High seroprevalence of human herpesviruses in HIV-infected individuals attending primary healthcare facilities in rural South Africa.
ABSTRACT: Seroprevalence data of human herpesviruses (HHVs) are limited for sub-Saharan Africa. These are important to provide an indication of potential burden of HHV-related disease, in particular in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals who are known to be at increased risk of these conditions in the Western world. In this cross-sectional study among 405 HIV-infected and antiretroviral therapy naïve individuals in rural South Africa the seroprevalence of HHVs was: herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) (98%), herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) (87%), varicella zoster virus (VZV) (89%), and 100% for both Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and cytomegalovirus (CMV). Independent factors associated with VZV seropositivity were low educational status and having children. Lack of in-house access to drinking water was independently associated with positive HSV-1 serostatus, whereas Shangaan ethnicity was associated with HSV-2 seropositivity. Increasing age was associated with higher IgG titres to both EBV and CMV, whereas CD4 cell count was negatively associated with EBV and CMV IgG titres. Moreover, IgG titres of HSV-1 and 2, VZV and CMV, and CMV and EBV were positively correlated. The high HHV seroprevalence emphasises the importance of awareness of these viral infections in HIV-infected individuals in South Africa.
Project description:Detection of human herpesviruses (HHVs) other than cytomegalovirus (CMV) in colonic mucosa of individuals with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) remains unknown. This study identified eight HHVs in the colonic mucosa of individuals with IBD and compared the results with immunocompetent and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals.A total of 89 individuals who had colorectal ulcer on colonoscopy were enrolled: 26 with immunocompetency (n = 26), 41 with IBD, and 22 with HIV infection. We examined the colonic ulcers for the presence of eight HHVs-herpes simplex virus (HSV)-1/2, varicella zoster virus (VZV), CMV, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), HHV-6, HHV-7, and HHV-8-using mucosal PCR.The IBD group had positivity rates of 0%, 0%, 0%, 53.7%, 24.4%, 39%, 39%, and 0% for HSV-1, HSV-2, VZV, EBV, CMV, HHV-6, HHV-7, and HHV-8, respectively. The positivity rates of EBV and CMV in colonic mucosa increased significantly in the order of the immunocompetent, IBD, and HIV groups (EBV: 23.1%, 53.7%, 72.7%, P for trend = 0.0005; CMV, 7.7%, 24.4%, 54.5%, P for trend = 0.0003, respectively), but no increase was found in the other HHVs. Median mucosal EBV DNA values in the immunocompetent, IBD, and HIV groups were 0, 76, and 287 copies/?g DNA, respectively (P for trend = 0.002). Corresponding median mucosal CMV DNA values were 0, 0, and 17 copies/?g DNA (P for trend = 0.0001). There was no significant difference in the positivity rates of the eight HHVs between ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease.The HHVs of EBV, CMV, HHV-6, and HHV-7, but not of HSV-1, HSV-2, VZV, or HHV-8, were identified in the colonic mucosa of IBD individuals. EBV and CMV in colonic mucosa was correlated with host immune status in increasing order of immunocompetent, IBD, and HIV-infected individuals.
Project description:Co-infections with human herpesvirus (HHV) have been associated with residual chronic inflammation in antiretroviral (ART)-treated human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals. However, the role of HHV in modulating the tryptophan-kynurenine pathway and clinical outcomes in HIV-infected individuals is poorly understood. Thus, we investigated the seroprevalence of four common HHVs among treated HIV-infected participants and their impact on kynurenine/tryptophan (K/T) ratio and long-term CD4 T-cell recovery in HIV/HHV co-infected participants.In this cross-sectional study, HIV-infected participants receiving suppressive ART for a minimum of 12 months were recruited from the University Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC), Malaysia. Stored plasma was analyzed for CMV, VZV, HSV-1 and HSV-2 IgG antibody levels, immune activation markers (interleukin-6, interferon-?, neopterin and sCD14), kynurenine and tryptophan concentrations. The influence of the number of HHV co-infection and K/T ratio on CD4 T-cell recovery was assessed using multivariate Poisson regression.A total of 232 HIV-infected participants were recruited and all participants were seropositive for at least one HHV; 96.1% with CMV, 86.6% with VZV, 70.7% with HSV-1 and 53.9% with HSV-2. K/T ratio had a significant positive correlation with CMV (rho = 0.205, p = 0.002), VZV (rho = 0.173, p = 0.009) and a tendency with HSV-2 (rho = 0.120, p = 0.070), with CMV antibody titer demonstrating the strongest modulating effect on K/T ratio among the four HHVs assessed in SOM analysis. In multivariate analysis, higher K/T ratio (p = 0.03) and increasing number of HHV co-infections (p<0.001) were independently associated with poorer CD4 T-cell recovery following 12 months of ART initiation.Multiple HHV co-infections are common among ART-treated HIV-infected participants in the developing country setting and associated with persistent immune activation and poorer CD4 T-cell recovery.
Project description:Human herpes viruses (HHVs) are widely distributed pathogens. In immuno-competent individuals their clinical outcomes are generally benign but in immuno-compromised hosts, primary infection or extensive viral reactivation can lead to critical diseases. Plasmodium falciparum malaria profoundly affects the host immune system. In this retrospective study, we evaluated the direct effect of acute P. falciparum infection on reactivation and shedding of all known human herpes viruses (HSV-1, HSV-2, VZV, EBV, CMV, HHV-6, HHV-7, HHV-8). We monitored their presence by real time PCR in plasma and saliva of Ugandan children with malaria at the day of admission to the hospital (day-0) and 14 days later (after treatment), or in children with mild infections unrelated to malaria. For each child screened in this study, at least one type of HHV was detected in the saliva. HHV-7 and HHV-6 were detected in more than 70% of the samples and CMV in approximately half. HSV-1, HSV-2, VZV and HHV-8 were detected at lower frequency. During salivary shedding the highest mean viral load was observed for HSV-1 followed by EBV, HHV-7, HHV-6, CMV and HHV-8. After anti-malarial treatment the salivary HSV-1 levels were profoundly diminished or totally cleared. Similarly, four children with malaria had high levels of circulating EBV at day-0, levels that were cleared after anti-malarial treatment confirming the association between P. falciparum infection and EBV reactivation. This study shows that acute P. falciparum infection can contribute to EBV reactivation in the blood and HSV-1 reactivation in the oral cavity. Taken together our results call for further studies investigating the potential clinical implications of HHVs reactivation in children suffering from malaria.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Human herpesviruses (HHVs) remain latent after primary infection and can be reactivated in response to immunosuppression and chemotherapy. Little is known about their incidence, potential relationships, risk factors and clinical impact in non-transplant leukemia patients. This study investigated prospectively incidence, risk factors, clinical impact and possible association of HHVs-(1-7) infections in patients with newly diagnosed acute leukemia. METHODS:Study design involved longitudinal sampling before chemotherapy and in different phases of chemotherapy: post-induction, post-remission, and post-salvage during 2016-2018. A total of 734 plasma samples from 95 patients were analyzed by a qualitative, multiplex PCR for HHVs detection and a quantitative real-time PCR was used for cytomegalovirus (CMV) quantification. HHVs-(1-6) IgG and IgM antibodies were tested using immunoassays. Risk factors were analyzed by binary logistic regression and relationships between viruses were analyzed using the Chi-square or Fisher's exact test as appropriate. RESULTS:The overall seroprevalences of HHV-(1-6) IgG were high (>?80%). At least one herpes viral agent was detected in 60 patients (63.3%). CMV was the most commonly detected virus in the different phases of chemotherapy (19.4%), followed by HHV-6 (9.7%), HHV-7 (5.2%) and EBV (2.7%). HSV-1/2 and VZV DNA were not detected. Twenty-seven patients (28.4%) had more than one virus detected in the follow-up, with 23 who were co-infected. CMV/HHV-6 was the most frequent co-infection (69.5%, 16/23). HHV-6 infection (p?=?0.008) was identified as a risk factor for CMV infection while salvage treatment (p?=?0.04) and CMV infection (p?=?0.007) were found to be independent risk factors for HHV-6 infection. CMV co-infection was associated with severe lymphopenia with an absolute lymphocyte count (ALC) (<?500/?L) (p?=?0.009), rash (p?=?0.011), pneumonia (p?=?0.016) and opportunistic infections [bacteremia, p?<?0.001 and invasive fungal infection, (p?=?0.024)] more frequently than CMV mono-viral infections. CONCLUSIONS:Our data suggest that co-infection with HHVs, especially CMV and HHV-6, may contribute to the development of serious clinical manifestations with profound lymphopenia, pneumonia rash and increased risk for bacterial and fungal co-infections. These findings may suggest the synergistic effect of HHVs associated infection.
Project description:Multiple viruses coinfect the male genital tract, influencing each other’s replication and perhaps affecting human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) pathogenesis and disease progression.This study included 453 longitudinal seminal samples from 195 HIV-infected men from the San Diego Primary Infection Resource Consortium and 67 seminal samples from HIV-negative healthy controls. Seminal HIV RNA and DNA from 7 human herpesviruses (HHVs) were measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Longitudinal shedding rates were determined by Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. Predictors of viral shedding were determined using backwards selection in a multivariable generalized estimating equation model.HIV-infected participants presented significantly increased rates of seminal HHV shedding compared with HIV-uninfected controls. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) were the most commonly detected HHV in semen of HIV-infected participants. Persistent shedding was more common for CMV and EBV when compared to other HHVs. With exception of HHV-7, HHV shedding was not significantly influenced by HIV RNA levels, CD4+ cell counts, or antiretroviral therapy. Presence of CMV, EBV, and herpes simplex virus (HSV) were independent predictors of genital HIV RNA shedding after adjusting for plasma HIV RNA and longitudinal measurements.Seminal replication of multiple HHVs is common in our HIV primary infection cohort. Genital replication of CMV and EBV was the most common and was significantly associated with seminal HIV RNA shedding. Prevalence of HSV shedding was lower and mostly intermittent, but its association with seminal HIV RNA was the strongest. Understanding the complex viral milieu in semen is important for HIV transmission but might also play a role in HIV pathogenesis and disease progression.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Among over 100 types of <i>Herpesviridae</i> viruses, eight can infect humans: herpes simplex viruses (HSV-1, HSV-2), varicella zoster virus (VZV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), and human herpesviruses 6, 7, and 8 (HHV-6, HHV-7, HHV-8). After initial infection, the viruses remain latent for the lifetime of the host. The aim of this study was to determine the distribution of six different herpesviruses: HSV-1, HSV-2, VZV, EBV, CMV, and HHV-6 in trigeminal and facial nerve ganglia among a random group of Polish population.<h4>Methods</h4>The studied group consisted of 47 individuals (40 male, seven female); mean age of 47.4 ± 16.5 years) who died of independent causes (suicide, traffic accident, and poisoning, among others). Bilateral trigeminal and facial nerve ganglia of each cadaver were collected during the autopsy. Herpesviruses were detected using multiplex polymerase chain reaction technique.<h4>Results</h4>Herpesviruses were found in trigeminal and/or facial ganglia in 30/47 (63.8%) of cadavers. HHV-6 was the most prevalent of the herpesviruses and was found in nearly half of cadavers (<i>n</i> = 22; 46.8%), followed by HSV-1 (<i>n</i> = 7; 14.9%), VZV (<i>n</i> = 4; 8.5%), EBV (<i>n</i> = 4; 8.5%), HSV-2 (<i>n</i> = 2; 4.3%), and CMV (<i>n</i> = 1; 2.1%). Facial nerve ganglia (<i>n</i> = 23; 48.9%) were more often infected than trigeminal ganglia (<i>n</i> = 13; 27.7%).<h4>Discussion</h4>The results of this study have revealed a common presence of the herpesviruses in trigeminal and facial nerve ganglia among a random group of Polish population. Furthermore, the data also demonstrate simultaneous infection of the ganglia with different herpesviruses. This study has contributed to the knowledge of prevalence and localization of herpesviruses in different structures of the nervous system.
Project description:There are nine herpesviruses known to infect humans, of which Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is the most widely distributed (>90% of adults infected). This ubiquitous virus is implicated in a variety of cancers and autoimmune diseases. Previous analyses of the EBV genome revealed numerous regions with evidence of generating unusually stable and conserved RNA secondary structures and led to the discovery of a novel class of EBV non-coding (nc)RNAs: the stable intronic sequence (sis)RNAs. To gain a better understanding of the roles of RNA structure in EBV biology and pathogenicity, we revisit EBV using recently developed tools for genome-wide motif discovery and RNA structural characterization. This corroborated previous results and revealed novel motifs with potential functionality; one of which has been experimentally validated. Additionally, since many herpesviruses increasingly rival the seroprevalence of EBV (VZV, HHV-6 and HHV-7 being the most notable), analyses were expanded to include all sequenced human Herpesvirus RefSeq genomes, allowing for genomic comparisons. In total 10 genomes were analyzed, for EBV (types 1 and 2), HCMV, HHV-6A, HHV-6B, HHV-7, HSV-1, HSV-2, KSHV, and VZV. All resulting data were archived in the RNAStructuromeDB (https://structurome.bb.iastate.edu/herpesvirus) to make them available to a wide array of researchers.
Project description:The role of certain viruses in malignant brain tumor development remains controversial. Experimental data demonstrate that human herpesviruses (HHVs), particularly cytomegalovirus (CMV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and human herpes virus 6 (HHV-6), are implicated in brain tumor pathology, although their direct role has not yet been proven. CMV is present in most gliomas and medulloblastomas and is known to facilitate oncomodulation and/or immunomodulation, thus promoting cancer cell proliferation, invasion, apoptosis, angiogenesis, and immunosuppression. EBV and HHV-6 have also been detected in brain tumors and high-grade gliomas, showing high rates of expression and an inflammatory potential. On the other hand, due to the neurotropic nature of HHVs, novel studies have highlighted the engagement of such viruses in the development of new immunotherapeutic approaches in the context of oncolytic viral treatment and vaccine-based strategies against brain tumors. This review provides a comprehensive evaluation of recent scientific data concerning the emerging dual role of HHVs in malignant brain pathology, either as potential causative agents or as immunotherapeutic tools in the fight against these devastating diseases.
Project description:A sequence of 21,858 base pairs from the genome of human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) strain U1102 is presented. The sequence has a mean composition of 41% G + C, and the observed frequency of CpG dinucleotides is close to that predicted from this mononucleotide composition. The sequence contains 17 complete open reading frames (ORFs) and part of another at the 5' end of the sequence. The predicted protein products of two of these ORFs have no recognizable homologs in the genomes of other sequenced human herpesviruses (i.e., Epstein-Barr virus [EBV], human cytomegalovirus [HCMV], herpes simplex virus [HSV], and varicella-zoster virus [VZV]). However, the products of nine other ORFs are clearly homologous to a set of genes that is conserved in all other sequenced herpesviruses, including homologs of the alkaline exonuclease, the phosphotransferase, the spliced ORF, and the major capsid protein genes. Measurements of similarity between these homologous sequences showed that HHV-6 is clearly most closely related to HCMV. The degree of relatedness between HHV-6 and HCMV was commensurate with that observed in comparisons between HSV and VZV or EBV and herpesvirus saimiri and significantly greater than its relatedness to EBV, HSV, or VZV. In addition, the gene for the major capsid protein and its 5' neighbor are reoriented with respect to the spliced ORFs in the genomes of both HHV-6 and HCMV relative to the organization observed in EBV, HSV, and VZV. Three ORFs in HHV-6 have recognizable homologs only in the genome of HCMV. Despite differences in gross composition and size, we conclude that the genomes of HHV-6 and HCMV are closely related.
Project description:We used a novel type of primer system, a system that uses stair primers, in which the primer sequences are based on consensus sequences in the DNA polymerase gene of herpesvirus to detect herpesviruses by PCR. A single PCR in a single tube detected the six major herpesviruses that infect the central nervous system: herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), and type 2 (HSV-2), cytomegalovirus (CMV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), varicella-zoster virus (VZV), and human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6). We used the technique to analyze 142 cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples that had been stored at -80 degrees C and compared the results with those obtained previously for the same samples by standard, targeted PCR. Four hundred one targeted PCR tests had been run with the 142 samples to detect HSV-1, HSV-2, CMV, and VZV; screening for EBV and HHV-6 was not prescribed when the samples were initially taken. Eighteen CSF samples tested positive by classic targeted PCR. The herpesvirus consensus PCR detected herpesviruses in 37 samples, including 3 samples with coinfections and 17 viral isolates which were not targeted. Two samples identified as infected by the targeted PCR tested negative by the consensus PCR, and eight samples that tested positive by the consensus PCR were negative by the targeted PCR. One hundred three samples scored negative by both the targeted and the consensus PCRs. This preliminary study demonstrates the value of testing for six different herpesviruses simultaneously by a sensitive and straightforward technique rather than screening only for those viruses that are causing infections as suggested by clinical signs.