HIV-1 protease-substrate coevolution in nelfinavir resistance.
ABSTRACT: Resistance to various human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) protease inhibitors (PIs) challenges the effectiveness of therapies in treating HIV-1-infected individuals and AIDS patients. The virus accumulates mutations within the protease (PR) that render the PIs less potent. Occasionally, Gag sequences also coevolve with mutations at PR cleavage sites contributing to drug resistance. In this study, we investigated the structural basis of coevolution of the p1-p6 cleavage site with the nelfinavir (NFV) resistance D30N/N88D protease mutations by determining crystal structures of wild-type and NFV-resistant HIV-1 protease in complex with p1-p6 substrate peptide variants with L449F and/or S451N. Alterations of residue 30's interaction with the substrate are compensated by the coevolving L449F and S451N cleavage site mutations. This interdependency in the PR-p1-p6 interactions enhances intermolecular contacts and reinforces the overall fit of the substrate within the substrate envelope, likely enabling coevolution to sustain substrate recognition and cleavage in the presence of PR resistance mutations.Resistance to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) protease inhibitors challenges the effectiveness of therapies in treating HIV-1-infected individuals and AIDS patients. Mutations in HIV-1 protease selected under the pressure of protease inhibitors render the inhibitors less potent. Occasionally, Gag sequences also mutate and coevolve with protease, contributing to maintenance of viral fitness and to drug resistance. In this study, we investigated the structural basis of coevolution at the Gag p1-p6 cleavage site with the nelfinavir (NFV) resistance D30N/N88D protease mutations. Our structural analysis reveals the interdependency of protease-substrate interactions and how coevolution may restore substrate recognition and cleavage in the presence of protease drug resistance mutations.
Project description:Drug resistance mutations in response to HIV-1 protease inhibitors are selected not only in the drug target but elsewhere in the viral genome, especially at the protease cleavage sites in the precursor protein Gag. To understand the molecular basis of this protease-substrate coevolution, we solved the crystal structures of drug resistant I50V/A71V HIV-1 protease with p1-p6 substrates bearing coevolved mutations. Analyses of the protease-substrate interactions reveal that compensatory coevolved mutations in the substrate do not restore interactions lost due to protease mutations, but instead establish other interactions that are not restricted to the site of mutation. Mutation of a substrate residue has distal effects on other residues' interactions as well, including through the induction of a conformational change in the protease. Additionally, molecular dynamics simulations suggest that restoration of active site dynamics is an additional constraint in the selection of coevolved mutations. Hence, protease-substrate coevolution permits mutational, structural, and dynamic changes via molecular mechanisms that involve distal effects contributing to drug resistance.
Project description:Drug resistance is an important cause of antiretroviral therapy failure in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients. Mutations in the protease render the virus resistant to protease inhibitors (PIs). Gag cleavage sites also mutate, sometimes correlating with resistance mutations in the protease, but their contribution to resistance has not been systematically analyzed. The present study examines mutations in Gag cleavage sites that associate with protease mutations and the impact of these associations on drug susceptibilities. Significant associations were observed between mutations in the nucleocapsid-p1 (NC-p1) and p1-p6 cleavage sites and various PI resistance-associated mutations in the protease. Several patterns were frequently observed, including mutations in the NC-p1 cleavage site in combination with I50L, V82A, and I84V within the protease and mutations within the p1-p6 cleavage site in combination with D30N, I50V, and I84V within the protease. For most patterns, viruses with mutations both in the protease and in either cleavage site were significantly less susceptible to specific PIs than viruses with mutations in the protease alone. Altered PI resistance in HIV-1 was found to be associated with the presence of Gag cleavage site mutations. These studies suggest that associated cleavage site mutations may contribute to PI susceptibility in highly specific ways depending on the particular combinations of mutations and inhibitors. Thus, cleavage site mutations should be considered when assessing the level of PI resistance.
Project description:ABT-378, a new human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) protease inhibitor which is significantly more active than ritonavir in cell culture, is currently under investigation for the treatment of AIDS. Development of viral resistance to ABT-378 in vitro was studied by serial passage of HIV-1 (pNL4-3) in MT-4 cells. Selection of viral variants with increasing concentrations of ABT-378 revealed a sequential appearance of mutations in the protease gene: I84V-L10F-M46I-T91S-V32I-I47V. Further selection at a 3.0 microM inhibitor concentration resulted in an additional change at residue 47 (V47A), as well as reversion at residue 32 back to the wild-type sequence. The 50% effective concentration of ABT-378 against passaged virus containing these additional changes was 338-fold higher than that against wild-type virus. In addition to changes in the protease gene, sequence analysis of passaged virus revealed mutations in the p1/p6 (P1' residue Leu to Phe) and p7/p1 (P2 residue Ala to Val) gag proteolytic processing sites. The p1/p6 mutation appeared in several clones derived from early passages and was present in all clones obtained from passage P11 (0.42 microM ABT-378) onward. The p7/p1 mutation appeared very late during the selection process and was strongly associated with the emergence of the additional change at residue 47 (V47A) and the reversion at residue 32 back to the wild-type sequence. Furthermore, this p7/p1 mutation was present in all clones obtained from passage P17 (3.0 microM ABT-378) onward and always occurred in conjunction with the p1/p6 mutation. Full-length molecular clones containing protease mutations observed very late during the selection process were constructed and found to be viable only in the presence of both the p7/p1 and p1/p6 cleavage-site mutations. This suggests that mutation of these gag proteolytic cleavage sites is required for the growth of highly resistant HIV-1 selected by ABT-378 and supports recent work demonstrating that mutations in the p7/p1/p6 region play an important role in conferring resistance to protease inhibitors (L. Doyon et al., J. Virol. 70:3763-3769, 1996; Y. M. Zhang et al., J. Virol. 71:6662-6670, 1997).
Project description:BACKGROUND: Development of compensatory mutations within the HIV p7/p1 and p1/p6 protease cleavage site region has been observed in HIV-infected patients treated with protease inhibitors. Mechanisms of fitness compensation may occur in HCV populations upon treatment of HCV protease inhibitors as well. FINDINGS: In this study, we investigated whether substitutions in protease cleavage site regions of HCV occur in response to a treatment regimen containing the NS3/4A protease inhibitor telaprevir (TVR). Evaluation of viral populations from 569 patients prior to treatment showed that the four NS3/4A cleavage sites were well conserved. Few changes in the cleavage site regions were observed in the 159 patients who failed TVR combination treatment, and no residues displayed evidence of directional selection after the acquisition of TVR-resistance. CONCLUSIONS: Cleavage site mutations did not occur after treatment with the HCV protease inhibitor telaprevir.
Project description:Population-based sequence analysis revealed the presence of a variant of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) containing an insertion of amino acid Ile in the protease gene at codon 19 (19I) and amino acid substitutions in the protease at codons 21 (E21D) and 22 (A22V) along with multiple mutations associated with drug resistance, M46I/P63L/A71V/I84V/I93L, in a patient who had failed protease inhibitor (PI) therapy. Longitudinal analysis revealed that the P63L/A71V/I93L changes were present prior to PI therapy. Polymorphisms in the Gag sequence were only seen in the p1/p6 cleavage site at the P1' position (Leu to Pro) and the P5' position (Pro to Leu). To characterize the role of these mutations in drug susceptibility and replication capacity, a chimeric HIV-1 strain containing the 19I/E21D/A22V mutations with the M46I/P63L/A71V/I84V/I93L and p1/p6 mutations was constructed. The chimera displayed high-level resistance to multiple PIs, but not to lopinavir, and grew to 30% of that of the wild type. To determine the relative contribution of each mutation to the phenotypic characteristic of the virus, a series of mutants was constructed using site-directed mutagenesis. A high level of resistance was only seen in mutants containing the 19I/A22V and p1/p6 mutations. The E21D mutation enhanced viral replication. These results suggest that the combination of the 19I/E21D/A22V mutations may emerge and lead to high-level resistance to multiple PIs. The combination of the 19I/A22V mutations may be associated with PI resistance; however, the drug resistance may be caused by the presence of a unique set of mutations in the p1/p6 mutations. The E21D mutation contributes to replication fitness rather than drug resistance.
Project description:Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) protease inhibitors (PIs) specifically target the HIV-1 protease enzyme. Mutations in the enzyme can result in PI resistance (termed PI mutations); however, mutations in the HIV-1 gag region, the substrate for the protease enzyme, might also lead to PI resistance. We analyzed gag and pol sequence data from the following 313 HIV-1-infected patients: 160 treatment-naïve patients, 93 patients failing antiretroviral treatment that included a PI (with no major PI mutations), and 60 patients failing antiretroviral treatment that included a PI (with major PI mutations). Additional sequences from 13 patients were included for longitudinal analysis. We assessed positive selection pressure on the gag/protease region using a test for the overall influence of positive selection and a total of five tests to identify positively selected single codons. We found that positive selection pressure was the driving evolutionary force for the gag region in all three patient groups. An increase in positive selection was observed in gag cleavage site regions p7/p1/p6 only after the acquisition of major PI mutations, suggesting that amino acids in gag cleavage sites under positive selection pressure could function as compensatory mutations for major PI mutations in the protease region. Isolated gag mutations did not appear to confer PI resistance, but mutations in the gag cleavage sites could substitute for minor PI resistance mutations in the protease region.
Project description:The effect of amino acid variability between human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) clades on structure and the emergence of resistance mutations in HIV-1 protease has become an area of significant interest in recent years. We determined the first crystal structure of the HIV-1 CRF01_AE protease in complex with the p1-p6 substrate to a resolution of 2.8 A. Hydrogen bonding between the flap hinge and the protease core regions shows significant structural rearrangements in CRF01_AE protease compared to the clade B protease structure.
Project description:Drug resistance of HIV-1 protease alters the balance in the molecular recognition events in favor of substrate processing versus inhibitor binding. To develop robust inhibitors targeting ensembles of drug-resistant variants, the code of this balance needs to be cracked. For this purpose, the principles governing the substrate recognition are required to be revealed. Previous crystallographic studies on the WT protease-substrate complexes showed that the substrates have a conserved consensus volume in the protease active site despite their low sequence homology. This consensus volume is termed as the substrate envelope. The substrate envelope was recently reevaluated by taking the substrate dynamics into account, and the dynamic substrate envelope was reported to better define the substrate specificity for HIV-1 protease. Drug resistance occurs mostly through mutations in the protease, occasionally accompanied by cleavage site mutations. In this study, three coevolved protease-substrate complexes ((AP2V)NC-p1V82A, (LP1'F)p1-p6D30N/N88D, and (SP3'N)p1-p6D30N/N88D) were investigated for structural and dynamic properties by molecular modeling and dynamics simulations. The results show the substrate envelope is preserved by these cleavage site mutations in the presence of drug-resistance mutations in the protease, if not enhanced. This study on the conformational and mutational ensembles of protease-substrate complexes validates the substrate envelope as the substrate recognition motif for HIV-1 protease. The substrate envelope hypothesis allows for the elucidation of possible drug resistance mutation patterns in the polyprotein cleavage sites.
Project description:Maturation of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) depends on the processing of Gag and Pol polyproteins by the viral protease, making this enzyme a prime target for anti-HIV therapy. Among the protease substrates, the nucleocapsid-p1 (NC-p1) sequence is the least homologous, and its cleavage is the rate-determining step in viral maturation. In the other substrates of HIV-1 protease, P1 is usually either a hydrophobic or an aromatic residue, and P2 is usually a branched residue. NC-p1, however, contains Asn at P1 and Ala at P2. In response to the V82A drug-resistant protease mutation, the P2 alanine of NC-p1 mutates to valine (AP2V). To provide a structural rationale for HIV-1 protease binding to the NC-p1 cleavage site, we solved the crystal structures of inactive (D25N) WT and V82A HIV-1 proteases in complex with their respective WT and AP2V mutant NC-p1 substrates. Overall, the WT NC-p1 peptide binds HIV-1 protease less optimally than the AP2V mutant, as indicated by the presence of fewer hydrogen bonds and fewer van der Waals contacts. AlaP2 does not fill the P2 pocket completely; PheP1' makes van der Waals interactions with Val82 that are lost with the V82A protease mutation. This loss is compensated by the AP2V mutation, which reorients the peptide to a conformation more similar to that observed in other substrate-protease complexes. Thus, the mutant substrate not only binds the mutant protease more optimally but also reveals the interdependency between the P1' and P2 substrate sites. This structural interdependency results from coevolution of the substrate with the viral protease.
Project description:During the use of a phenotypic anti-human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) drug resistance assay in a large set of clinical virus isolates, we found a unique variant (CL-4) that exhibited a high level of nelfinavir (NFV) resistance and rather enhanced replication under subinhibitory concentrations of NFV (0.001 to 0.1 micro M). Comparison of gag-pol sequences of the CL-4 variant and its predecessor virus isolates showed a stepwise accumulation of a total of 19 amino acid substitutions in protease (PR) and Gag p17 during 32-month NFV-containing antiretroviral therapy, while other Gag regions including the cleavage sites of the p55 precursor remained highly conserved. To understand the relationship between the genetic and phenotypic changes in CL-4, we constructed chimeric viruses using pNL4-3, replacing the PR, p24PR, or p17PR gene segment of CL-4 or its predecessor. A series of tissue culture infections with the chimeras in the absence or presence of increasing concentrations of NFV demonstrated that only the p17PR segment of CL-4 could confer the NFV-dependent replication enhancement phenotype on NL4-3. Our data suggest a novel adaptation mechanism of HIV-1 to NFV, in which coevolution of Gag and PR genes generates a variant that replicates more efficiently in the cellular environment in the presence of NFV than without the drug.