Photoresponsive and gas sensing field-effect transistors based on multilayer WS? nanoflakes.
ABSTRACT: The photoelectrical properties of multilayer WS? nanoflakes including field-effect, photosensitive and gas sensing are comprehensively and systematically studied. The transistors perform an n-type behavior with electron mobility of 12 cm(2)/Vs and exhibit high photosensitive characteristics with response time (?) of <20 ms, photo-responsivity (R?) of 5.7 A/W and external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 1118%. In addition, charge transfer can appear between the multilayer WS? nanoflakes and the physical-adsorbed gas molecules, greatly influencing the photoelectrical properties of our devices. The ethanol and NH? molecules can serve as electron donors to enhance the R? and EQE significantly. Under the NH3 atmosphere, the maximum R? and EQE can even reach 884 A/W and 1.7 × 10(5)%, respectively. This work demonstrates that multilayer WS? nanoflakes possess important potential for applications in field-effect transistors, highly sensitive photodetectors, and gas sensors, and it will open new way to develop two-dimensional (2D) WS?-based optoelectronics.
Project description:This study reports a general methodology for making stable high-performance photosensitive field effect transistors (FET) from self-assembled columns of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by using single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) as point contacts. In particular, the molecules used in this work are liquid crystalline materials of tetra(dodecyloxy)hexabenzocoronenes (HBCs) that are able to self-organize into columnar nanostructures with a diameter similar to that of SWNTs and then form nanoscale columnar transistors. To rule out potential artifacts, 2 different structural approaches were used to construct devices. One approach is to coat thin films of HBCs onto the devices with the SWNT-metal junctions protected by hydrogensilsesquioxane resin (HSQ), and the other is to place a droplet of HBC exactly on the nanogaps of SWNT electrodes. Both types of devices showed typical FET behaviors, indicating that SWNT-molecule-SWNT nanojunctions are responsible for the electrical characteristics of the devices. After thermally annealing the devices, HBC molecules assembled into columnar structures and formed more efficacious transistors with increased current modulation and higher gate efficiency. More interestingly, when the devices were exposed to visible light, photocurrents with an on/off ratio of >3 orders of magnitude were observed. This study demonstrates that stimuli-responsive nanoscale transistors have the potential applications in ultrasensitive devices for environmental sensing and solar energy harvesting.
Project description:Two-dimensional transition-metal dichalcolgenides (2D-TMDs) are among the most intriguing materials for next-generation electronic and optoelectronic devices. Albeit still at the embryonic stage, building thin films by manipulating and stacking preformed 2D nanosheets is now emerging as a practical and cost-effective bottom-up paradigm to obtain excellent electrical properties over large areas. Herein, we exploit the ultrathin morphology and outstanding solution stability of 2D WS<sub>2</sub> colloidal nanocrystals to make thin films of TMDs assembled on a millimetre scale by a layer-by-layer deposition approach. We found that a room-temperature surface treatment with a superacid, performed with the precise scope of removing the native insulating surfactants, promotes in-plane assembly of the colloidal WS<sub>2</sub> nanoflakes into stacks parallel to the substrate, along with healing of sulphur vacancies in the lattice that are detrimental to electrical conductivity. The as-obtained 2D WS<sub>2</sub> thin films, characterized by a smooth and compact morphology, feature a high planar conductivity of up to 1 ?S, comparable to the values reported for epitaxially grown WS<sub>2</sub> monolayers, and enable photocurrent generation upon light irradiation over a wide range of visible to near-infrared frequencies.
Project description:We report a new method for growing hexagonal columnar nanograin structured silicon carbide (SiC) thin films on silicon substrates by using graphene-graphitic carbon nanoflakes (GGNs) templates from solid carbon sources. The growth was carried out in a conventional low pressure chemical vapor deposition system (LPCVD). The GGNs are small plates with lateral sizes of around 100 nm and overlap each other, and are made up of nanosized multilayer graphene and graphitic carbon matrix (GCM). Long and straight SiC nanograins with hexagonal shapes, and with lateral sizes of around 200-400 nm are synthesized on the GGNs, which form compact SiC thin films.
Project description:Photothermal cancer therapy has attracted considerable interest for cancer treatment in recent years, but the effective photothermal agents remain to be explored before this strategy can be applied clinically. In this study, we therefore develop flower-like molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) nanoflakes and investigate their potential for photothermal ablation of cancer cells. MoS2 nanoflakes are synthesized via a facile hydrothermal method and then modified with lipoic acid-terminated polyethylene glycol (LA-PEG), endowing the obtained nanoflakes with high colloidal stability and very low cytotoxicity. Upon irradiation with near infrared (NIR) laser at 808 nm, the nanoflakes showed powerful ability of inducing higher temperature, good photothermal stability and high photothermal conversion efficiency. The in vitro photothermal effects of MoS2-PEG nanoflakes with different concentrations were also evaluated under various power densities of NIR 808-nm laser irradiation, and the results indicated that an effective photothermal killing of cancer cells could be achieved by a low concentration of nanoflakes under a low power NIR 808-nm laser irradiation. Furthermore, cancer cell in vivo could be efficiently destroyed via the photothermal effect of MoS2-PEG nanoflakes under the irradiation. These results thus suggest that the MoS2-PEG nanoflakes would be as promising photothermal agents for future photothermal cancer therapy.
Project description:Recent research interest in two-dimensional (2D) materials has led to an emerging new group of materials known as transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), which have significant electrical, optical, and transport properties. MoS2 is one of the well-known 2D materials in this group, which is a semiconductor with controllable band gap based on its structure. The hydrothermal process is known as one of the scalable methods to synthesize MoS2 nanostructures. In this study, the gas sensing properties of flower-shaped MoS2 nanoflakes, which were prepared from molybdenum trioxide (MoO3) by a facile hydrothermal method, have been studied. Material characterization was performed using X-ray diffraction, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area measurements, elemental analysis using energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and field-emission scanning electron microscopy. The gas sensing characteristics were evaluated under exposure to various concentrations of xylene and methanol vapors. The results reveal higher sensitivity and shorter response times for methanol at temperatures below 200 °C toward 200 to 400 ppm gas concentrations. The sensing mechanisms for both gases are discussed based on simulation results using density functional theory and charge transfer.
Project description:The systematic study of nanoparticle-biological interactions requires particles to be reproducibly dispersed in relevant fluids along with further development in the identification of biologically relevant structural details at the materials-biology interface. Here, we develop a biocompatible long-term colloidally stable water dispersion of few-layered graphene nanoflakes in the biological exposure medium in which it will be studied. We also report the study of the orientation and functionality of key proteins of interest in the biolayer (corona) that are believed to mediate most of the early biological interactions. The evidence accumulated shows that graphene nanoflakes are rich in effective apolipoprotein A-I presentation, and we are able to map specific functional epitopes located in the C-terminal portion that are known to mediate the binding of high-density lipoprotein to binding sites in receptors that are abundant in the liver. This could suggest a way of connecting the materials' properties to the biological outcomes.
Project description:Two-dimensional (2D) transition-metal monochalcogenides have been recently predicted to be potential photo(electro)catalysts for water splitting and photoelectrochemical (PEC) reactions. Differently from the most established InSe, GaSe, GeSe, and many other monochalcogenides, bulk GaS has a large band gap of ∼2.5 eV, which increases up to more than 3.0 eV with decreasing its thickness due to quantum confinement effects. Therefore, 2D GaS fills the void between 2D small-band-gap semiconductors and insulators, resulting of interest for the realization of van der Waals type-I heterojunctions in photocatalysis, as well as the development of UV light-emitting diodes, quantum wells, and other optoelectronic devices. Based on theoretical calculations of the electronic structure of GaS as a function of layer number reported in the literature, we experimentally demonstrate, for the first time, the PEC properties of liquid-phase exfoliated GaS nanoflakes. Our results indicate that solution-processed 2D GaS-based PEC-type photodetectors outperform the corresponding solid-state photodetectors. In fact, the 2D morphology of the GaS flakes intrinsically minimizes the distance between the photogenerated charges and the surface area at which the redox reactions occur, limiting electron-hole recombination losses. The latter are instead deleterious for standard solid-state configurations. Consequently, PEC-type 2D GaS photodetectors display a relevant UV-selective photoresponse. In particular, they attain responsivities of 1.8 mA W<sup>-1</sup> in 1 M H<sub>2</sub>SO<sub>4</sub> [at 0.8 V vs reversible hydrogen electrode (RHE)], 4.6 mA W<sup>-1</sup> in 1 M Na<sub>2</sub>SO<sub>4</sub> (at 0.9 V vs RHE), and 6.8 mA W<sup>-1</sup> in 1 M KOH (at 1.1. V vs RHE) under 275 nm illumination wavelength with an intensity of 1.3 mW cm<sup>-2</sup>. Beyond the photodetector application, 2D GaS-based PEC-type devices may find application in tandem solar PEC cells in combination with other visible-sensitive low-band-gap materials, including transition-metal monochalcogenides recently established for PEC solar energy conversion applications.
Project description:Thin films of MoS2 bilayer nanoflakes, which are predominantly a single flake thick and with flakes in edge-to-edge contact, have been produced via self-assembled tiling at the planar interface between two immiscible liquids. Films of several square centimeters extent can be produced with a total covered area approaching 90% and over 70% of the film covered by single flakes without overlap. Films produced through liquid/liquid assembly are shown to produce a lower uncovered area fraction and more uniform thickness when compared with films of similar areal coverage produced by the "top-down" techniques of spin coating and spray coating. Statistical analysis of flake coverage data, measured by atomic force microscopy (AFM), shows that liquid/liquid assembly produces a distinctly different variation in film thickness than conventional top-down deposition. This supports the hypothesis that the two-dimensional (2D) confinement of liquid/liquid assembly produces more uniform films. Demonstrator field-effect transistors (FETs) manufactured from the films exhibit mobility and on/off current ratios of 0.73 cm2 V-1 s-1 and 105, respectively, comparable to FETs of similar layout and chemical vapor deposition (CVD)-grown or mechanically cleaved single-crystal MoS2 channel material. This work demonstrates the use of liquid/liquid interfaces as a useful tool for the self-assembly of high-performance thin-film devices made from dispersions of 2D materials.
Project description:The ultrathin SmCo5 nanoflakes with average thickness smaller than 50 nm are prepared by a novel method of solid particle (NaCl) and surfactant co-assisted ball milling. The as-prepared nanoflakes exhibit a narrower thickness distribution of 10-50 nm and high coercivity of 23 kOe. The possible formation mechanism of nanoflakes are proposed. Temperature dependence of demagnetization curves indicate that the magnetization reversal may be controlled by both nucleation and pinning. The results of X-ray powder diffraction and magnetic measurement for aligned SmCo5 nanoflakes resin composite indicate that the nanoflakes have a high texture degree. The ultrathin thickness and high coercivity are beneficial for preparing the high performance soft/hard coupling magnets and nanocomposite magnets.
Project description:Biomass-derived carbonaceous constituents constitute fascinating green technology for electrochemical energy-storage devices. In light of this, interconnected mesoporous graphitic carbon nanoflakes were synthesized by utilizing waste green-tea powders through the sequential steps of air-assisted carbonization, followed by potassium hydroxide activation and water treatment. Green-tea waste-derived graphitic carbon displays an interconnected network of aggregated mesoporous nanoflakes. When using the mesoporous graphitic carbon nanoflakes as an anode material for the lithium-ion battery, an initial capacity of ~706 mAh/g and a reversible discharge capacity of ~400 mAh/g are achieved. Furthermore, the device sustains a large coulombic efficiency up to 96% during 100 operation cycles under the applied current density of 0.1 A/g. These findings depict that the bio-generated mesoporous graphitic carbon nanoflakes could be effectively utilized as a high-quality anode material in lithium-ion battery devices.