Critical role for NAD glycohydrolase in regulation of erythropoiesis by hematopoietic stem cells through control of intracellular NAD content.
ABSTRACT: NAD glycohydrolases (NADases) catalyze the hydrolysis of NAD to ADP-ribose and nicotinamide. Although many members of the NADase family, including ADP-ribosyltransferases, have been cloned and characterized, the structure and function of NADases with pure hydrolytic activity remain to be elucidated. Here, we report the structural and functional characterization of a novel NADase from rabbit reticulocytes. The novel NADase is a glycosylated, glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored cell surface protein exclusively expressed in reticulocytes. shRNA-mediated knockdown of the NADase in bone marrow cells resulted in a reduction of erythroid colony formation and an increase in NAD level. Furthermore, treatment of bone marrow cells with NAD, nicotinamide, or nicotinamide riboside, which induce an increase in NAD content, resulted in a significant decrease in erythroid progenitors. These results indicate that the novel NADase may play a critical role in regulating erythropoiesis of hematopoietic stem cells by modulating intracellular NAD.
Project description:NAD+ glycohydrolase (NADase; EC 220.127.116.11) is an enzyme that catalyses hydrolysis of NAD+ to produce ADP-ribose and nicotinamide. Its physiological role and the regulation of its enzymic activity have not been fully elucidated. In the present study, the mechanism of self-inactivation of NADase by its substrate, NAD+, was investigated by using intact rabbit erythrocytes and purified NADase. Our results suggest that inactivation of NADase was due an auto-ADP-ribosylation reaction. ADP-ribosylated NADase of rabbit erythrocytes was deADP-ribosylated when incubated without NAD+, and thus enzyme activity was simultaneously restored. These findings suggest that reversible auto-ADP-ribosylation of NADase might regulate the enzyme's activity in vivo.
Project description:HvnA and HvnB are proteins secreted by Vibrio fischeri ES114, an extracellular light organ symbiont of the squid Euprymna scolopes, that catalyze the transfer of ADP-ribose from NAD(+) to polyarginine. Based on this activity, HvnA and HvnB were presumptively designated mono-ADP-ribosyltransferases (ARTases), and it was hypothesized that they mediate bacterium-host signaling. We have cloned hvnA and hvnB from strain ES114. hvnA appears to be expressed as part of a four-gene operon, whereas hvnB is monocistronic. The predicted HvnA and HvnB amino acid sequences are 46% identical to one another and share 44% and 34% identity, respectively, with an open reading frame present in the Pseudomonas aeruginosa genome. Four lines of evidence indicate that HvnA and HvnB mediate polyarginine ADP-ribosylation not by ARTase activity, but indirectly through an NAD(+)-glycohydrolase (NADase) activity that releases free, reactive, ADP-ribose: (i) like other NADases, and in contrast to the ARTase cholera toxin, HvnA and HvnB catalyzed ribosylation of not only polyarginine but also polylysine and polyhistidine, and ribosylation was inhibited by hydroxylamine; (ii) HvnA and HvnB cleaved 1, N(6)-etheno-NAD(+) and NAD(+); (iii) incubation of HvnA and HvnB with [(32)P]NAD(+) resulted in the production of ADP-ribose; and (iv) purified HvnA displayed an NADase V(max) of 400 mol min(-1) mol(-1), which is within the range reported for other NADases and 10(2)- to 10(4)-fold higher than the minor NADase activity reported in bacterial ARTase toxins. Construction and analysis of an hvnA hvnB mutant revealed no other NADase activity in culture supernatants of V. fischeri, and this mutant initiated the light organ symbiosis and triggered regression of the light organ ciliated epithelium in a manner similar to that for the wild type.
Project description:NAD glycohydrolase (EC 18.104.22.168) (NADase) sequences have been identified in 10 elapid and crotalid venom gland transcriptomes, eight of which are complete. These sequences show very high homology, but elapid and crotalid sequences also display consistent differences. As in Aplysia kurodai ADP-ribosyl cyclase and vertebrate CD38 genes, snake venom NADase genes comprise eight exons; however, in the Protobothrops mucrosquamatus genome, the sixth exon is sometimes not transcribed, yielding a shortened NADase mRNA that encodes all six disulfide bonds, but an active site that lacks the catalytic glutamate residue. The function of this shortened protein, if expressed, is unknown. While many vertebrate CD38s are multifunctional, liberating both ADP-ribose and small quantities of cyclic ADP-ribose (cADPR), snake venom CD38 homologs are dedicated NADases. They possess the invariant TLEDTL sequence (residues 144-149) that bounds the active site and the catalytic residue, Glu228. In addition, they possess a disulfide bond (Cys121-Cys202) that specifically prevents ADP-ribosyl cyclase activity in combination with Ile224, in lieu of phenylalanine, which is requisite for ADPR cyclases. In concert with venom phosphodiesterase and 5'-nucleotidase and their ecto-enzyme homologs in prey tissues, snake venom NADases comprise part of an envenomation strategy to liberate purine nucleosides, and particularly adenosine, in the prey, promoting prey immobilization via hypotension and paralysis.
Project description:The present investigation identifies bovine liver mitochondrial NADase (NAD+ glycohydrolase) as a member of the class of bifunctional ADP-ribosyl cyclases/cyclic ADP-ribose hydrolases, known to be potential second messenger enzymes. These enzymes catalyse the synthesis and degradation of cyclic ADP-ribose, a potent intracellular calcium-mobilizing agent. The mitochondrial enzyme utilized the NAD+ analogues nicotinamide guanine dinucleotide (NGD+) and nicotinamide hypoxanthine dinucleotide (NHD+) to form fluorescent cyclic purine nucleoside diphosphoriboses. ADP-ribosyl cyclase activity was also demonstrated using 32P-labelled NAD+ as substrate. The identity of NADase and ADP-ribosyl cyclase was supported by their co-migration in SDS/polyacrylamide gels. Cyclase activity was visualized directly within the gel by detecting the formation of fluorescent cyclic IDP-ribose from NHD+. The enzyme catalysed the hydrolysis of cyclic ADP-ribose to ADP-ribose. Moreover, in the presence of nicotinamide and cyclic ADP-ribose the enzyme synthesized NAD+. Both the ADP-ribosyl cyclase and NADase activities of the enzyme were strongly inhibited by reducing agents. Treatment of the NADase with dithiothreitol caused the apparent inactivation of the enzyme. Subsequent removal of the reducing agent and addition of oxidized glutathione led to a partial recovery of enzymic activity. The results support a model for pro-oxidant-induced calcium release from mitochondria involving cyclic ADP-ribose as a specific messenger, rather than the non-enzymic modification of proteins by ADP-ribose.
Project description:Plant nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeat (NLR) immune receptors activate cell death and confer disease resistance by unknown mechanisms. We demonstrate that plant Toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) domains of NLRs are enzymes capable of degrading nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide in its oxidized form (NAD+). Both cell death induction and NAD+ cleavage activity of plant TIR domains require known self-association interfaces and a putative catalytic glutamic acid that is conserved in both bacterial TIR NAD+-cleaving enzymes (NADases) and the mammalian SARM1 (sterile alpha and TIR motif containing 1) NADase. We identify a variant of cyclic adenosine diphosphate ribose as a biomarker of TIR enzymatic activity. TIR enzymatic activity is induced by pathogen recognition and functions upstream of the genes enhanced disease susceptibility 1 (EDS1) and N requirement gene 1 (NRG1), which encode regulators required for TIR immune function. Thus, plant TIR-NLR receptors require NADase function to transduce recognition of pathogens into a cell death response.
Project description:Axonal degeneration is an early and prominent feature of many neurological disorders. SARM1 is the central executioner of the axonal degeneration pathway that culminates in depletion of axonal NAD+, yet the identity of the underlying NAD+-depleting enzyme(s) is unknown. Here, in a series of experiments using purified proteins from mammalian cells, bacteria, and a cell-free protein translation system, we show that the SARM1-TIR domain itself has intrinsic NADase activity-cleaving NAD+ into ADP-ribose (ADPR), cyclic ADPR, and nicotinamide, with nicotinamide serving as a feedback inhibitor of the enzyme. Using traumatic and vincristine-induced injury models in neurons, we demonstrate that the NADase activity of full-length SARM1 is required in axons to promote axonal NAD+ depletion and axonal degeneration after injury. Hence, the SARM1 enzyme represents a novel therapeutic target for axonopathies. Moreover, the widely utilized TIR domain is a protein motif that can possess enzymatic activity.
Project description:Short telomeres are a principal defining feature of telomere biology disorders, such as dyskeratosis congenita (DC), for which there are no effective treatments. Here, we report that primary fibroblasts from DC patients and late generation telomerase knockout mice display lower nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) levels, and an imbalance in the NAD metabolome that includes elevated CD38 NADase and reduced poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase and SIRT1 activities, respectively, affecting many associated biological pathways. Supplementation with the NAD precursor, nicotinamide riboside, and CD38 inhibition improved NAD homeostasis, thereby alleviating telomere damage, defective mitochondrial biosynthesis and clearance, cell growth retardation, and cellular senescence of DC fibroblasts. These findings reveal a direct, underlying role of NAD dysregulation when telomeres are short and underscore its relevance to the pathophysiology and interventions of human telomere-driven diseases.
Project description:Apart from its vital function as a redox cofactor, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+ ) has emerged as a crucial substrate for NAD+ -consuming enzymes, including poly(ADP-ribosyl)transferase?1 (PARP1) and CD38/CD157. Their association with severe diseases, such as cancer, Alzheimer's disease, and depressions, necessitates the development of new analytical tools based on traceable NAD+ surrogates. Here, the synthesis, photophysics and biochemical utilization of an emissive, thieno[3,4-d]pyrimidine-based NAD+ surrogate, termed Nth AD+ , are described. Its preparation was accomplished by enzymatic conversion of synthetic th ATP by nicotinamide mononucleotide adenylyltransferase?1 (NMNAT1). The new NAD+ analogue possesses useful photophysical features including redshifted absorption and emission maxima as well as a relatively high quantum yield. Serving as a versatile substrate, Nth AD+ was reduced by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) to Nth ADH and afforded th ADP-ribose (th ADPr) upon hydrolysis by NAD+ -nucleosidase (NADase). Furthermore, Nth AD+ was engaged in cholera toxin?A (CTA)-catalyzed mono(th ADP-ribosyl)ation, but was found incapable in promoting PARP1-mediated poly(th ADP-ribosyl)ation. Due to its high photophysical responsiveness, Nth AD+ is suited for spectroscopic real-time monitoring. Intriguingly, and as an N7-lacking NAD+ surrogate, the thieno-based cofactor showed reduced compatibility (i.e., functional similarity compared to native NAD+ ) relative to its isothiazolo-based analogue. The distinct tolerance, displayed by diverse NAD+ producing and consuming enzymes, suggests unique biological recognition features and dependency on the purine N7 moiety, which is found to be of importance, if not essential, for PARP1-mediated reactions.
Project description:Streptococcus pyogenes uses the cytolysin streptolysin O (SLO) to translocate an enzyme, the S.?pyogenes?NAD(+) glycohydrolase (SPN), into the host cell cytosol. However, the function of SPN in this compartment is not known. As a complication, many S.?pyogenes strains express a SPN variant lacking NAD(+) glycohydrolase (NADase) activity. Here, we show that SPN modifies several SLO- and NAD(+) -dependent host cell responses in patterns that correlate with NADase activity. SLO pore formation results in hyperactivation of the cellular enzyme poly-ADP-ribose polymerase-1 (PARP-1) and production of polymers of poly-ADP-ribose (PAR). However, while SPN NADase activity moderates PARP-1 activation and blocks accumulation of PAR, these processes continued unabated in the presence of NADase-inactive SPN. Temporal analyses revealed that while PAR production is initially independent of NADase activity, PAR rapidly disappears in the presence of NADase-active SPN, host cell ATP is depleted and the pro-inflammatory mediator high-mobility group box-1 (HMGB1) protein is released from the nucleus by a PARP-1-dependent mechanism. In contrast, HMGB1 is not released in response to NADase-inactive SPN and instead the cells release elevated levels of interleukin-8 and tumour necrosis factor-?. Thus, SPN and SLO combine to induce cellular responses subsequently influenced by the presence or absence of NADase activity.
Project description:NAD+ glycohydrolase (NADase) and non-enzymic ADP-ribosylation have been thought to be involved in the regulation of mitochondrial Ca2+ fluxes. In this study it was found that several conditions (5 mM nicotinamide, 5 mM 3-aminobenzamide, 2 mM EDTA, 1 mM ATP, 10 mM dithiothreitol) known to strongly inhibit the NADase decreased ADP-ribosylation in bovine liver mitochondrial membranes with [32P]NAD+ as substrate to only a limited extent, if at all. The reaction led to the specific modification of two proteins with apparent molecular masses of approx. 26 and 53 kDa. An excess of added free ADP-ribose diminished the incorporation of label from [32P]NAD+ only slightly. Dithiothreitol inactivated the NADase, whereas ADP-ribosylation was unaffected. At low concentrations (25 microM) ADP-ribosylation was efficient with NAD+, but not ADP-ribose, as substrate. Under these conditions mitochondrial ADP-ribosylation seems to occur as an enzymic reaction rather than a non-enzymic transfer of ADP-ribose previously liberated from NAD+ by NAD+ glycohydrolase. The chemical stability of the protein-ADP-ribose bonds in the mitochondrial membranes indicated that cysteine residues are the predominant acceptors. Moreover, yeast aldehyde dehydrogenase, known to be a substrate for thiol-associated ADP-ribosylation, was efficiently ADP-ribosylated by using the mitochondrial activity and NAD+ as substrate. The modification of a cysteine residue in the aldehyde dehydrogenase was verified by the observation that pretreatment of this acceptor protein with N-ethylmaleimide substantially decreased its modification. It is therefore concluded that bovine liver mitochondria contain a cysteine-specific ADP-ribosyltransferase.