% and 77% for gastric-type IPMN, respectively. In conclusion, MSE analysis of human pancreatic juice may provide useful information for selection of treatment for pancreatic neoplasms.
Project description:Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) is a common pancreatic cystic neoplasm that is often invasive and metastatic, resulting in a poor prognosis. Few molecular alterations unique to IPMN are known. We performed whole-exome sequencing for a primary IPMN tissue, which uncovered somatic mutations in KCNF1, DYNC1H1, PGCP, STAB1, PTPRM, PRPF8, RNASE3, SPHKAP, MLXIPL, VPS13C, PRCC, GNAS, KRAS, RBM10, RNF43, DOCK2, and CENPF. We further analyzed GNAS mutations in archival cases of 118 IPMNs and 32 pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas (PDAs), which revealed that 48 (40.7%) of the 118 IPMNs but none of the 32 PDAs harbored GNAS mutations. G-protein alpha-subunit encoded by GNAS and its downstream targets, phosphorylated substrates of protein kinase A, were evidently expressed in IPMN; the latter was associated with neoplastic grade. These results indicate that GNAS mutations are common and specific for IPMN, and activation of G-protein signaling appears to play a pivotal role in IPMN.
Project description:An intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) is a common pancreatic precursor lesion, and it often harbors mutations in KRAS, GNAS, and RNF43. To clarify the molecular profiles of IPMNs, we conducted mutation analysis of KRAS, GNAS, and RNF43 in 61 IPMN formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) specimens. The mutation rates of codons 12, 13, and 61 in KRAS and codon 201 in GNAS were detected by Sanger sequencing. Next-generation sequencing was performed on RNF43, and the results were further verified by Sanger sequencing. We identified KRAS and GNAS mutations in 35 (57%) and 40 (66%) IPMN cases, respectively. GNAS mutations were significantly correlated with the morphologic subtype (P < 0.001) and were more prevalent in the intestinal subtype (93%) than in the gastric (55%) and pancreatobiliary subtypes (44%) but were absent in the oncocytic subtype. RNF43 mutations were found in 5 cases (8%), all of which occurred in high-grade dysplasia and invasive lesions (2/5 and 3/5). All 5 cases harboring RNF43 mutations also exhibited GNAS mutations. RNF43 mutations were associated with a worse prognosis in invasive IPMN patients (P = 0.002), while KRAS and GNAS mutations did not affect the prognosis of patients.
Project description:More than 2% of the adult U.S. population harbors a pancreatic cyst. These often pose a difficult management problem because conventional criteria cannot always distinguish cysts with malignant potential from those that are innocuous. One of the most common cystic neoplasms of the pancreas, and a bona fide precursor to invasive adenocarcinoma, is called intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN). To help reveal the pathogenesis of these lesions, we purified the DNA from IPMN cyst fluids from 19 patients and searched for mutations in 169 genes commonly altered in human cancers. In addition to the expected KRAS mutations, we identified recurrent mutations at codon 201 of GNAS. A larger number (113) of additional IPMNs were then analyzed to determine the prevalence of KRAS and GNAS mutations. In total, we found that GNAS mutations were present in 66% of IPMNs and that either KRAS or GNAS mutations could be identified in 96%. In eight cases, we could investigate invasive adenocarcinomas that developed in association with IPMNs containing GNAS mutations. In seven of these eight cases, the GNAS mutations present in the IPMNs were also found in the invasive lesion. GNAS mutations were not found in other types of cystic neoplasms of the pancreas or in invasive adenocarcinomas not associated with IPMNs. In addition to defining a new pathway for pancreatic neoplasia, these data suggest that GNAS mutations can inform the diagnosis and management of patients with cystic pancreatic lesions.