Pseudo-Sanger sequencing: massively parallel production of long and near error-free reads using NGS technology.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Usually, next generation sequencing (NGS) technology has the property of ultra-high throughput but the read length is remarkably short compared to conventional Sanger sequencing. Paired-end NGS could computationally extend the read length but with a lot of practical inconvenience because of the inherent gaps. Now that Illumina paired-end sequencing has the ability of read both ends from 600 bp or even 800 bp DNA fragments, how to fill in the gaps between paired ends to produce accurate long reads is intriguing but challenging. RESULTS: We have developed a new technology, referred to as pseudo-Sanger (PS) sequencing. It tries to fill in the gaps between paired ends and could generate near error-free sequences equivalent to the conventional Sanger reads in length but with the high throughput of the Next Generation Sequencing. The major novelty of PS method lies on that the gap filling is based on local assembly of paired-end reads which have overlaps with at either end. Thus, we are able to fill in the gaps in repetitive genomic region correctly. The PS sequencing starts with short reads from NGS platforms, using a series of paired-end libraries of stepwise decreasing insert sizes. A computational method is introduced to transform these special paired-end reads into long and near error-free PS sequences, which correspond in length to those with the largest insert sizes. The PS construction has 3 advantages over untransformed reads: gap filling, error correction and heterozygote tolerance. Among the many applications of the PS construction is de novo genome assembly, which we tested in this study. Assembly of PS reads from a non-isogenic strain of Drosophila melanogaster yields an N50 contig of 190 kb, a 5 fold improvement over the existing de novo assembly methods and a 3 fold advantage over the assembly of long reads from 454 sequencing. CONCLUSIONS: Our method generated near error-free long reads from NGS paired-end sequencing. We demonstrated that de novo assembly could benefit a lot from these Sanger-like reads. Besides, the characteristic of the long reads could be applied to such applications as structural variations detection and metagenomics.
Project description:BACKGROUND: With a whole genome duplication event and wealth of biological data, salmonids are excellent model organisms for studying evolutionary processes, fates of duplicated genes and genetic and physiological processes associated with complex behavioral phenotypes. It is surprising therefore, that no salmonid genome has been sequenced. Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) is a good representative salmonid for sequencing given its importance in aquaculture and the genomic resources available. However, the size and complexity of the genome combined with the lack of a sequenced reference genome from a closely related fish makes assembly challenging. Given the cost and time limitations of Sanger sequencing as well as recent improvements to next generation sequencing technologies, we examined the feasibility of using the Genome Sequencer (GS) FLX pyrosequencing system to obtain the sequence of a salmonid genome. Eight pooled BACs belonging to a minimum tiling path covering approximately 1 Mb of the Atlantic salmon genome were sequenced by GS FLX shotgun and Long Paired End sequencing and compared with a ninth BAC sequenced by Sanger sequencing of a shotgun library. RESULTS: An initial assembly using only GS FLX shotgun sequences (average read length 248.5 bp) with approximately 30x coverage allowed gene identification, but was incomplete even when 126 Sanger-generated BAC-end sequences (approximately 0.09x coverage) were incorporated. The addition of paired end sequencing reads (additional approximately 26x coverage) produced a final assembly comprising 175 contigs assembled into four scaffolds with 171 gaps. Sanger sequencing of the ninth BAC (approximately 10.5x coverage) produced nine contigs and two scaffolds. The number of scaffolds produced by the GS FLX assembly was comparable to Sanger-generated sequencing; however, the number of gaps was much higher in the GS FLX assembly. CONCLUSION: These results represent the first use of GS FLX paired end reads for de novo sequence assembly. Our data demonstrated that this improved the GS FLX assemblies; however, with respect to de novo sequencing of complex genomes, the GS FLX technology is limited to gene mining and establishing a set of ordered sequence contigs. Currently, for a salmonid reference sequence, it appears that a substantial portion of sequencing should be done using Sanger technology.
Project description:Next-Generation-Sequencing is advantageous because of its much higher data throughput and much lower cost compared with the traditional Sanger method. However, NGS reads are shorter than Sanger reads, making de novo genome assembly very challenging. Because genome assembly is essential for all downstream biological studies, great efforts have been made to enhance the completeness of genome assembly, which requires the presence of long reads or long distance information. To improve de novo genome assembly, we develop a computational program, ARF-PE, to increase the length of Illumina reads. ARF-PE takes as input Illumina paired-end (PE) reads and recovers the original DNA fragments from which two ends the paired reads are obtained. On the PE data of four bacteria, ARF-PE recovered >87% of the DNA fragments and achieved >98% of perfect DNA fragment recovery. Using Velvet, SOAPdenovo, Newbler, and CABOG, we evaluated the benefits of recovered DNA fragments to genome assembly. For all four bacteria, the recovered DNA fragments increased the assembly contiguity. For example, the N50 lengths of the P. brasiliensis contigs assembled by SOAPdenovo and Newbler increased from 80,524 bp to 166,573 bp and from 80,655 bp to 193,388 bp, respectively. ARF-PE also increased assembly accuracy in many cases. On the PE data of two fungi and a human chromosome, ARF-PE doubled and tripled the N50 length. However, the assembly accuracies dropped, but still remained >91%. In general, ARF-PE can increase both assembly contiguity and accuracy for bacterial genomes. For complex eukaryotic genomes, ARF-PE is promising because it raises assembly contiguity. But future error correction is needed for ARF-PE to also increase the assembly accuracy. ARF-PE is freely available at http://126.96.36.199/~tliu/arf-pe/.
Project description:Whole genome sequence construction is becoming increasingly feasible because of advances in next generation sequencing (NGS), including increasing throughput and read length. By simply overlapping paired-end reads, we can obtain longer reads with higher accuracy, which can facilitate the assembly process. However, the influences of different library sizes and assembly methods on paired-end sequencing-based de novo assembly remain poorly understood.We used 250 bp Illumina Miseq paired-end reads of different library sizes generated from genomic DNA from Escherichia coli DH1 and Streptococcus parasanguinis FW213 to compare the assembly results of different library sizes and assembly approaches. Our data indicate that overlapping paired-end reads can increase read accuracy but sometimes cause insertion or deletions. Regarding genome assembly, merged reads only outcompete original paired-end reads when coverage depth is low, and larger libraries tend to yield better assembly results. These results imply that distance information is the most critical factor during assembly. Our results also indicate that when depth is sufficiently high, assembly from subsets can sometimes produce better results.In summary, this study provides systematic evaluations of de novo assembly from paired end sequencing data. Among the assembly strategies, we find that overlapping paired-end reads is not always beneficial for bacteria genome assembly and should be avoided or used with caution especially for genomes containing high fraction of repetitive sequences. Because increasing numbers of projects aim at bacteria genome sequencing, our study provides valuable suggestions for the field of genomic sequence construction.
Project description:Traditional approaches for sequencing insertion ends of bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries are laborious and expensive, which are currently some of the bottlenecks limiting a better understanding of the genomic features of auto- or allopolyploid species. Here, we developed a highly efficient and low-cost BAC end analysis protocol, named BAC-anchor, to identify paired-end reads containing large internal gaps. Our approach mainly focused on the identification of high-throughput sequencing reads carrying restriction enzyme cutting sites and searching for large internal gaps based on the mapping locations of both ends of the reads. We sequenced and analysed eight libraries containing over 3 200 000 BAC end clones derived from the BAC library of the tetraploid potato cultivar C88 digested with two restriction enzymes, Cla I and Mlu I. About 25% of the BAC end reads carrying cutting sites generated a 60-100 kb internal gap in the potato DM reference genome, which was consistent with the mapping results of Sanger sequencing of the BAC end clones and indicated large differences between autotetraploid and haploid genotypes in potato. A total of 5341 Cla I- and 165 Mlu I-derived unique reads were distributed on different chromosomes of the DM reference genome and could be used to establish a physical map of target regions and assemble the C88 genome. The reads that matched different chromosomes are especially significant for the further assembly of complex polyploid genomes. Our study provides an example of analysing high-coverage BAC end libraries with low sequencing cost and is a resource for further genome sequencing studies.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The possibilities offered by next generation sequencing (NGS) platforms are revolutionizing biotechnological laboratories. Moreover, the combination of NGS sequencing and affordable high-throughput genotyping technologies is facilitating the rapid discovery and use of SNPs in non-model species. However, this abundance of sequences and polymorphisms creates new software needs. To fulfill these needs, we have developed a powerful, yet easy-to-use application. RESULTS: The ngs_backbone software is a parallel pipeline capable of analyzing Sanger, 454, Illumina and SOLiD (Sequencing by Oligonucleotide Ligation and Detection) sequence reads. Its main supported analyses are: read cleaning, transcriptome assembly and annotation, read mapping and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) calling and selection. In order to build a truly useful tool, the software development was paired with a laboratory experiment. All public tomato Sanger EST reads plus 14.2 million Illumina reads were employed to test the tool and predict polymorphism in tomato. The cleaned reads were mapped to the SGN tomato transcriptome obtaining a coverage of 4.2 for Sanger and 8.5 for Illumina. 23,360 single nucleotide variations (SNVs) were predicted. A total of 76 SNVs were experimentally validated, and 85% were found to be real. CONCLUSIONS: ngs_backbone is a new software package capable of analyzing sequences produced by NGS technologies and predicting SNVs with great accuracy. In our tomato example, we created a highly polymorphic collection of SNVs that will be a useful resource for tomato researchers and breeders. The software developed along with its documentation is freely available under the AGPL license and can be downloaded from http://bioinf.comav.upv.es/ngs_backbone/ or http://github.com/JoseBlanca/franklin.
Project description:We describe a new algorithm, meraculous, for whole genome assembly of deep paired-end short reads, and apply it to the assembly of a dataset of paired 75-bp Illumina reads derived from the 15.4 megabase genome of the haploid yeast Pichia stipitis. More than 95% of the genome is recovered, with no errors; half the assembled sequence is in contigs longer than 101 kilobases and in scaffolds longer than 269 kilobases. Incorporating fosmid ends recovers entire chromosomes. Meraculous relies on an efficient and conservative traversal of the subgraph of the k-mer (deBruijn) graph of oligonucleotides with unique high quality extensions in the dataset, avoiding an explicit error correction step as used in other short-read assemblers. A novel memory-efficient hashing scheme is introduced. The resulting contigs are ordered and oriented using paired reads separated by ?280 bp or ?3.2 kbp, and many gaps between contigs can be closed using paired-end placements. Practical issues with the dataset are described, and prospects for assembling larger genomes are discussed.
Project description:The highly anticipated transition from next generation sequencing (NGS) to third generation sequencing (3GS) has been difficult primarily due to high error rates and excessive sequencing cost. The high error rates make the assembly of long erroneous reads of large genomes challenging because existing software solutions are often overwhelmed by error correction tasks. Here we report a hybrid assembly approach that simultaneously utilizes NGS and 3GS data to address both issues. We gain advantages from three general and basic design principles: (i) Compact representation of the long reads leads to efficient alignments. (ii) Base-level errors can be skipped; structural errors need to be detected and corrected. (iii) Structurally correct 3GS reads are assembled and polished. In our implementation, preassembled NGS contigs are used to derive the compact representation of the long reads, motivating an algorithmic conversion from a de Bruijn graph to an overlap graph, the two major assembly paradigms. Moreover, since NGS and 3GS data can compensate for each other, our hybrid assembly approach reduces both of their sequencing requirements. Experiments show that our software is able to assemble mammalian-sized genomes orders of magnitude more quickly than existing methods without consuming a lot of memory, while saving about half of the sequencing cost.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Illumina paired-end reads are used to analyse microbial communities by targeting amplicons of the 16S rRNA gene. Publicly available tools are needed to assemble overlapping paired-end reads while correcting mismatches and uncalled bases; many errors could be corrected to obtain higher sequence yields using quality information. RESULTS: PANDAseq assembles paired-end reads rapidly and with the correction of most errors. Uncertain error corrections come from reads with many low-quality bases identified by upstream processing. Benchmarks were done using real error masks on simulated data, a pure source template, and a pooled template of genomic DNA from known organisms. PANDAseq assembled reads more rapidly and with reduced error incorporation compared to alternative methods. CONCLUSIONS: PANDAseq rapidly assembles sequences and scales to billions of paired-end reads. Assembly of control libraries showed a 4-50% increase in the number of assembled sequences over naïve assembly with negligible loss of "good" sequence.
Project description:Many genomes have been sequenced to high-quality draft status using Sanger capillary electrophoresis and/or newer short-read sequence data and whole genome assembly techniques. However, even the best draft genomes contain gaps and other imperfections due to limitations in the input data and the techniques used to build draft assemblies. Sequencing biases, repetitive genomic features, genomic polymorphism, and other complicating factors all come together to make some regions difficult or impossible to assemble. Traditionally, draft genomes were upgraded to "phase 3 finished" status using time-consuming and expensive Sanger-based manual finishing processes. For more facile assembly and automated finishing of draft genomes, we present here an automated approach to finishing using long-reads from the Pacific Biosciences RS (PacBio) platform. Our algorithm and associated software tool, PBJelly, (publicly available at https://sourceforge.net/projects/pb-jelly/) automates the finishing process using long sequence reads in a reference-guided assembly process. PBJelly also provides "lift-over" co-ordinate tables to easily port existing annotations to the upgraded assembly. Using PBJelly and long PacBio reads, we upgraded the draft genome sequences of a simulated Drosophila melanogaster, the version 2 draft Drosophila pseudoobscura, an assembly of the Assemblathon 2.0 budgerigar dataset, and a preliminary assembly of the Sooty mangabey. With 24× mapped coverage of PacBio long-reads, we addressed 99% of gaps and were able to close 69% and improve 12% of all gaps in D. pseudoobscura. With 4× mapped coverage of PacBio long-reads we saw reads address 63% of gaps in our budgerigar assembly, of which 32% were closed and 63% improved. With 6.8× mapped coverage of mangabey PacBio long-reads we addressed 97% of gaps and closed 66% of addressed gaps and improved 19%. The accuracy of gap closure was validated by comparison to Sanger sequencing on gaps from the original D. pseudoobscura draft assembly and shown to be dependent on initial reference quality.
Project description:MOTIVATION:Rapid advances in next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology have led to exponential increase in the amount of genomic information. However, NGS reads contain far more errors than data from traditional sequencing methods, and downstream genomic analysis results can be improved by correcting the errors. Unfortunately, all the previous error correction methods required a large amount of memory, making it unsuitable to process reads from large genomes with commodity computers. RESULTS:We present a novel algorithm that produces accurate correction results with much less memory compared with previous solutions. The algorithm, named BLoom-filter-based Error correction Solution for high-throughput Sequencing reads (BLESS), uses a single minimum-sized Bloom filter, and is also able to tolerate a higher false-positive rate, thus allowing us to correct errors with a 40× memory usage reduction on average compared with previous methods. Meanwhile, BLESS can extend reads like DNA assemblers to correct errors at the end of reads. Evaluations using real and simulated reads showed that BLESS could generate more accurate results than existing solutions. After errors were corrected using BLESS, 69% of initially unaligned reads could be aligned correctly. Additionally, de novo assembly results became 50% longer with 66% fewer assembly errors. AVAILABILITY AND IMPLEMENTATION:Freely available at http://sourceforge.net/p/bless-ec CONTACT:email@example.com SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION:Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.