Exploring the miRNA-mRNA regulatory network in clear cell renal cell carcinomas by next-generation sequencing expression profiles.
ABSTRACT: Altered microRNA (miRNA) expression is a hallmark of many cancer types. The combined analysis of miRNA and messenger RNA (mRNA) expression profiles is crucial to identifying links between deregulated miRNAs and oncogenic pathways. Therefore, we investigated the small non-coding (snc) transcriptomes of nine clear cell renal cell carcinomas (ccRCCs) and adjacent normal tissues for alterations in miRNA expression using a publicly available small RNA-Sequencing (sRNA-Seq) raw-dataset. We constructed a network of deregulated miRNAs and a set of differentially expressed genes publicly available from an independent study to in silico determine miRNAs that contribute to clear cell renal cell carcinogenesis. From a total of 1,672 sncRNAs, 61 were differentially expressed across all ccRCC tissue samples. Several with known implications in ccRCC development, like the upregulated miR-21-5p, miR-142-5p, as well as the downregulated miR-106a-5p, miR-135a-5p, or miR-206. Additionally, novel promising candidates like miR-3065, which i.a. targets NRP2 and FLT1, were detected in this study. Interaction network analysis revealed pivotal roles for miR-106a-5p, whose loss might contribute to the upregulation of 49 target mRNAs, miR-135a-5p (32 targets), miR-206 (28 targets), miR-363-3p (22 targets), and miR-216b (13 targets). Among these targets are the angiogenesis, metastasis, and motility promoting oncogenes c-MET, VEGFA, NRP2, and FLT1, the latter two coding for VEGFA receptors.
Project description:Background: MicroRNAs (miRNA) are frequently dysregulated in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). Objective: This study aimed to elucidate the role of miRNA expression patterns in renal carcinogenesis and to identify the specific miRNAs that exhibit expression patterns closely associated with patient outcomes. Methods: We examined the expression patterns of selected miRNAs, including miRNA-155-5p, miRNA-122-5p, miRNA-21-5p, miRNA-185-5p, miRNA-106a-5p, miRNA-106b-3p, miRNA-34b-3p, miRNA-210-3p, miRNA-141-3p, miRNA-200c-3p, miRNA-135a-5p, miRNA-30a-5p, miRNA-218-5p, miRNA-429, miRNA-200a-3p and miRNA-200b-3p, in 96 samples of ccRCCs using the TaqMan real-time PCR method. In addition, cluster analysis was performed to stratify expression patterns of multiple miRNAs. Results: In the present study, three distinct subgroups could be clearly stratified in ccRCCs. Subgroup 1 was characterized by upregulation of miRNA-155-5p, miRNA-122-5p, miRNA-21-5p, miRNA-185-5p, miRNA-106a-5p, miRNA-106b-3p, miRNA-34b-3p and miRNA-210-3p. Subgroup 2 was closely associated with downregulation of miRNA-141-3p, miRNA200c-3p, miRNA-30a-5p, miRNA-218-5p, miRNA-429, miRNA-200a-3p and miRNA-200b-3p. Moreover, significant lower expression of miRNA-135a-5p was a distinctive feature of subgroup 3, which was correlated with metachronous metastasis. Among the individual markers in subgroup 3, miRNA-135a-5p was retained in multivariate analysis. The cutoff value of miRNA-135a-5p expression to identify the association of an altered level of miRNA-135a-5p with metachronous metastasis in ccRCCs was determined and showed excellent specificity. Conclusion: We suggest that the expression pattern of the chosen miRNAs is useful to identify renal carcinogenesis and to help identify the association of such expression patterns with metachronous metastasis in ccRCCs. In addition, miRNA-135a-5p was an excellent marker for prediction of metachronous metastasis.
Project description:Mortality from ischemic heart disease (IHD) is significantly lower in Japan than in Western countries. The purpose of this study was to investigate differences in circulating microRNA (miRNA) levels related to IHD in Austrians and Japanese. Participants were middle-aged healthy male Austrians (n?=?20) and Japanese (n?=?20). Total miRNAs in serum from each participant were analyzed using the 3D-Gene miRNA Oligo chip. Twenty-one miRNAs, previously reported as associated with IHD, were compared between Austrians and Japanese. The expression levels of miR-106a-5p, miR-135a-3p, miR-150-3p, miR-16-5p, miR-17-5p. miR-191-5p, miR-320b, miR-451a, miR-486-5p, miR-663b, and miR-92a-3p were significantly higher, while the miR-2861 expression level was significantly lower in Austrians as compared to Japanese. Both in Austrians and Japanese, there were significant positive correlations between serum expression levels of each pair of the above miRNAs except for miR-2861. The expression level of miR-2861 showed significant positive correlations with the expression levels of miR-106a-5p, miR-150-3p, miR-17-5p, miR-486-5p, miR-663b and miR-92a-3p in Austrians but not in Japanese. In pathway analysis, proinflammatory cytokine production in foam cells and collagen synthesis in vascular smooth muscle cells were associated with differentially expressed miRNAs. Difference in miRNA levels may contribute to lower cardiovascular risk in Japan than in Western countries.
Project description:Novel noninvasive biomarkers with high sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of breast cancer (BC) are urgently needed in clinics. The aim of this study was to explore whether miRNAs from the miR-106a-363 cluster can be detected in the circulation of BC patients and whether these miRNAs can serve as potential diagnostic biomarkers.The expression of 12 miRNAs from the miR-106a-363 cluster was evaluated using qRT-PCR in 400 plasma samples (from 200 BC patients and 200 healthy controls (HCs)) and 406 serum samples (from 204 BC patients and 202 HCs) via a three-phase study. The identified miRNAs were further examined in tissues (32 paired breast tissues), plasma exosomes (from 32 BC patients and 32 HCs), and serum exosomes (from 32 BC patients and 32 HCs).Upregulated levels of four plasma miRNAs (miR-106a-3p, miR-106a-5p, miR-20b-5p, and miR-92a-2-5p) and four serum miRNAs (miR-106a-5p, miR-19b-3p, miR-20b-5p, and miR-92a-3p) were identified and validated in BC. A plasma 4-miRNA panel and a serum 4-miRNA panel were constructed to discriminate BC patients from HCs. The areas under the receiver-operating characteristic curves of the plasma panel were 0.880, 0.902, and 0.858, and those of the serum panel were 0.910, 0.974, and 0.949 for the training, testing, and external validation phases, respectively. Two overlapping miRNAs (miR-106a-5p and miR-20b-5p) were consistently upregulated in BC tissues. Except for the expression of the plasma-derived exosomal miR-20b-5p, the expression patterns of exosomal miRNAs were concordant between plasma and serum, indicating the potential use of exosomal miRNAs as biomarkers.We identified four plasma miRNAs and four serum miRNAs from the miR-106a-363 cluster as promising novel biomarkers for the diagnosis of BC.
Project description:BACKGROUND:MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate gene expression by interfering translation or stability of target transcripts. This interplay between miRNA and their mRNA has been proposed as an important process in cancer development and progression. We have investigated molecular networks impacted by predicted mRNA targets of differentially expressed miRNAs in patients with clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) diagnosed with or without metastasis. MATERIAL AND METHODS:miRNA and mRNA microarray expression profiles derived from primary ccRCC from patients with (16 samples) or without diagnosed metastasis (22 samples) were used to identify anti-correlated miRNA-mRNA interaction in ccRCC. For this purpose, Ingenuity pathway analysis microRNA Target Filter, which enables prioritization of experimentally validated and predicted mRNA targets was used. By applying an expression pairing tool, the analysis was focused on targets exhibiting altered expression in our analysis, finding miRNAs and their target genes with opposite or same expression. The resulting identified interactions were revalidated by RT-qPCR in another cohort of ccRCC patients. A selection of the predicted miRNA-mRNA interactions was tested by functional analyses using miRNA knockdown and overexpression experiments in renal cancer cell lines. RESULTS:Among the significantly differentially expressed miRNAs, we have identified three miRNAs (miR-146a-5p, miR-128a-3p, and miR-17-5p) that were upregulated in primary tumors from patients without metastasis and downregulated in primary tumors from patients with metastasis. We have further identified mRNA targets, which expression were inversely correlated to these 3 miRNAs, and have been previously experimentally demonstrated in cancer setting in humans. Specifically, we showed that CXCL8/IL8, UHRF1, MCM10, and CDKN3 were downregulated and targeted by miR-146a-5p. The interaction between miR-146a-5p and their targets CXCL8 and UHRF1 was validated in cell culture experiments. CONCLUSIONS:We identified novel target genes of dysregulated miRNAs, which are involved in the transition from primary RCC without metastases into tumors generating distant metastasis.
Project description:Epigenetic alterations have emerged as an important cause of microRNA (miRNA) deregulation. In Multiple Myeloma (MM), a few tumor suppressive miRNAs silenced by DNA hypermethylation have been reported, but so far there are few systemic investigations on epigenetically silenced miRNAs. We conducted genome-wide screening for tumor suppressive miRNAs epigenetically silenced in MM. Four Human MM Cell lines were treated with demethylating agent 5'azacytidine (5'aza). Consistently upregulated miRNAs include miR-155, miR-198, miR-135a*, miR-200c, miR-125a-3p, miR-188-5p, miR-483-5p, miR-663, and miR-630. Methylation array analysis revealed increased methylation at or near miRNA-associated CpG islands in MM patients. Ectopic restoration of miR-155, miR-198, miR-135a*, miR-200c, miR-663 and miR-483-5p significantly repressed MM cell proliferation, migration and colony formation. Furthermore, we derived a 33-gene signature from predicted miRNA target genes that were also upregulated in MM patients and associated with patient survival in three independent myeloma datasets. In summary, we have revealed important, epigenetically silenced tumor suppressive miRNAs by pharmacologic reversal of epigenetic silencing.
Project description:MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate gene expression post-transcriptionally. In this way they might influence whether a cell is sensitive or resistant to a certain drug. So far, only a limited number of relatively small scale studies comprising few cell lines and/or drugs have been performed. To obtain a broader view on miRNAs and their association with drug response, we investigated the expression levels of 411 miRNAs in relation to drug sensitivity in 36 breast cancer cell lines. For this purpose IC50 values of a drug screen involving 34 drugs were associated with miRNA expression data of the same breast cancer cell lines. Since molecular subtype of the breast cancer cell lines is considered a confounding factor in drug association studies, multivariate analysis taking subtype into account was performed on significant miRNA-drug associations which retained 13 associations. These associations consisted of 11 different miRNAs and eight different drugs (among which Paclitaxel, Docetaxel and Veliparib). The taxanes, Paclitaxel and Docetaxel, were the only drugs having miRNAs in common: hsa-miR-187-5p and hsa-miR-106a-3p indicative of drug resistance while Paclitaxel sensitivity alone associated with hsa-miR-556-5p. Tivantinib was associated with hsa-let-7d-5p and hsa-miR-18a-5p for sensitivity and hsa-miR-637 for resistance. Drug sensitivity was associated with hsa-let-7a-5p for Bortezomib, hsa-miR-135a-3p for JNJ-707 and hsa-miR-185-3p for Panobinostat. Drug resistance was associated with hsa-miR-182-5p for Veliparib and hsa-miR-629-5p for Tipifarnib. Pathway analysis for significant miRNAs was performed to reveal biological roles, aiding to find a potential mechanistic link for the observed associations with drug response. By doing so hsa-miR-187-5p was linked to the cell cycle G2-M checkpoint in line with this checkpoint being the target of taxanes. In conclusion, our study shows that miRNAs could potentially serve as biomarkers for intrinsic drug resistance and that pathway analyses can provide additional information in this context.
Project description:Cryptotanshinone (CTS) has emerged as an anti-inflammatory agent in osteoarthritis (OA). However, the molecular mechanism underlying its potent therapeutic effect on OA remains largely unknown. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) act as crucial regulators in maintaining cartilage homeostasis. To investigate whether CTS protects against developing OA through regulation of miRNAs, we examined the potential CTS-mediated miRNA molecules using microarray analysis. We found that CTS significantly promoted miR-106a-5p expression in chondrocytes. Using the OA mouse model created by anterior cruciate ligament transection, we revealed that intra-articular injection of miR-106a-5p agomir attenuated OA. In addition, miR-106a-5p inhibited GLI-similar 3 (GLIS3) production by directly targeting the 3' untranslated region. CTS promoted miR-106a-5p expression through recruitment of a member of the paired box (PAX) family of transcription factors, PAX5, to the miR-106a-5p promoter. Inhibition of PAX5 mimicked the effect of miR-106a-5p and abolished the CTS ability to regulate miR-106a-5p expression. In OA patients, miR-106-5p is downregulated which is accompanied by downregulation of PAX5 and upregulation of GLIS3. Collectively, these data highlight that the PAX5/miR-106a-5p/GLIS3 axis acts as a novel pleiotropic regulator in CTS-mediated OA cartilage protection, suggesting that miR-106a-5p and PAX5 activation and GLIS3 inhibition might be useful and attractive for therapeutic strategies to treat OA patients.
Project description:Some long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) play important roles in the regulation of gene expression by acting as competing endogenous RNAs (ceRNAs). However, the roles of lncRNA associated-ceRNAs in oncogenesis are not fully understood. Here, based on lncRNA microarray data of gastric cancer, bioinformatic algorithm miRcode and microRNA (miRNA) targets database TarBase, we first constructed an lncRNA-miRNA-mRNA network. Then, we confirmed it by data of six types of other cancer including head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, prostate cancer, papillary thyroid carcinoma, pituitary gonadotrope tumors, ovarian cancer, and chronic lymphocytic leukemia. The results showed a clear cancer-associated ceRNA network. Eight lncRNAs (AC009499.1, GACAT1, GACAT3, H19, LINC00152, AP000288.2, FER1L4, and RP4-620F22.3) and nine miRNAs (miR-18a-5p, miR-18b-5p, miR-19a-3p, miR-20b-5p, miR-106a-5p, miR-106b-5p, miR-31-5p, miR-139-5p, and miR-195-5p) were involved. For instance, through its miRNA response elements (MREs) to compete for miR-106a-5p, lncRNA-FER1L4 regulates the expression of PTEN, RB1, RUNX1, VEGFA, CDKN1A, E2F1, HIPK3, IL-10, and PAK7. Furthermore, cellular experimental results indicated that FER1L4-small interfering RNA (siRNA) simultaneously suppressed FER1L4 and RB1 mRNA level. These results suggest that lncRNAs harbor MREs and play important roles in post-transcriptional regulation in cancer.
Project description:BACKGROUND: We examined plasma microRNA (miRNA) concentrations from patients with gastric cancers (GCs) to assess their clinical application for diagnosing and monitoring diseases. METHODS: We initially investigated the appropriateness of plasma miRNA assay, and then compared plasma miRNA results with the expressions in cancer tissues from eight GC patients, and also compared plasma miRNAs between pre- and post-operative paired samples from 10 GC patients. Then, plasma miRNAs (miR-17-5p, miR-21, miR-106a, miR-106b and let-7a) were analysed in 69 GC patients and 30 healthy volunteers in total. RESULTS: The initial analysis showed that miRNAs were stable and detectable in all plasma samples, and the plasma miRNA levels reflected the tumour miRNAs in most cases. The levels of these miRNAs were significantly reduced in post-operative samples. In large-scale analysis, the plasma concentrations of miRNAs (miR-17-5p, miR-21, miR-106a, miR-106b) were significantly higher in GC patients than controls (P=0.05, 0.006, 0.008 and <0.001 respectively), whereas let-7a was lower in GC patients (P=0.002). The values of the area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve were 0.721 for the miR-106b assay and 0.879 for the miR-106a/let-7a ratio assay. CONCLUSION: Detection of circulating miRNAs might provide new complementary tumour markers for GC.
Project description:Oxidative stress has been linked to senescence and tumorigenesis via modulation of the cell cycle. Using a hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced oxidative stress-induced premature senescence (OSIPS) model previously reported by our group, this study aimed to investigate the effects of oxidative stress on microRNA (miRNA) expression in relation to the G1-to-S-phase (G1/S) transition of the cell cycle and cell proliferation. On global miRNA analysis of the OSIPS cells, twelve significantly up- or down-regulated miRNAs were identified, the target genes of which are frequently associated with cancers. Four down-regulated miR-17 family miRNAs are predicted to target key pro- and anti-proliferative proteins of the p21/cyclin D-dependent kinase (CDK)/E2F1 pathway to modulate G1/S transition. Two miR-17 miRNAs, miR-20-5p and miR-106-5p, were confirmed to be rapidly and stably down-regulated under oxidative stress. While H2O2 treatment hampered G1/S transition and suppressed DNA synthesis, miR-20b-5p/miR-106a-5p over-expression rescued cells from growth arrest in promoting G1/S transition and DNA synthesis. Direct miR-20b-5p/miR-106a-5p regulation of p21, CCND1 and E2F1 was demonstrated by an inverse expression relationship in miRNA mimic-transfected cells. However, under oxidative stress, E2F1 expression was down-regulated, consistent with hampered G1/S transition and suppressed DNA synthesis and cell proliferation. To explain the observed E2F1 down-regulation under oxidative stress, a scheme is proposed which includes miR-20b-5p/miR-106a-5p-dependent regulation, miRNA-E2F1 autoregulatory feedback and E2F1 response to repair oxidative stress-induced DNA damages. The oxidative stress-modulated expression of miR-17 miRNAs and E2F1 may be used to develop strategies to retard or reverse MSC senescence in culture, or senescence in general.