Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic studies of dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR) from Oryza sativa L. japonica.
ABSTRACT: Dehydroascorbate reductase from Oryza sativa L. japonica (OsDHAR), a key enzyme in the regeneration of vitamin C, maintains reduced pools of ascorbic acid to detoxify reactive oxygen species. In previous studies, the overexpression of OsDHAR in transgenic rice increased grain yield and biomass as well as the amount of ascorbate, suggesting that ascorbate levels are directly associated with crop production in rice. Hence, it has been speculated that the increased level of antioxidants generated by OsDHAR protects rice from oxidative damage and increases the yield of rice grains. However, the crystal structure and detailed mechanisms of this important enzyme need to be further elucidated. In this study, recombinant OsDHAR protein was purified and crystallized using the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method at pH 8.0 and 298?K. Plate-shaped crystals were obtained using 0.15?M potassium bromide, 30%(w/v) PEG MME 2000 as a precipitant, and the crystals diffracted to a resolution of 1.9?Å on beamline 5C at the Pohang Accelerator Laboratory. The X-ray diffraction data indicated that the crystal contained one OsDHAR molecule in the asymmetric unit and belonged to space group P2? with unit-cell parameters a=47.03, b=48.38, c=51.83?Å, ?=107.41°.
Project description:Dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR) is a key enzyme involved in the recycling of ascorbate, which catalyses the glutathione (GSH)-dependent reduction of oxidized ascorbate (dehydroascorbate, DHA). As a result, DHAR regenerates a pool of reduced ascorbate and detoxifies reactive oxygen species (ROS). In previous experiments involving transgenic rice, we observed that overexpression of DHAR enhanced grain yield and biomass. Since the structure of DHAR is not available, the enzymatic mechanism is not well-understood and remains poorly characterized. To elucidate the molecular basis of DHAR catalysis, we determined the crystal structures of DHAR from Oryza sativa L. japonica (OsDHAR) in the native, ascorbate-bound, and GSH-bound forms and refined their resolutions to 1.9, 1.7, and 1.7 Å, respectively. These complex structures provide the first information regarding the location of the ascorbate and GSH binding sites and their interacting residues. The location of the ascorbate-binding site overlaps with the GSH-binding site, suggesting a ping-pong kinetic mechanism for electron transfer at the common Cys20 active site. Our structural information and mutagenesis data provide useful insights into the reaction mechanism of OsDHAR against ROS-induced oxidative stress in rice.
Project description:Dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR), which reduces oxidized ascorbate, is important for maintaining an appropriate ascorbate redox state in plant cells. To date, genome-wide molecular characterization of DHARs has only been conducted in bryophytes (Physcomitrella patens) and eudicots (e.g. Arabidopsis thaliana). In this study, to gain a general understanding of the molecular properties and functional divergence of the DHARs in land plants, we further conducted a comprehensive analysis of DHARs from the lycophyte Selaginella moellendorffii, gymnosperm Picea abies and monocot Zea mays. DHARs were present as a small gene family in all of the land plants we examined, with gene numbers ranging from two to four. All the plants contained cytosolic and chloroplastic DHARs, indicating dehydroascorbate (DHA) can be directly reduced in the cytoplasm and chloroplast by DHARs in all the plants. A novel vacuolar DHAR was found in Z. mays, indicating DHA may also be reduced in the vacuole by DHARs in Z. mays. The DHARs within each species showed extensive functional divergence in their gene structures, subcellular localizations, and enzymatic characteristics. This study provides new insights into the molecular characteristics and functional divergence of DHARs in land plants.
Project description:Glutathione is a pivotal molecule in oxidative stress, during which it is potentially oxidized by several pathways linked to H2O2 detoxification. We have investigated the response and functional importance of 3 potential routes for glutathione oxidation pathways mediated by glutathione S-transferases (GST), glutaredoxin-dependent peroxiredoxins (PRXII), and dehydroascorbate reductases (DHAR) in Arabidopsis during oxidative stress. Loss-of-function gstU8, gstU24, gstF8, prxIIE and prxIIF mutants as well as double gstU8 gstU24, gstU8 gstF8, gstU24 gstF8, prxIIE prxIIF mutants were obtained. No mutant lines showed marked changes in their phenotype and glutathione profiles in comparison to the wild-type plants in either optimal conditions or oxidative stress triggered by catalase inhibition. By contrast, multiple loss of DHAR functions markedly decreased glutathione oxidation triggered by catalase deficiency. To assess whether this effect was mediated directly by loss of DHAR enzyme activity, or more indirectly by upregulation of other enzymes involved in glutathione and ascorbate recycling, we measured expression of glutathione reductase (GR) and expression and activity of monodehydroascorbate reductases (MDHAR). No evidence was obtained that either GRs or MDHARs were upregulated in plants lacking DHAR function. Hence, interplay between different DHARs appears to be necessary to couple ascorbate and glutathione pools and to allow glutathione-related signaling during enhanced H2O2 metabolism.
Project description:Plants are exposed to various environmental stresses and have therefore developed antioxidant enzymes and molecules to protect their cellular components against toxicity derived from reactive oxygen species (ROS). Ascorbate is a very important antioxidant molecule in plants, and monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR; EC 184.108.40.206) and dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR; EC 220.127.116.11) are essential to regeneration of ascorbate for maintenance of ROS scavenging ability. The MDHAR and DHAR genes from Brassica rapa were cloned, transgenic plants overexpressing either BrMDHAR and BrDHAR were established, and then, each transgenic plant was hybridized to examine the effects of co-expression of both genes conferring tolerance to freezing. Transgenic plants co-overexpressing BrMDHAR and BrDHAR showed activated expression of relative antioxidant enzymes, and enhanced levels of glutathione and phenolics under freezing condition. Then, these alteration caused by co-expression led to alleviated redox status and lipid peroxidation and consequently conferred improved tolerance against severe freezing stress compared to transgenic plants overexpressing single gene. The results of this study suggested that although each expression of BrMDHAR or BrDHAR was available to according tolerance to freezing, the simultaneous expression of two genes generated synergistic effects conferring improved tolerance more effectively even severe freezing.
Project description:The stroma of spinach chloroplasts contains ascorbic acid and glutathione at millimolar concentrations. [Reduced glutathione]/[oxidized glutathione] and [ascorbate]/[dehydroascorbate] ratios are high under both light and dark conditions and no evidence for a role of oxidized glutathione or dehydroascorbate in the dark-deactivation of fructose bisphosphatase could be obtained. Addition of H2O2 to chloroplasts in the dark decreases the above ratios, an effect that is reversed on illumination. Addition of Paraquat to illuminated chloroplasts caused a rapid oxidation of reduced glutathione and ascorbate, and apparent loss of dehydroascorbate. Paraquat rapidly inactivated fructose bisphosphatase activity, as assayed under physiological conditions.
Project description:Dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR) catalyzes the glutathione (GSH)-dependent reduction of dehydroascorbate and plays a direct role in regenerating ascorbic acid, an essential plant antioxidant vital for defense against oxidative stress. DHAR enzymes bear close structural homology to the glutathione transferase (GST) superfamily of enzymes and contain the same active site motif, but most GSTs do not exhibit DHAR activity. The presence of a cysteine at the active site is essential for the catalytic functioning of DHAR, as mutation of this cysteine abolishes the activity. Here we present the crystal structure of DHAR2 from Arabidopsis thaliana with GSH bound to the catalytic cysteine. This structure reveals localized conformational differences around the active site which distinguishes the GSH-bound DHAR2 structure from that of DHAR1. We also unraveled the enzymatic step in which DHAR releases oxidized glutathione (GSSG). To consolidate our structural and kinetic findings, we investigated potential conformational flexibility in DHAR2 by normal mode analysis and found that subdomain mobility could be linked to GSH binding or GSSG release.
Project description:GSH-dependent enzymic reduction of dehydroascorbic acid to ascorbic acid has been studied in rat liver cytosol. After gel filtration of cytosol on Sephadex G-100 SF, dehydroascorbate reductase activity was recovered in two distinct peaks, one corresponding to glutaredoxin (an enzyme already known for its dehydroascorbate reductase activity) and another, much larger one, corresponding to a novel enzyme different from glutaredoxin. The latter was purified to apparent homogeneity. The purification process involved (NH4)2SO4 fractionation, followed by DEAE-Sepharose, Sephadex G-100 SF and Reactive Red chromatography. SDS/PAGE of the purified enzyme in either the presence or absence of 2-mercaptoethanol demonstrated a single protein band of M(r) 31,000. The M(r) determined by both Sephadex G-100 SF chromatography and h.p.l.c. was found to be approx. 48,000. H.p.l.c. of the denatured enzyme gave an M(r) value identical with that obtained by SDS/PAGE (31,000). The apparent Km for dehydroascorbate was 245 microM and the Vmax. was 1.9 mumol/min per mg of protein; for GSH they were 2.8 mM and 4.5 mumol/min per mg of protein respectively. The optimal pH range was 7.5-8.0. Microsequence analysis of the electro-transferred enzyme band showed that the N-terminus is blocked. Data on internal primary structure were obtained from CNBr-and N-chlorosuccinimide-derived fragments. No significative sequence similarity was found to any of the protein sequences contained in the Protein Identification Resource database.
Project description:Oxidation and uptake of ascorbate show similar time courses in rat liver microsomal vesicles: a rapid burst phase is followed by a slower process. Inhibitors of ascorbate oxidation (proadifen, econazole or quercetin) also effectively decreased the uptake of ascorbate. The results show that dehydroascorbate is the transport form of ascorbate at the membrane of the endoplasmic reticulum.
Project description:L-gulono-γ-lactone oxidase (Gulo) catalyzes the last step of ascorbic acid biosynthesis, which occurs in the kidney of elasmobranchs. This study aimed to clone and sequence gulonolactone oxidase (gulo) from the kidney of the euryhaline freshwater stingray, Himantura signifer, and to determine the effects of acclimation from freshwater to brackish water (salinity 20) on its renal gulo mRNA expression and Gulo activity. We also examined the effects of brackish water acclimation on concentrations of ascorbate, dehydroascorbate and ascorbate + dehydroascorbate in the kidney, brain and gill. The complete cDNA coding sequence of gulo from the kidney of H. signifer contained 1323 bp coding for 440 amino acids. The expression of gulo was kidney-specific, and renal gulo expression decreased significantly by 67% and 50% in fish acclimated to brackish water for 1 day and 6 days, respectively. There was also a significant decrease in renal Gulo activity after 6 days of acclimation to brackish water. Hence, brackish water acclimation led to a decrease in the ascorbic acid synthetic capacity in the kidney of H. signifer. However, there were significant increases in concentrations of ascorbate and ascorbate + dehydroascorbate in the gills (after 1 or 6 days), and a significant increase in the concentration of ascorbate and a significant decrease in the concentration of dehydroascorbate in the brain (after 1 day) of fish acclimated to brackish water. Taken together, our results indicate that H. signifer might experience greater salinity-induced oxidative stress in freshwater than in brackish water, possibly related to its short history of freshwater invasion. These results also suggest for the first time a possible relationship between the successful invasion of the freshwater environment by some euryhaline marine elasmobranchs and the ability of these elasmobranchs to increase the capacity of ascorbic acid synthesis in response to hyposalinity stress.
Project description:The initial reaction of bacterial carbazole degradation is catalysed by carbazole 1,9a-dioxygenase, which consists of terminal oxygenase, ferredoxin and ferredoxin reductase components. The reduced form of the terminal oxygenase component was crystallized at 293?K by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method using PEG MME 550 as the precipitant under anaerobic conditions. The crystals diffracted to a resolution of 1.74?Å and belonged to space group P6(5), with unit-cell parameters a = b = 92.0, c = 243.6?Å. The asymmetric unit contained a trimer of terminal oxygenase molecules.