Exaggerated effects of particulate matter air pollution in genetic type II diabetes mellitus.
ABSTRACT: Prior experimental and epidemiologic data support a link between exposure to fine ambient particulate matter (<2.5 ?m in aerodynamic diameter, PM2.5) and development of insulin resistance/Type II diabetes mellitus. This study was designed to investigate whether inhalational exposure of concentrated PM2.5 in a genetically susceptible animal model would result in abnormalities in energy metabolism and exacerbation of peripheral glycemic control.KKay mice, which are susceptible to Type II DM, were assigned to either concentrated ambient PM2.5 or filtered air (FA) for 5-8 weeks via a whole body exposure system. Glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity, oxygen consumption and heat production were evaluated. At euthanasia, blood, spleen and visceral adipose tissue were collected to measure inflammatory cells using flow cytometry. Standard immnunohistochemical methods, western blotting and quantitative PCR were used to assess targets of interest.PM2.5 exposure influenced energy metabolism including O2 consumption, CO2 production, respiratory exchange ratio and thermogenesis. These changes were accompanied by worsened insulin resistance, visceral adiposity and inflammation in spleen and visceral adipose depots. Plasma adiponectin were decreased in response to PM2.5 exposure while leptin levels increased. PM2.5 exposure resulted in a significant increase in expression of inflammatory genes and decreased UCP1 expression in brown adipose tissue and activated p38 and ERK pathways in the liver of the KKay mice.Concentrated ambient PM2.5 exposure impairs energy metabolism, concomitant with abnormalities in glucose homeostasis, increased inflammation in insulin responsive organs, brown adipose inflammation and results in imbalance in circulating leptin/adiponectin levels in a genetically susceptible diabetic model. These results provide additional insights into the mechanisms surrounding air pollution mediated susceptibility to Type II DM.
Project description:We have previously shown that chronic exposure to ambient fine particulate matter (less than 2.5 ?m in aerodynamic diameter, PM?.?) pollution in conjunction with high-fat diet induces insulin resistance through alterations in inflammatory pathways. In this study, we evaluated the effects of PM?.? exposure over a substantive duration of a rodent's lifespan and focused on the impact of long-term exposure on adipose structure and function. C57BL/6 mice were exposed to PM?.? or filtered air (FA) (6 h/day, 5 days/week) for duration of 10 months in Columbus, OH. At the end of the exposure, PM?.?-exposed mice demonstrated insulin resistance (IR) and a decrease in glucose tolerance compared with the FA-exposed group. Although there were no significant differences in circulating cytokines between PM?.?- and FA-exposed groups, circulating adiponectin and leptin were significantly decreased in PM?.?-exposed group. PM?.? exposure also led to inflammatory response and oxidative stress as evidenced by increase of Nrf2-regulated antioxidant genes. Additionally, PM?.? exposure decreased mitochondrial count in visceral adipose and mitochondrial size in interscapular adipose depots, which were associated with reduction of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) expression and downregulation of brown adipocyte-specific gene profiles. These findings suggest that long-term ambient PM?.? exposure induces impaired glucose tolerance, IR, inflammation, and mitochondrial alteration, and thus, it is a risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes.
Project description:The Kampo medicine bofutsushosan (BTS; Pulvis ledebouriellae compositae; Fang Feng Tong Sheng San) has been used as an anti-obesity treatment in overweight patients. In this study, we assessed the underlying physiological changes induced by BTS in obese mice maintained on a high-fat diet.Male ICR mice were fed a 60% kcal fat diet for 5 weeks starting at 4 weeks of age and then fed the same diet with administration of water (control) or aqueous BTS extract (1.0-2.0 g/kg) for 25 days. Body weight, wet weight of isolated white adipose tissue, and obesity-related serum parameters (glucose, lipids, leptin, adiponectin) were measured after treatment. The mRNA expression levels of leptin, adiponectin, and UCP1 in the adipose tissues were determined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction after the first 5 days of treatment.Bofutsushosan (1.5-2.0 g/kg) significantly decreased total body weight and total wet weight of white adipose tissue isolated from subcutaneous (retroperitoneal) and visceral regions (epididymal, mesenteric, and perirenal). At 2.0 g/kg, BTS also decreased total fat mass, visceral fat mass, and ratio of fat mass to body weight as measured by computed tomography, and significantly decreased epididymal adipocyte size after 14 and 25 days' treatment. Twenty-five days' treatment lowered serum glucose, insulin, leptin, and triglycerides, and reduced homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance. Alternatively, 2.0 g/kg BTS significantly increased mRNA levels of adiponectin, leptin, and UCP1 in interscapular brown adipose tissue but not epididymal white adipose tissue after 5 days' administration.In the early administration period, BTS increased mRNA expression levels of leptin, adiponectin, and UCP1 in brown adipose tissues. With longer administration, BTS improved insulin resistance, and subsequently reduced serum levels of leptin and triglyceride in parallel with decreased visceral white adipose tissue volume and adipocyte size.
Project description:Recent epidemiological studies have suggested a link between exposure to ambient air-pollution and susceptibility to metabolic disorders such as Type II diabetes mellitus. Previously, we provided evidence that both short- and long-term exposure to concentrated ambient particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter <2.5 ?m (PM2.5) induces multiple abnormalities associated with the pathogenesis of Type II diabetes mellitus, including insulin resistance, visceral adipose inflammation, brown adipose mitochondrial adipose changes, and hepatic endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. In this report, we show that chronic inhalation exposure to PM2.5 (10 months exposure) induces macrophage infiltration and Unfolded Protein Response (UPR), an intracellular stress signaling that regulates cell metabolism and survival, in mouse white adipose tissue in vivo. Gene expression studies suggested that PM2.5 exposure induces two distinct UPR signaling pathways mediated through the UPR transducer inositol-requiring 1? (IRE1?): 1) ER-associated Degradation (ERAD) of unfolded or misfolded proteins, and 2) Regulated IRE1-dependent Decay (RIDD) of mRNAs. Along with the induction of the UPR pathways and macrophage infiltration, expression of genes involved in lipogenesis, adipocyte differentiation, and lipid droplet formation was increased in the adipose tissue of the mice exposed to PM2.5. In vitro study confirmed that PM2.5 can trigger phosphorylation of the UPR transducer IRE1? and activation of macrophages. These results provide novel insights into PM2.5-triggered cell stress response in adipose tissue and increase our understanding of pathophysiological effects of particulate air pollution on the development of metabolic disorders.
Project description:Epidemiological studies suggest that fine particulate matter (PM2.5) may increase the risk for developing diabetes mellitus (DM). To evaluate possible mechanisms explaining these associations, we investigated if sub-acute ambient-level exposures can impair insulin sensitivity. Twenty-five healthy adults living in rural Michigan were transported to an urban location for 5 consecutive days (exposure-block) of daily 4- to 5-hour-long ambient air pollution exposures. Health outcomes, including the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) the primary outcome of insulin sensitivity, were measured at 3 time points in relation to exposure-blocks: 7days prior to start; on the last exposure-day; and 7days after completion. PM2.5 was monitored at the urban exposure site and at community monitors near subjects' residences. We calculated 3 "sub-acute" exposure periods (approximately 5-days-long) starting retrospective from the time of health outcome measurements (PM2.5 ranges: 9.7±3.9 to 11.2±3.9?g·m(-3)). A 10?g·m(-3) increase in sub-acute PM2.5 exposures was associated with increased HOMA-IR (+0.7, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.1 to 1.3; p=0.023) and reduced heart rate variability (standard deviation of normal-to-normal intervals [-13.1ms, 95%CI -25.3 to -0.9; p=0.035]). No alterations in other outcomes (inflammatory markers, vascular function) occurred in relation to PM2.5 exposures. Our findings suggest that ambient PM2.5, even at low levels, may reduce metabolic insulin sensitivity supporting the plausibility that air pollution could potentiate the development of DM.
Project description:Resistin, one of the adipokines that has a cycteine-rich C-terminus, is considered to relate to the development of insulin resistance in rats. However, in cats, there is little knowledge regarding resistin. In this study, we cloned the feline resistin cDNA from adipose tissue by RT-PCR. The feline resistin clone contained an entire open reading frame encoding 107 amino acids that had 72.8%, 75.4%, 50.9% and 51.8% homology with bovine, human, mouse and rat homologues, respectively. In both subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissues, the transcription levels of feline resistin mRNA were significantly higher in obese cats than normal cats, and those of feline adiponectin mRNA were significantly lower in obese cats than normal cats. However, there was no difference in the expression of feline leptin between normal and obese cats. On the other hand, in both normal and obese cats, there were no significant differences in resistin, leptin and adiponectin mRNA levels between subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissues. In cats, the altered expression of resistin and adiponectin mRNA with obesity may contribute to the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and subsequent diabetes mellitus. In addition to feline adiponectin, the feline resistin cDNA clone obtained in this study will be useful for further investigation of the pathogenesis of obesity in cats.
Project description:Many diseases including obesity may originate through alterations in the early-life environment that interrupts fetal development. Increasing evidence has shown that exposure to ambient fine particles (PM2.5) is associated with abnormal fetal development. However, its long-term metabolic effects on offspring have not been systematically investigated.To determine if maternal exposure to PM2.5 programs offspring obesity, female C57Bl/6j mice were exposed to filtered air (FA) or concentrated ambient PM2.5 (CAP) during pre-conception, pregnancy, and lactation, and the developmental and metabolic responses of offspring were assessed. The growth trajectory of offspring revealed that maternal exposure to CAP significantly decreased offspring birth weight but increased body weight of adult male but not female offspring, and the latter was expressed as increased adiposity. These adult male offspring had increased food intake, but were sensitive to exogenous leptin. Their hypothalamic expression of Socs3 and Pomc, two target genes of leptin, was not changed, and the hypothalamic expression of NPY, an orexigenic peptide that is inhibited by leptin, was significantly increased. These decreases in central anorexigenic signaling were accompanied by reduced plasma leptin and its expression in adipose tissues, the primary source of circulating leptin. In contrast, maternal exposure did not significantly change any of these indexes in adult female offspring. Pyrosequencing demonstrated that the leptin promoter methylation of adipocytes was significantly increased in CAP-exposed male but not female offspring.Our data indicate that maternal exposure to ambient PM2.5 programs obesity in male offspring probably through alterations in the methylation of the promoter region of the leptin gene.
Project description:HIV-infected patients receiving antiretroviral therapy often develop changes in body fat distribution; the dominant change is reduction in sc adipose tissue (SAT). Because adipose tissue makes important hormones involved in whole-body energy metabolism, including leptin and adiponectin, we examined plasma concentrations and their relationship to regional adiposity measured by magnetic resonance imaging in 1143 HIV-infected persons (803 men and 340 women) and 286 controls (151 men and 135 women) in a cross-sectional analysis of the FRAM study.Total and regional adiposity correlated positively with leptin levels in HIV-infected subjects and controls (P < 0.0001). In controls, total and regional adiposity correlated negatively with adiponectin. In HIV-infected subjects, adiponectin was not significantly correlated with total adiposity, but the normal negative correlation with visceral adipose tissue and upper trunk SAT was maintained. However, leg SAT was positively associated with adiponectin in HIV-infected subjects. Within the lower decile of leg SAT for controls, HIV-infected subjects had paradoxically lower adiponectin concentrations compared with controls (men: HIV 4.1 microg/ml vs. control 7.5 microg/ml, P = 0.009; women: HIV 7.8 microg/ml vs. control 11.6 microg/ml, P = 0.037). Even after controlling for leg SAT, exposure to stavudine was associated with lower adiponectin, predominantly in those with lipoatrophy.The normal relationships between adiponectin levels and total and leg adiposity are lost in HIV-infected subjects, possibly due to changes in adipocyte function associated with HIV lipodystrophy, whereas the inverse association of adiponectin and visceral adipose tissue is maintained. In contrast, the relationship between adiposity and leptin levels appears similar to controls and unaffected by HIV lipodystrophy.
Project description:Epidemiologic and experimental studies support an association between PM2.5 exposure and insulin resistance (IR). Innate immune cell activation has been suggested to play a role in the pathogenesis of these effects.We sought to evaluate the role of CC-chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2) in PM2.5-mediated inflammation and IR.Wild-type C57BL/6 and CCR2-/- male mice were fed a high-fat diet and exposed to either concentrated ambient PM2.5 or filtered air for 17 weeks via a whole-body exposure system. We evaluated glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. At euthanasia, blood, spleen, and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) were collected, and inflammatory cells were measured using flow cytometry. We used standard immunoblots, immunohistochemical methods, and quantitative PCR (polymerase chain reaction) to assess pathways of interest involving insulin signaling, inflammation, and lipid and glucose metabolism in various organs. Vascular function was assessed using myography.PM2.5 exposure resulted in whole-body IR and increased hepatic lipid accumulation in the liver, which was attenuated in CCR2-/- mice by inhibiting SREBP1c-mediated transcriptional programming, decreasing fatty acid uptake, and suppressing p38 MAPK activity. Abnormal phosphorylation levels of AKT, AMPK in VAT, and adipose tissue macrophage content in wild-type mice were not present in CCR2-/- mice. However, the impaired whole-body glucose tolerance and reduced GLUT-4 in skeletal muscle in response to PM2.5 was not corrected by CCR2 deficiency.PM2.5 mediates IR by regulating VAT inflammation, hepatic lipid metabolism, and glucose utilization in skeletal muscle via both CCR2-dependent and -independent pathways. These findings provide new mechanistic links between air pollution and metabolic abnormalities underlying IR.
Project description:The roles of adipokines, proinflammatory cytokines, and adipose tissue macrophages in obesity-associated insulin resistance have been explored in both animal and human studies. However, our current understanding of obesity-associated insulin resistance relies on studies of artificial metabolic extremes. The purpose of this study was to explore the roles of adipokines, proinflammatory cytokines, and adipose tissue macrophages in human patients with modest obesity and early metabolic dysfunction. We obtained omental adipose tissue and fasting blood samples from 51 females undergoing gynecologic surgery. We investigated serum concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines and adipokines as well as the mRNA expression of proinflammatory and macrophage phenotype markers in visceral adipose tissue using ELISA and quantitative RT-PCR. We measured adipose tissue inflammation and macrophage infiltration using immunohistochemical analysis. Serum levels of adiponectin and leptin were significantly correlated with HOMA-IR and body mass index. The levels of expression of MCP-1 and TNF-? in visceral adipose tissue were also higher in the obese group (body mass index ? 25). The expression of mRNA MCP-1 in visceral adipose tissue was positively correlated with body mass index (r = 0.428, p = 0.037) but not with HOMA-IR, whereas TNF-? in visceral adipose tissue was correlated with HOMA-IR (r = 0.462, p = 0.035) but not with body mass index. There was no obvious change in macrophage phenotype or macrophage infiltration in patients with modest obesity or early metabolic dysfunction. Expression of mRNA CD163/CD68 was significantly related to mitochondrial-associated genes and serum inflammatory cytokine levels of resistin and leptin. These results suggest that changes in the production of inflammatory biomolecules precede increased immune cell infiltration and induction of a macrophage phenotype switch in visceral adipose tissue. Furthermore, serum resistin and leptin have specific roles in the regulation of adipose tissue macrophages in patients with modest obesity or early metabolic dysfunction.
Project description:Exposure to fine airborne particles (PM2.5) has been shown to be responsible for cardiovascular and hematological effects, especially in older people with cardiovascular disease. Some epidemiological studies suggest that individuals with diabetes may be a particularly susceptible population. This study examined effects of short-term exposures to ambient PM2.5 on markers of systemic inflammation, coagulation, autonomic control of heart rate, and repolarization in 22 adults (mean age: 61 years) with type 2 diabetes.Each individual was studied for four consecutive days with daily assessments of plasma levels of blood markers. Cardiac rhythm and electrocardiographic parameters were examined at rest and with 24-hour ambulatory ECG monitors. PM2.5 and meteorological data were measured daily on the rooftop of the patient exam site. Data were analyzed with models adjusting for season, weekday, meteorology, and a random intercept. To identify susceptible subgroups, effect modification was analyzed by clinical characteristics associated with insulin resistance as well as with oxidative stress and by medication intake.Interleukin (IL)-6 and tumor necrosis factor alpha showed a significant increase with a lag of two days (percent change of mean level: 20.2% with 95%-confidence interval [6.4; 34.1] and 13.1% [1.9; 24.4], respectively) in association with an increase of 10 mug/m3 in PM2.5. Obese participants as well as individuals with elevated glycosylated hemoglobin, lower adiponectin, higher ferritin or with glutathione S-transferase M1 null genotype showed higher IL-6 effects. Changes in repolarization were found immediately as well as up to four days after exposure in individuals without treatment with a beta-adrenergic receptor blocker.Exposure to elevated levels of PM2.5 alters ventricular repolarization and thus may increase myocardial vulnerability to arrhythmias. Exposure to PM2.5 also increases systemic inflammation. Characteristics associated with insulin resistance or with oxidative stress were shown to enhance the association.