Work stress, work motivation and their effects on job satisfaction in community health workers: a cross-sectional survey in China.
ABSTRACT: It is well documented that both work stress and work motivation are key determinants of job satisfaction. The aim of this study was to examine levels of work stress and motivation and their contribution to job satisfaction among community health workers in Heilongjiang Province, China.Cross-sectional survey.Heilongjiang Province, China.The participants were 930 community health workers from six cities in Heilongjiang Province.Multistage sampling procedures were used to measure socioeconomic and demographic status, work stress, work motivation and job satisfaction. Logistic regression analysis was performed to assess key determinants of job satisfaction.There were significant differences in some subscales of work stress and work motivation by some of the socioeconomic characteristics. Levels of overall stress perception and scores on all five work stress subscales were higher in dissatisfied workers relative to satisfied workers. However, levels of overall motivation perception and scores on the career development, responsibility and recognition motivation subscales were higher in satisfied respondents relative to dissatisfied respondents. The main determinants of job satisfaction were occupation; age; title; income; the career development, and wages and benefits subscales of work stress; and the recognition, responsibility and financial subscales of work motivation.The findings indicated considerable room for improvement in job satisfaction among community health workers in Heilongjiang Province in China. Healthcare managers and policymakers should take both work stress and motivation into consideration, as two subscales of work stress and one subscale of work motivation negatively influenced job satisfaction and two subscales of work motivation positively influenced job satisfaction.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Job satisfaction influences staff retention, motivation, and performance in providing services. A considerable amount of published studies has reported on the job satisfaction level of healthcare workers, but to date, very few studies focused on Community-Based Rehabilitation (CBR) workers. This study aimed to explore the job satisfaction level among Community-Based Rehabilitation (CBR) workers and associated factors related to their overall job satisfaction. METHODS:A one-year survey was conducted in three states of the east coast region of Peninsular Malaysia involving 204 CBR workers selected through universal sampling method where all CBR staff who fulfilled the inclusion criteria were selected as participants. Self-completed questionnaires consisted of 20 association factors on six-point Likert scale responses were distributed. Total mean satisfaction level and mean associated factors were reported in this study. RESULTS:The results showed that the majority of the participants were between 20 and 40 years old (72%), female (96%), Malay (99%) and had 1-5 years of working experience. The mean total satisfaction score was 79.8 ± SD = 7.85. The highest mean satisfaction level for the associated factor was 4.6 ± SD = 0.59 with about 95% of the participants were satisfied that "CBR programme is a challenging work", while the lowest satisfaction level for associated factor was on "salary of community-based rehabilitation staff is acceptable", with mean score of 2.3 ± SD = 0.97 with about 59% of the participants felt dissatisfied. The results of this study determined that the highest dissatisfied factors among CBR workers were on salary. CONCLUSION:These findings provided useful information for policymakers to evaluate this issue for a sustainable CBR programme in the future. TRIAL REGISTRATION:This study has been registered for trial as 'retrospective registered' in the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ANZCTR) (registration no.: ACTRN 12618001101279 ) on 5th October 2018.
Project description:Leadership is key to strengthening performance of Health Systems. Leadership styles are important organizational antecedents, especially in influencing employee's motivation, job satisfaction, and teamwork. There is limited research exploring this relationship among health workers in resource-limited settings such as Uganda. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between transformational, transactional, and laissez-faire leadership styles and motivation, job satisfaction, and teamwork of health workers in Uganda.We conducted a cross-sectional study in 3 geographic regions of Uganda in November 2015, using self-administered questionnaires with 564 health workers from 228 health facilities. Data were collected on health workers' perception of leadership styles displayed by their facility leaders, their level of motivation, job satisfaction, and team work. Using Pearson correlation, relationships among variables were identified and associations of the components of leadership styles with motivation, job satisfaction, and teamwork was found using multivariable logistic regression.Health workers in Uganda preferred leaders who were transformational (62%) compared with being transactional (42%) or laissez-faire (14%). Transformational leadership was positively correlated with motivation (r=0.32), job satisfaction (r=0.38), and team work (r=0.48), while transactional leadership was positively correlated with job satisfaction (r=0.21) and teamwork (r=0.18). Motivation was positively associated with leaders who displayed idealized influence-behavior (odds ratio [OR]=3.7; 95% CI, 1.33-10.48) and intellectual stimulation (OR=2.4; 95% CI, 1.13-5.15) but negatively associated with management by exception (OR=0.4; 95% CI, 0.19-0.82). Job satisfaction was positively associated with intellectual stimulation (OR=5.7; 95% CI, 1.83-17.79). Teamwork was positively associated with idealized influence-behavior (OR=1.07-8.57), idealized influence-attributed (OR=3.9; 95% CI, 1.24-12.36), and contingent reward (OR=5.6; 95% CI, 1.87-17.01).Transformational styles had a positive impact on stimulating motivation, assuring job satisfaction, and consolidating teamwork among health workers compared with those who demonstrated transactional skills or laissez-faire styles.Supporting transformational leadership skills development in health facility leaders could encourage health worker motivation, strengthen job satisfaction, and maintain cohesion among health workers for better service delivery.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Motivation and job satisfaction have been identified as key factors for health worker retention and turnover in low- and middle-income countries. District health managers in decentralized health systems usually have a broadened 'decision space' that enables them to positively influence health worker motivation and job satisfaction, which in turn impacts on retention and performance at district-level. The study explored the effects of motivation and job satisfaction on turnover intention and how motivation and satisfaction can be improved by district health managers in order to increase retention of health workers. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional survey in three districts of the Eastern Region in Ghana and interviewed 256 health workers from several staff categories (doctors, nursing professionals, allied health workers and pharmacists) on their intentions to leave their current health facilities as well as their perceptions on various aspects of motivation and job satisfaction. The effects of motivation and job satisfaction on turnover intention were explored through logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Overall, 69% of the respondents reported to have turnover intentions. Motivation (OR?=?0.74, 95% CI: 0.60 to 0.92) and job satisfaction (OR?=?0.74, 95% CI: 0.57 to 0.96) were significantly associated with turnover intention and higher levels of both reduced the risk of health workers having this intention. The dimensions of motivation and job satisfaction significantly associated with turnover intention included career development (OR?=?0.56, 95% CI: 0.36 to 0.86), workload (OR?=?0.58, 95% CI: 0.34 to 0.99), management (OR?=?0.51. 95% CI: 0.30 to 0.84), organizational commitment (OR?=?0.36, 95% CI: 0.19 to 0.66), and burnout (OR?=?0.59, 95% CI: 0.39 to 0.91). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that effective human resource management practices at district level influence health worker motivation and job satisfaction, thereby reducing the likelihood for turnover. Therefore, it is worth strengthening human resource management skills at district level and supporting district health managers to implement retention strategies.
Project description:The job satisfaction of academics is related to a number of variables of complex function such as demographic characters, the work itself, pay, work responsibilities, variety of tasks, promotional opportunities, relationship with co-workers and others. Academics may be simultaneously satisfied with some facets of the job and dissatisfied with others. This paper aims at determining the influential factors that contribute to the enhancement or reduction of academics' job satisfaction among private universities in Bangladesh with special reference to Dhaka, the capital city of Bangladesh. A total of 346 respondents are considered from ten private universities using non-probability sampling. A pre-tested and closed-ended questionnaire using a seven-point Likert scale is used for data collection. In this study, descriptive statistics, Pearson product moment correlation, multiple regression, and factor analysis are exercised as statistical tools. A conceptual model of job satisfaction is developed and applied for academics' job satisfaction. The results reveal that compensation package, supervisory support, job security, training and development opportunities, team cohesion, career growth, working conditions, and organizational culture and policies are positively associated with the academics' job satisfaction. Amongst them, three factors stood out as significant contributors for job satisfaction of academics i.e. compensation package, job security, and working conditions. Therefore, the management of private universities should focus their effort on these areas of human resource management for maintaining academics' job satisfaction and employee retention. The study will be useful for university management in improving overall job satisfaction as it suggests some strategies for employee satisfaction practices.
Project description:BACKGROUND: In sub-Saharan Africa, lack of motivation and job dissatisfaction have been cited as causes of poor healthcare quality and outcomes. Measurement of health workers' satisfaction adapted to sub-Saharan African working conditions and cultures is a challenge. The objective of this study was to develop a valid and reliable instrument to measure satisfaction among health professionals in the sub-Saharan African context. METHODS: A survey was conducted in Senegal and Mali in 2011 among 962 care providers (doctors, midwives, nurses and technicians) practicing in 46 hospitals (capital, regional and district). The participation rate was very high: 97% (937/962). After exploratory factor analysis (EFA), construct validity was assessed through confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). The discriminant validity of our subscales was evaluated by comparing the average variance extracted (AVE) for each of the constructs with the squared interconstruct correlation (SIC), and finally for criterion validity, each subscale was tested with two hypotheses. Two dimensions of reliability were assessed: internal consistency with Cronbach's alpha subscales and stability over time using a test-retest process. RESULTS: Eight dimensions of satisfaction encompassing 24 items were identified and validated using a process that combined psychometric analyses and expert opinions: continuing education, salary and benefits, management style, tasks, work environment, workload, moral satisfaction and job stability. All eight dimensions demonstrated significant discriminant validity. The final model showed good performance, with a root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) of 0.0508 (90% CI: 0.0448 to 0.0569) and a comparative fit index (CFI) of 0.9415. The concurrent criterion validity of the eight dimensions was good. Reliability was assessed based on internal consistency, which was good for all dimensions but one (moral satisfaction?<?0.70). Test-retest showed satisfactory temporal stability (intra class coefficient range: 0.60 to 0.91). CONCLUSIONS: Job satisfaction is a complex construct; this study provides a multidimensional instrument whose content, construct and criterion validities were verified to ensure its suitability for the sub-Saharan African context. When using these subscales in further studies, the variability of the reliability of the subscales should be taken in to account for calculating the sample sizes. The instrument will be useful in evaluative studies which will help guide interventions aimed at improving both the quality of care and its effectiveness.
Project description:The aim of the study was to assess the level of life and job satisfaction of Polish anesthesiologists and to explore the impact of extrinsic-hygiene and intrinsic-motivating determinants.A cross-sectional questionnaire study was conducted among consultant anesthesiologists in Lodz region. The questionnaire concerned patient care, burden, income, personal rewards, professional relations, job satisfaction in general, and life satisfaction. Respondents were asked to rate their level of satisfaction for each item on a seven-point Likert scale (1: extremely dissatisfied; 7: extremely satisfied).86.03% of anesthesiologists were satisfied with their economic status, 77.94% found their health status satisfactory, and 52.21% viewed their personal future optimistically. In general, 71.32% of anesthesiologists were satisfied with their current job situation. Among the less satisfying job aspects were work-related stress (2.49; SD = 1.23), administrative burden (2.85; SD = 1.47), workload (3.63; SD = 1.56), and leisure time (3.09; SD = 1.44).Considerable work-related stress leads to job dissatisfaction among anesthesiologists. There is an association between job satisfaction and health status, social life, and economic status. Working for long hours by anesthesiologists results in a high risk of burnout.
Project description:To investigate determinants of job satisfaction among home care workers in a consumer-directed model.Analysis of data collected from telephone interviews with 1,614 Los Angeles home care workers on the state payroll in 2003.Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to determine the odds of job satisfaction using job stress model domains of demands, control, and support.Abuse from consumers, unpaid overtime hours, and caring for more than one consumer as well as work-health demands predict less satisfaction. Some physical and emotional demands of the dyadic care relationship are unexpectedly associated with greater job satisfaction. Social support and control, indicated by job security and union involvement, have a direct positive effect on job satisfaction.Policies that enhance the relational component of care may improve workers' ability to transform the demands of their job into dignified and satisfying labor. Adequate benefits and sufficient authorized hours of care can minimize the stress of unpaid overtime work, caring for multiple consumers, job insecurity, and the financial constraints to seeking health care. Results have implications for the structure of consumer-directed models of care and efforts to retain long-term care workers.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Motivation is critical to health worker performance and work quality. In Bihar, India, frontline health workers provide essential health services for the state's poorest citizens. Yet, there is a shortfall of motivated and skilled providers and a lack of coordination between two cadres of frontline health workers and their supervisors. CARE India developed an approach aimed at improving health workers' performance by shifting work culture and strengthening teamwork and motivation. The intervention-"Team-Based Goals and Incentives"-supported health workers to work as teams towards collective goals and rewarded success with public recognition and non-financial incentives. METHODS:Thirty months after initiating the intervention, 885 health workers and 98 supervisors completed an interviewer-administered questionnaire in 38 intervention and 38 control health sub-centers in one district. The questionnaire included measures of social cohesion, teamwork attitudes, self-efficacy, job satisfaction, teamwork behaviors, equitable service delivery, taking initiative, and supervisory support. We conducted bivariate analyses to examine the impact of the intervention on these psychosocial and behavioral outcomes. RESULTS:Results show statistically significant differences across several measures between intervention and control frontline health workers, including improved teamwork (mean = 8.8 vs. 7.3), empowerment (8.5 vs. 7.4), job satisfaction (7.1 vs. 5.99) and equitable service delivery (6.7 vs. 4.99). While fewer significant differences were found for supervisors, they reported improved teamwork (8.4 vs. 5.3), and frontline health workers reported improved fulfillment of supervisory duties by their supervisors (8.9 vs. 7.6). Both frontline health workers and supervisors found public recognition and enhanced teamwork more motivating than the non-financial incentives. CONCLUSIONS:The Team-Based Goals and Incentives model reinforces intrinsic motivation and supports improvements in the teamwork, motivation, and performance of health workers. It offers an approach to practitioners and governments for improving the work environment in a resource-constrained setting and where there are multiple cadres of health workers.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:Doctors in public hospitals in China face considerable pressure and excessive workloads, which are likely to predispose them to job dissatisfaction. We explored the job satisfaction of doctors and examined the influence of diverse sociodemographic characteristics. DESIGN:This was a cross-sectional study. SETTING:Eleven tertiary public hospitals in Shanghai, China. PARTICIPANTS:The questionnaire was designed based on the fifth National Health Service General Research, which was based on the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire. Questionnaires were administered to 897 doctors randomly (using random number tables) and 730 were returned completed (response rate=81.4%). Doctors who volunteered and provided informed, written consent participated. PRIMARY OUTCOME MEASURES:The dependent variable was doctors' job satisfaction. RESULTS:Statistical analyses were conducted using SPSS and SAS. Overall, 64.8% of participants were dissatisfied with their jobs. Factors that were statistically significant to doctors' job satisfaction in the univariate analysis were entered into the logistic regression analysis, including doctors' professional title, department, work hours, work requirements (reflected as the number of patients they diagnosed and treated monthly), life and work stress, and the types of patients that doctors treated or expected to treat. The results of the logistic regression analysis suggested that doctors' job satisfaction was related to their professional title, types of patients that doctors treated or expected to treat, as well as their work stress. CONCLUSIONS:There is an urgent need for public hospitals in China to establish a more reasonable promotion and management system for doctors, encourage patients to accept the two-way referral, pay more attention to less-experienced staff and help doctors release their work stress.
Project description:With the aim of investigating the possible moderating effect of job control and dispositional mindfulness between different sources of organizational stress and job satisfaction, a correlational study was designed involving health care workers (HCWs). The following questionnaires were administered and completed by 237 HCWs: (1) Occupational Stress Indicator (OSI), to measure the sources of stress at work (managerial role, climate power, climate structure, internal relationships), and job satisfaction; (2) Mindfulness Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS) to assess the individual's level of attention to what is taking place in the present; (3) Job Control Scale (JCS) to assess the perceived control at work. Hierarchical regression analyses were used to test the hypothesized relationships between variables; the results showed that, between the different sources of stress, the organizational climate dimension was negatively associated with job satisfaction; moreover, mindfulness attention moderated the relationship between climate stress and job satisfaction; unexpectedly, the interaction between job control and the organizational climate dimension was not significant in affecting job satisfaction. This study can provide useful information for Human Resources Management (HRM) practices regarding job and mental control interventions and empowerment, and possibly offer a new interpretation of the role of attention to what is happening in the present moment and autonomy between climate stressors and occupational satisfaction.