In vivo siRNA delivery system for targeting to the liver by poly-l-glutamic acid-coated lipoplex.
ABSTRACT: In this study, we developed anionic polymer-coated liposome/siRNA complexes (lipoplexes) with chondroitin sulfate C (CS), poly-l-glutamic acid (PGA) and poly-aspartic acid (PAA) for siRNA delivery by intravenous injection, and evaluated the biodistribution and gene silencing effect in mice. The sizes of CS-, PGA- and PAA-coated lipoplexes were about 200?nm and their ?-potentials were negative. CS-, PGA- and PAA-coated lipoplexes did not induce agglutination after mixing with erythrocytes. In terms of biodistribution, siRNAs after intravenous administration of cationic lipoplexes were largely observed in the lungs, but those of CS-, PGA- and PAA-coated lipoplexes were in both the liver and the kidneys, indicating that siRNA might be partially released from the anionic polymer-coated lipoplexes in the blood circulation and accumulate in the kidney, although the lipoplexes can prevent the agglutination with blood components. To increase the association between siRNA and cationic liposome, we used cholesterol-modified siRNA (siRNA-Chol) for preparation of the lipoplexes. When CS-, PGA- and PAA-coated lipoplexes of siRNA-Chol were injected into mice, siRNA-Chol was mainly observed in the liver, not in the kidneys. In terms of the suppression of gene expression in vivo, apolipoprotein B (ApoB) mRNA in the liver was significantly reduced 48?h after single intravenous injection of PGA-coated lipoplex of ApoB siRNA-Chol (2.5?mg?siRNA/kg), but not cationic, CS- and PAA-coated lipoplexes. In terms of toxicity after intravenous injection, CS-, PGA- and PAA-coated lipoplexes did not increase GOT and GPT concentrations in blood. From these findings, PGA coatings for cationic lipoplex of siRNA-Chol might produce a systemic vector of siRNA to the liver.
Project description:Background: Strategies aimed at inhibiting the expression of the c-myc oncogene could provide the basis for alternative cancer treatment. In this regard, silencing c-myc expression using small interfering RNA (siRNA) is an attractive option. However, the development of a clinically viable, siRNA-based, c-myc silencing system is largely dependent upon the design of an appropriate siRNA carrier that can be easily prepared. Nanostructures formed by the electrostatic association of siRNA and cationic lipid vesicles represent uncomplicated siRNA delivery systems. Methods: This study has focused on cationic liposomes prepared with equimolar quantities of the cytofectin, N,N-dimethylaminopropylamido-succinylcholesteryl-formylhydrazide (MS09), and cholesterol (Chol) for the development of a simple, but effective anti- c-myc onco-nanotherapeutic agent. Liposomes formulated with dioleoylphosphatidylethanolamine (DOPE) in place of Chol as the co-lipid were included for comparative purposes. Results: Liposomes successfully bound siRNA forming lipoplexes of less than 200 nm in size, which assumed globular, bilamellar structures. The liposome formulations were well tolerated in the human breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7) and colon carcinoma (HT-29) cells, which overexpress c-myc. Lipoplexes directed against the c-myc transcript mediated a dramatic reduction in c-myc mRNA and protein levels. Moreover, oncogene knockdown and anti-cancer effects were superior to that of Lipofectamine™ 3000. Conclusion: This anti- c-myc MS09:Chol lipoplex exemplifies a simple anticancer agent with enhanced c-myc gene silencing potential in vitro.
Project description:In this study, we examined the effect of cationic lipid type in folate (FA)-polyethylene glycol (PEG)-modified cationic liposomes on gene-silencing effects in tumor cells using cationic liposomes/siRNA complexes (siRNA lipoplexes). We used three types of cationic cholesterol derivatives, cholesteryl (3-((2-hydroxyethyl)amino)propyl)carbamate hydroiodide (HAPC-Chol), N-(2-(2-hydroxyethylamino)ethyl)cholesteryl-3-carboxamide (OH-Chol), and cholesteryl (2-((2-hydroxyethyl)amino)ethyl)carbamate (OH-C-Chol), and we prepared three types of FA-PEG-modified siRNA lipoplexes. The modification of cationic liposomes with 1-2 mol % PEG-lipid abolished the gene-silencing effect in human nasopharyngeal tumor KB cells, which overexpress the FA receptor (FR). In contrast, FA-PEG-modification of cationic liposomes restored gene-silencing activity regardless of the cationic lipid type in cationic liposomes. However, the optimal amount of PEG-lipid and FA-PEG-lipid in cationic liposomes for selective gene silencing and cellular uptake were different among the three types of cationic liposomes. Furthermore, in vitro transfection of polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1) siRNA by FA-PEG-modified liposomes exhibited strong cytotoxicity in KB cells, compared with PEG-modified liposomes; however, in in vivo therapy, intratumoral injection of PEG-modified PLK1 siRNA lipoplexes inhibited tumor growth of KB xenografts, as well as that of FA-PEG-modified PLK1 siRNA lipoplexes. From these results, the optimal formulation of PEG- and FA-PEG-modified liposomes for FR-selective gene silencing might be different between in vitro and in vivo transfection.
Project description:Nonviral siRNA vectors prepared by the direct mixing of siRNA and mixtures of an asymmetric N(4),N(9)-diacyl spermine conjugate, N(4)-linoleoyl-N(9)-oleoyl-1,12-diamino-4,9-diazadodecane (LinOS), with either cholesterol or DOPE, at various molar ratios of the neutral lipids, are reported. The effects of varying the lipid formulation and changing the N/P charge ratio on the intracellular delivery of siRNA to HeLa cells and on the siRNA-mediated gene silencing of a stably expressed reporter gene (EGFP) were evaluated. The presence of either cholesterol or DOPE in the mixture resulted in a marked increase in the delivery of the siRNA as well as enhanced EGFP silencing as evaluated by FACS. A LinOS/Chol 1:2 mixture resulted in the highest siRNA delivery and the most efficient EGFP silencing (reduced to 20%) at N/P = 3.0. Lowering the amount of siRNA from 15 pmol to 3.75 pmol, thus increasing the N/P charge ratio to 11.9, resulted in decreasing the amount of delivered siRNA, while the efficiency of gene silencing was comparable to that obtained with 15 pmol (N/P = 3.0) of siRNA. Mixtures of symmetrical N(4),N(9)-dioleoyl spermine (DOS) with cholesterol at 1:2 molar ratio showed less siRNA delivery than with LinOS/Chol at N/P = 3.0 (15 pmol of siRNA), and comparable delivery at N/P = 11.9 (3.75 pmol of siRNA). The EGFP silencing was comparable with LinOS and with DOS when mixed with cholesterol 1:2 (lipoplexes prepared with 15 pmol of siRNA), but LinOS mixtures showed better EGFP silencing when the siRNA was reduced to 3.75 pmol. Lipoplex particle size determination by DLS of cholesterol mixtures was 106-118 nm, compared to 194-356 nm for lipoplexes prepared with the spermine conjugates only, and to 685 nm for the LinOS/DOPE 1:1 mixture. Confocal microscopy showed successful siRNA delivery of red tagged siRNA and quantitative EGFP knockdown in HeLa EGFP cells; Z-stack photomicrographs showed that the delivered siRNA is distributed intracellularly. Cryo-TEM of siRNA LinOS/Chol 1:2 lipoplexes shows the formation of multilamellar spheres with a size of ∼100 nm, in good agreement with the particle size measured by DLS. The constant distance between lamellar repeats is ∼6 nm, with the electron-dense layers fitting a monolayer of siRNA. AlamarBlue cell viability assay showed that the lipoplexes resulted in cell viability ≥81%, with LinOS/Chol 1:2 mixtures resulting in cell viabilities of 89% and 94% at siRNA 15 nM and 3.75 nM respectively. These results show that lipoplexes of siRNA and LinOS/Chol mixtures prepared by the direct mixing of the lipid mixture and siRNA, without any preceding preformulation steps, result in enhanced siRNA delivery and EGFP knockdown, with excellent cell viability. Thus, LinOS/Chol 1:2 mixture is a promising candidate as a nontoxic nonviral siRNA vector.
Project description:Recent success in the treatment of congenital blindness demonstrates the potential of ocular gene therapy as a therapeutic approach. The eye is a good target due to its small size, minimal diffusion of therapeutic agent to the systemic circulation, and low immune and inflammatory responses. Currently, most approaches are based on viral vectors, but efforts continue towards the synthesis and evaluation of new nonviral carriers to improve nucleic acid delivery. Our objective is to evaluate the efficiency of novel cationic retinoic and carotenoic glycol phospholipids, designated C20-18, C20-20, and C30-20, to deliver DNA to human retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE) cells. Liposomes were produced by solvent evaporation of ethanolic mixtures of the polyene compounds and coformulated with 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine (DOPE) or cholesterol (Chol). Addition of DNA to the liposomes formed lipoplexes, which were characterized for binding, size, biocompatibility, and transgene efficiency. Lipoplex formulations of suitable size and biocompatibility were assayed for DNA delivery, both qualitatively and quantitatively, using RPE cells and a GFP-encoding plasmid. The retinoic lipoplex formulation with DOPE revealed a transfection efficiency comparable to the known lipid references 3?-[N-(N',N'-dimethylaminoethane)-carbamoyl]-cholesterol (DC-Chol) and 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-ethylphosphocholine (EPC) and GeneJuice. The results demonstrate that cationic polyene phospholipids have potential as DNA carriers for ocular gene therapy.
Project description:Multicomponent lipoplexes have recently emerged as especially promising transfection candidates, as they are from 10 to 100 times more efficient than binary complexes usually employed for gene delivery purposes. Previously, we investigated a number of chemical-physical properties of DNA-lipid complexes that were proposed to affect transfection efficiency (TE) of lipoplexes, such as nanoscale structure, size, surface potential, DNA-protection ability and DNA release from complexes upon interaction with cellular lipids. Although some minor differences between multicomponent and binary lipoplexes were found, they did not correlate clearly with efficiency. Instead, here we show that a marked difference between the cell internalization mechanism of binary and multicomponent lipoplexes does exist. Multicomponent lipoplexes significantly transfect cells at 4?°C, when endocytosis does not take place suggesting that they can enter cells via a temperature-independent mechanism. Confocal fluorescence microscopy experiments showed the existence of a correlation between endosomal escape and TE. Multicomponent lipoplexes exhibited a distinctive ability of endosomal escape and release DNA into the nucleus, whereas, poorly efficient binary lipoplexes exhibited minor, if any, endosomal rupture ability and remained confined in perinuclear late endosomes. Stopped-flow mixing measurements showed that the fusion rates of multicomponent cationic liposomes with anionic vesicles, used as model systems of cell membranes, were definitely shorter than those of binary liposomes. As either lipoplex uptake and endosomal escape involve fusion between lipoplex and cellular membranes, we suggest that a mechanism of lipoplex-cellular membrane interaction, driven by lipid mixing between cationic and anionic cellular lipids, does explain the TE boost of multicomponent lipoplexes.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Formulation of DNA/cationic lipid complexes (lipoplexes) designed for nucleic acid delivery mostly results in positively charged particles which are thought to enter cells by endocytosis. We recently developed a lipoplex formulation called Neutraplex that allows preparation of both cationic and anionic stable complexes with similar lipid content and ultrastructure.<h4>Methodology/principal findings</h4>To assess whether the global net charge could influence cell uptake and activity of the transported oligonucleotides (on), we prepared lipoplexes with positive and negative charges and compared: (i) their physicochemical properties by zeta potential analysis and dynamic light scattering, (ii) their cell uptake by fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry, and (iii) the biological activity of the transported ON using a splicing correction assay. We show that positively or negatively charged lipoplexes enter cells cells using both temperature-dependent and -independent uptake mechanisms. Specifically, positively charged lipoplexes predominantly use a temperature-dependent transport when cells are incubated OptiMEM medium. Anionic lipoplexes favour an energy-independent transport and show higher ON activity than cationic lipoplexes in presence of serum. However, lipoplexes with high positive global net charge and OptiMEM medium give the highest uptake and ON activity levels.<h4>Conclusions</h4>These findings suggest that, in addition to endocytosis, lipoplexes may enter cell via a temperature-independent mechanism, which could be mediated by lipid mixing. Such characteristics might arise from the specific lipoplex ultrastructure and should be taken into consideration when developing lipoplexes designed for in vivo or ex vivo nucleic acid transfer.
Project description:Cationic lipids are used for delivering nucleic acids (lipoplexes) into cells for both therapeutic and biological applications. A better understanding of the identified key-steps, including endocytosis, endosomal escape and nuclear delivery is required for further developments to improve their efficacy. Here, we developed a labelling protocol using aminated nanoparticles as markers for plasmid DNA to examine the intracellular route of lipoplexes in cell lines using transmission electron microscopy. Morphological changes of lipoplexes, membrane reorganizations and endosomal membrane ruptures were observed allowing the understanding of the lipoplex mechanism until the endosomal escape mediated by cationic lipids. The study carried out on two cationic lipids, bis(guanidinium)-tris(2-aminoethyl)amine-cholesterol (BGTC) and dioleyl succinyl paramomycin (DOSP), showed two pathways of endosomal escape that could explain their different transfection efficiencies. For BGTC, a partial or complete dissociation of DNA from cationic lipids occurred before endosomal escape while for DOSP, lipoplexes remained visible within ruptured vesicles suggesting a more direct pathway for DNA release and endosome escape. In addition, the formation of new multilamellar lipid assemblies was noted, which could result from the interaction between cationic lipids and cellular compounds. These results provide new insights into DNA transfer pathways and possible implications of cationic lipids in lipid metabolism.
Project description:Our previous study reported that reverse (Rev)?transfection with small interfering RNA (siRNA)/cationic liposome complexes (siRNA lipoplexes) freeze?dried in trehalose or sucrose solution resulted in high gene?silencing activity in cells. The current study investigated whether pre?freezing or saccharide types present during the freeze?drying of siRNA lipoplexes affected gene?silencing in cells after Rev?transfection. Three types of cationic cholesterol derivatives and three types of dialkyl or trialkyl cationic lipids were used for the preparation of cationic liposomes. Additionally, six types of siRNA lipoplexes were vacuum?dried in trehalose or sucrose solution without a pre-freezing process in multi?well plates. A strong gene?silencing activity after Rev?transfection was observed regardless of the cationic lipid types in the cationic liposomes. It was also investigated whether saccharide types in the freeze?drying of siRNA lipoplexes affected gene?silencing after Rev?transfection. siRNA lipoplexes freeze?dried in monosaccharides (glucose, fructose, galactose or mannose), disaccharides (maltose, lactose, lactulose or cellobiose) and trisaccharide solution (raffinose or melezitose) demonstrated high gene?silencing activity. However, following Rev?transfection with siRNA lipoplexes freeze?dried in monosaccharides or trisaccharides, certain saccharides induced cytotoxicity and/or off?target effects. The results of the current study indicated that disaccharides may be suitable for the preparation of vacuum?dried or freeze?dried siRNA lipoplexes for Rev?transfection.
Project description:Noninvasive early detection methods have the potential to reduce mortality rates of both cancer and infectious diseases. Here, we present a novel assay by which tethered cationic lipoplex nanoparticles containing molecular beacons (MBs) can capture cancer cell-derived exosomes or viruses and identify encapsulated RNAs in a single step. A series of ultracentrifugation and Exoquick isolation kit were first used to isolate exosomes from the cell culture medium and human serum, respectively. Cationic lipoplex nanoparticles linked onto the surface of a thin glass plate capture negatively charged viruses or cell-secreted exosomes by electrostatic interactions to form larger nanoscale complexes. Lipoplex/virus or lipoplex/exosome fusion leads to the mixing of viral/exosomal RNAs and MBs within the lipoplexes. After the target RNAs specially bind to the MBs, exosomes enriched in target RNAs are readily identified by the fluorescence signals of MBs. The in situ detection of target extracellular RNAs without diluting the samples leads to high detection sensitivity not achievable by existing methods, e.g., quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Here we demonstrate this concept using lentivirus and serum from lung cancer patients.
Project description:Lipopolyplexes are of widespread interest for gene therapy due to their multifunctionality and high transfection efficiencies. Here we compared the biological and biophysical properties of a lipopolyplex formulation with its lipoplex and polyplex equivalents to assess the role of the lipid and peptide components in the formation and function of the lipopolyplex formulation. We show that peptide efficiently packaged plasmid DNA forming spherical, highly cationic nanocomplexes that are taken up efficiently by cells. However, transgene expression was poor, most likely due to endosomal degradation since the polyplex lacks membrane trafficking properties. In addition the strong peptide-DNA interaction may prevent plasmid release from the complex and so limit plasmid DNA availability. Lipid/DNA lipoplexes, on the other hand, produced aggregated masses that showed poorer cellular uptake than the polyplex but contrastingly greater levels of transgene expression. This may be due to the greater ability of lipoplexes relative to polyplexes to promote endosomal escape. Lipopolyplex formulations formed spherical, cationic nanocomplexes with efficient cellular uptake and significantly enhanced transfection efficiency. The lipopolyplexes combined the optimal features of lipoplexes and polyplexes showing optimal cell uptake, endosomal escape and availability of plasmid for transcription, thus explaining the synergistic increase in transfection efficiency.